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Approximate Equivalents. 



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with Excursions to the 


With 25 Maps and 16 Flans 

Eleventh Revised Edition 




All Rights Reserved. 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all'. 


The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists 
of three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the 
traveller with the most necessary information regarding the 
history and culture of the people he is about to visit, to 
render him as independent as possible of the services of 
guides and valets-de-place, to protect him against extortion, 
and in every way to aid him in deriving enjoyment and 
instruction from his tour in one of the most fascinating 
countries in the world. These volumes will also, it is hoped, 
be the means of saving the traveller many a trial of temper ; 
for there is probably no country in Europe where the patience 
is more severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The whole work is based on the personal acquaintance 
of the Editor or his friends with the places described, most 
of which he has repeatedly and carefully explored. As, 
however, changes are constantly taking place, he will highly 
appreciate any communications with which travellers may 
kindly favour him, if the result of their own observation. 
The information already received from numerous correspon- 
dents, which he gratefully acknowledges, has in many cases 
proved most serviceable. Hotel-bills, with annotations show- 
ing the traveller's opinion of his treatment and accommoda- 
tion, are particularly useful. 

The Handbook for Southern Italy and Sicily, which now 
appears for the eleventh time, has been thoroughly revised 
and considerably augmented, and the information regarding 
Naples and its environs in particular has been carefully veri- 
fied. The account of the climatic and sanitary conditions of 
Naples given at p. xxiv is from the pen of a thoroughly com- 
petent observer, and while dissipating some of the exag- 
gerated notions which are prevalent regarding its unheal- 
thiness, may afford some useful hints for the traveller's mode 
of life in that town. The article on Ancient Art by Prof. 
R. KekuM of Berlin has been adapted for the use«of English 
travellers with the kind assistance of Mr. J. A. Crowe, the 
eminent historian of art, and will be found suggestive by 
visitors to the museums of Naples and Palermo or the ruins 
of Pompeii. 


The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary- 
traveller. The Map of Sicily, drawn by Prof. Kiepert of Ber- 
lin, is a reproduction on a reduced scale of the map of the 
Italian Ordnance Survey ; the rivers which flow all the year 
round are printed in blue, those which are generally dry in 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles. Populations are 
stated in accordance with the latest official returns. 

Hotels. The inns of S. Italy and Sicily, with the exception 
of those of Naples, Palermo, and a few other towns, are sadly 
behind the requirements of the age ; but the Editor has in- 
dicated by asterisks those which he has reason to consider 
comparatively respectable , clean , and reasonable. The 
charges in the most frequented places have a constant ten- 
dency to rise, but those of the last few years are approx- 
imately stated in the Handbook for the traveller's guidance. 

To hotel -proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned 
against persons representing themselves as agents for Bae- 
deker's Handbooks. 


Introduction. Page 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period of Tour. Language xii 

III. Passports. Custom House. Luggage .... xiii 

IV. Public Safety. Begging xiii 

V. Intercourse with. Italians. Gratuities xiv 

VI. Conveyances xv 

VII. Hotels. Private Apartments. ....... xix 

VIII. Restaurants, Cafe's, etc xx 

IX. Sights, Theatres, Shops xxii 

X. Post Office. Telegraph xxiii 

XI, Climate and Health of Naples xxiv 

XII. History of Ancient Art, by Prof. R. Kekule . . xxviii 

History of the Kingdom of Naples xlvi 

Route Routes. 

1 . From Rome to Naples by Railway 1 

2. From Rome to Naples via Terracina and Gaeta .... 11 

3. Naples 19 

Preliminary Observations: 

a. Arrival. IJotels, Pensions, Restaurants, Cafes, etc. . . . 19-21 

b. Carriages, Tramways, Omnibuses, Boats 21-23 

c. Bankers, Money-Changers. Consulates. Physicians, Hospitals. 

Baths. Post and Telegraph Office. English Churches . . 23-25 

d. Shops 25, 26 

e. Theatres. Street Scenes. Religious and National Festivals . 26-28 

f. Duration of Stay and Disposition of Time. Guides . . 29, 30 
Remarks on the Situation and Characteristics of Naples 30 
I. Side next the Sea (from the Villa Nazionale to the 

Piazza del Mercato) 32 

II. The Toledo (from the Largo della Vittoria through the 
Strada Chiaja and the Toledo to the National Mu- 
seum. Strada Foria) 40 

III. The Old Town. E. Quarters, between the Toledo and 
the Harbour (from the Strada Medina through the 
Str. Montoliveto to the Str. S. Trinita; Porta 
Capuana, Cemeteries, , Strada de' Tribunali) ... 42 

IV- The Museum 55 

V. Higher Quarters: Capodimonte, CorsoVittorio Emanuele, 

Castel S. Elmo, S. Martino 80 

VI. Hill of Posilipo 85 

Excursion to Camaldoli 89 

4. "Western Environs of Naples — Pozzuoli, Baise, Misenum, 

Cumse 91 

5. Procida and Ischia 104 


Route Page 

6. From Naples to Pompeii (and Salerno). Hereulaneum. 

High-road from Naples to Pompeii *®° 

7. Mount Vesuvius H~ 

8. Pompeii 11" 

9. Castellammare, Sorrento, and Capri 143 

10. The Gulf of Salerno. Paestum, Amalfl 159 

11. From Naples to Benevento via Nola and Avellino . . 173 

E. and S. Districts of S. Italy. 

12. From Terni to Solmona through the Abruzzi .... 177 

Gran Sasso d'ltalia. 180. — From Aquila to Avezzano, 181. 

13. From Rome to Castellammare Adriatico via Avezzano and 

Solmona 181 

From Solmona to Caianello ^ 

14. From Avezzano to Roccasecca (Naples) 187 

15. From Ancona to Foggia (Brindisi) 189 

From S. Benedetto to Ascoli Piceno. 189. — From Giulia- 
nova to Teramo. 190. — From Termoli to Benevento. 191. 
— From Foggia to Manfredonia. 193. — From Foggia to 
Lucera. 193. 
From Foggia to Melfl. Venosa 194, 196 

16. From Foggia to Brindisi and the Apulian Peninsula . 195 

From Barletta to Bari via Andria, 196. — From Bari to 
Taranto, 199. — From Zollino to Gallipoli, 202. 

17. From Naples to Foggia (Ancona) 203 

18. From Naples to Brindisi via Metaponto and Taranto . . 207 

From Sicignano to Lagonegro and Spezzano .... 207, 208 

19. From (Naples) Metaponto to Reggio , 213 

20. From Sibari to Reggio via Cosenza 218 

21. From Naples to Messina by Sea 223 

22. From Naples to Palermo by Sea • 224 


General Remarks 225 

Geography and Statistics 225 

Historical Notice 233 

1. Political History 233 

2. History of Civilisation and Art . . .... 239 

23. Palermo 246 

24. Environs of Palermo 268 

a. Acquasanta. Monte Pellegrino. The Favorita . . . 268 

b. La Cuba. Monreale. S. Martino 270 

c. Parco 273 

d. S. Maria di Gesii. Favara. Campo Sant' Orsola . . 273 

e. Bagheria. Solunto 274 

Island of TJstica 276 

25. From Palermo to Trapani 276 

From Calatafimi to Segesta, 278. — From Castelvetrano to 
Selinunto, 280. 

26. From Castelvetrano (Selinunto) to Girgenti .... 288 

From Palermo to Sciacca via Corleone 289 

27. From Palermo to Girgenti and Porto Empedocle . . . 290 

MAPS. ix 

Route Page 

28. Girgenti 293 

29. From Palermo and Girgenti to Catania 298 

From Castrogiovanni to Catania via Caltagirone .... 302 

30. From Girgenti to Syracuse via Palma, Licata, Terranova, 

Modica (Val d'Ispica), and Palazzolo 303 

31 . From Palermo to Messina by the Coast 307 

From Gesso to Messina 313 

32. Messina 313 

33. The Lipari Islands 322 

34. From Messina to Catania. Taormina 326 

35. From Taormina to Catania round the "W. side of Mt. jEtna 333 

36. Catania 336 

37. Mount jEtna 341 

38. From Catania to Syracuse 348 

39. Syracuse 350 

40. Sardinia 365 

a. Cagliari and Environs 368 

h. From Cagliari to Sassari 371 

c. Sassari. Porto Torres 374, 375 

d. From Cagliari'to Nuoro, with Excursions into the Mountains 

of La Barbagia 375 

41. Excursion to Malta 376 

42. Excursion to Tunis. Carthage 379 

43. Excursion to Corfu 387 

List of Artists 392 

Index 396 


1 . Map of Southern Italy , from Rome to Capo Palinuro 
(1 : 3,350,000), facing title-page. 

2. Environs of Monte Cassino (1 : 50,000), p. 4. 

3. General Map of the Environs of Naples (1 : 400,000), be- 
tween pp. 90, 91. 

4. "Wbstbrn Environs of Naples (1 : 100,000) , between pp. 
92, 93. 

5. The Islands of Procida and Ischia (1 : 100,000), p. 104. 

6. Eastern Environs of Naples. Mt. Vesuvius (1 : 100,000), 
between pp. 110, 111. 

7. Peninsula of Sorrento and Island of Capri , between 
pp. 144, 145. 

8. Environs of La Cava, Salerno, and Amalfi (1 : 100,000), 
between pp. 164, 165. 

9. District bbtwebn Salbrno and P^stum (1 : 286,000), p. 165. 

10. Environs of Taranto (1 : 50,000), p. 210. 

11. District of Metapontum (1 : 50,000), p. 210. 

12. General Map of Calabria (1 : 350,000), p. 214. 

13. Environs op Palermo (1 : 75,000), p. 268. 


14. DistrictbetwebnCalatapimiandSegesta(1:50,000), p. 278. 

15. District op Selinunto (1 : 50,000), p. 279. 

16. Environs op Girgenti (1 : 50,000), p. 293. 

17. Environs op Messina (1 : 400,000), p. 314. 

18. Environs op. Taormina (1 : 50,000), p. 328. 

19. Mount .Etna (1 : 300, 000), between pp. 342, 343. 

20. Environs op Syracuse (1 : 50,000), between pp. 350, 351. 

21. Map of Sardinia (1 . 1,350,000), p. 364. 

22. Malta, Gozzo, Comino (1 : 500,000), p. 378. 

23. Environs op Tunis (1 : 250,000), p. 379. 

24. Map of Sicily, with the Lipari Islands (1 : 800,000), after 
the Index. 

25. Railway Map of Italy (1 : 7,000,000), at the end of the Hand- 

1. Naples (1 : 10,100), p. 18. — 2, 3. Museo Nazionale al 
Naples, ground-floor p. 70, upper floor p. 71. — 4. Pozzuoli, p. 93. 
— 5, 6. Pompeii, general plan (1 : 4200), p. 120, plan of excavations 
(1 : 8500), between pp. 120, 121. — 7. House op Pansa at Pompeii, 
p. 120. — 8. P2estum (1 : 28,000), p. 165. — 9. Bari (1 : 10,000), 
p. 198. — 10. Palermo (1 : 13,000), p. 246. — 11, 12. Museo Na- 
zionale at Palermo, ground-floor p. 261, upper floor p. 263. — 13. 
Acropolis op Selinunto, p. 281. — 14. Messina and Environs 
between pp. 314, 315. — 15. Catania, between pp. 336, 337. — 
16. Syracuse, modern town, p. 351. 


R. =room; B. = breakfast; dej. = de'jeuner a, la fourchette; 
D. = dinner; S. = supper; L. = light; A. = attendance. — 
N. = north , northern , etc. ; S. = south, southern, etc. ; E. = 
east, etc.; W. = west, etc. — r. = right; 1. = left; min. = 
minute; hr. = hour. — M. = English mile; ft. = Engl, foot; 
fr. = franc, c. = centime. 

The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates 
the year of his death. The number of feet given after the name oi 
a place shows its height above the sea-level. The number ol 
miles placed before the principal places on railway-routes and high- 
Toads indicates their distance from the starting-point of the route. 

Asterisks are used as marks of commendation. 


"Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced. 


I. Travelling Expenses. Honey. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Southern Italy and Sicily 
depends of course on the traveller's means and habits, but it may 
be stated generally that his expenses need not exceed those in- 
curred in the more frequented parts of the Continent. The average 
expenditure of a single traveller may be estimated at 15-25 francs 
per day, or at 10-12 francs when a prolonged stay is made at one 
place, while those who are acquainted with the language and habits 
of the country may reduce their expenses to still narrower limits. 
Persons travelling as members of a party also effect a considerable 
saving by sharing the expense of guides, carriages, and other items. 
When, however, ladies are of the party, the expenses are always 
unavoidably greater. 

Honey. The French monetary system is now used throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 1 00 centesimi; 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 A. = 1 German mark (comp. the money-table at 
p. ii). A piece of 5 c. is called a soldo (or sow). The gold and 
silver coins of Prance, Switzerland, Belgium, and Greece circulate 
in Italy, but they are very unwillingly accepted by the people in 
S. Italy, and in Sicily they are refused. The traveller should be on 
his guard against old coins from the papal mint, Roumanian and 
South American coins, which are much depreciated, and Greek copper 
coins. Even Italian silver coins issued before 1863 ('Be Eletto') are 
liable to refusal, as are also much worn coins of any kind. Base 
coins representing 1/2, l,or2 francs are very common. The only bank- 
notes now current throughout the whole country are those of the 
Banco, Nazionale and the Biglietti di Stato, but the notes of the 
Banco di Napoli also pass in Southern Italy, and those of the Banco 
di Sicilia in Sicily. 

Best Money toe. thb Toto. Circular Notes or Letters of Credit, 
issued by the principal English and American banks, are very con- 
venient for the transport of large sums, and always realise the full 
current exchange. English banknotes also realise their nominal 
equivalent in the principal towns. A moderate supply of French 
Gold will be found desirable. Sovereigns are almost everywhere 
received as the equivalent of 25 fr., and sometimes a little more. 


In remote districts, however, especially in Sicily, all foreign money 
is refused. 

Exchangb. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in 
the larger towns , either at one of the English hankers or at a re- 
spectable money-changer's ('cambiavalutd'). Those money-changers 
who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of exchange are the 
most satisfactory. The exchange is effected more advantageously 
at Rome than at Naples or any of the other towns in S. Italy. The 
traveller should always stipulate for an abundant supply of small 
notes and silver, as it is often difficult to change those of large 
amount. Besides silver and small notes, l-li/ 2 fr. in copper should 
also be carried in a separate pocket or pouch. 

II. Period of Tour. Language. 

Season. The season selected must of course depend on the 
traveller's convenience , but the best time for Naples , and par- 
ticularly for other parts of S. Italy and Sicily is spring, from the 
end of March to the end of May, or autumn, from the end of 
September to the middle of November. September is usually op- 
pressively hot, with numerous thunder-storms, and is therefore the 
worst month for the tourist. The rainy winter months had better be 
devoted to Rome. The hot season may be spent at some of the 
charming summer-resorts in the environs of Naples, such as Sor- 
rento, Castellammare, and Cava deiTirreni, but is unfavourable for 
travelling in the South of Italy. The scenery indeed is then in 
perfection, and the long days are hailed with satisfaction by the 
enterprising traveller ; but he will soon experience the enervating 
effects of exposure to the fierce rays of an Italian sun. These effects 
are produced, not so much by the intensity, as by the protracted 
duration of the heat, the sky being frequently cloudless, and not 
a drop of rain falling for many weeks. 

At p. 29 the traveller will find various plans for excursions 
in the environs of Naples, and at p. 225 are others for a tour 
in Sicily. The other districts described in the Handbook are 
rarely visited by ordinary tourists, but those who desire to ex- 
plore them, whether in search of the picturesque, or for scien- 
tific purposes, will have no difficulty in framing an itinerary. 

Language. The time and labour which the traveller has 
bestowed on the study of Italian at home will be amply repaid 
as he proceeds on his journey, and more particularly in Southern 
Italy and Sicily. It is quite possible for Englishmen to travel in the 
regions around Naples and Palermo, perhaps with the aid of a little 
French, but in this case the traveller cannot conveniently deviate 
from the beaten track, and is moreover constantly exposed to gross 
extortion. Those , therefore , who desire to derive instruction 
from their tour and to confine their expenditure within moderate 

LUGGAGE. xiii 

limits will find a slight acquaintance with the language + of the 
country indispensable. 

III. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports. Passports are not absolutely required in Italy, but it 
is unwise not to be provided with one of these documents, as it 
may occasionally prove useful. Registered letters, for example, are 
not delivered to strangers unless they exhibit a passport as a guar- 
antee of their identity. The countenance and help of the Eng- 
lish and American consuls can , of course, be extended to those 
persons only who can prove their nationality. Excursions into 
the country in the southern provinces should not be undertaken 
without a passport. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained in London through E. Stan- 
ford, 26 Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street, or 
Lee and Carter, 440 West Strand. 

Custom House. The examination of luggage which takes 
place at the Italian custom-houses on the arrival of the traveller 
by land or sea, even when the vessel has come from another 
Italian port, is usually very lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the 
articles most sought for. "Weapons of all kinds are liable to con- 
fiscation (see p. xiv). The 'dazio consumo', or municipal tax 
levied on comestibles in most of the Italian towns, seldom of 
course requires to be paid by ordinary travellers. An assurance 
that their luggage contains nothing liable to duty generally suffices 
to prevent detention. 

Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods' train except through the medium of a trustworthy goods- 
agent, to whom the keys must be forwarded. As a rule, however, 
the traveller will find it advisable, and less expensive, never to 
part from his luggage , and always to superintend the custom- 
house examination in person. Articles of great value should not 
be entrusted to the safe-keeping of an trunk or portmanteau, how- 
ever strong and secure it may seem. 

The enormous weight of the trunks used by some travellers not un- 
frequently causes serious and even lifelong injury to the hotel and railway 
porters who have to handle them. Travellers are therefore urged to place 
their heavy articles in the smaller packages and thus minimize the evil as 
far as possible. 

t A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons 
unacquainted with the language. G before e and i is pronounced like 
the English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede -e or «, are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels o, e, j, o, u are pronunced ah, a, ee, o, oo. — In addressing 
persons of the educated classes 'Ella' or 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. sing., 
should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with the 
3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu' 
in familiar conversation only by those who are proficient in the language. 
'Voi' is the common mode of address employed by the Neapolitans, but is 
generally regarded as inelegant or uncourteous. 


IV. Public Safety. Begging. 

Though at one time, and in fact down to the second decade 
after the establishment of the present kingdom, the state of public 
safety in Italy was far from satisfactory, yet for many years there- 
after it left nothing to he desired, and the isolated cases of highway 
robbery were not distinguishable in any way from similar crimes in 
other countries. Of recent years, however, the old Brigantaggio has 
reappeared in various quarters. Precautions are therefore again not 
to be despised , and travellers are recommended to make enquiries 
beforehand as to the security of the districts they propose to visit. 
Strangers, whose person and property are unknown, have, how- 
ever, much less cause for alarm than wealthy natives, who are known 
to be travelling with large sums of money. Expeditions on foot 
late in the evening and after nightfall should especially be avoided, 
even when this precaution involves giving up a visit to some object 
or place of interest. In the poorer and less frequented streets of 
Naples, Palermo, and other large towns, the stranger is certainly less 
safe^than in similar quarters in the large towns of other countries. 
The recently revived brigandage will doubtless soon be put down by 
the Italian government; but the only sure protection against the 
dangers of the poorer quarters of the towns is to avoid these streets 
altogether. In the towns the Ouardie or policemen , and in the 
country the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes (who wear a black uniform, 
with red facings, and cocked hats), will be found thoroughly re- 
spectable and trustworthy. 

Weapons, which for the ordinary traveller are a mere burden, 
cannot legally be carried without a license, obtainable through the 
traveller's consul or ambassador. Those of a secret character, such 
as sword-sticks and stick-guns, are entirely prohibited and render 
the bearer liable to imprisonment without the option of a fine. 

Begging still continues to be one of those national nuisances to 
which the traveller must habituate himself. The best mode of get- 
ting rid of importunate applicants is to bestow a donation of 2 c. or 
at most 5c, or else firmly to decline giving with — 'niente', or a 
gesture of disapproval. — The misplaced generosity of some travel- 
lers, especially to children, has encouraged a habitual importunity 
that seriously interferes with the enjoyment of the beauty of the 
country, especially in the neighbourhood of Naples and in some parts 
of Sicily. Still more reprehensible than the bestowal of an occasional 
gratuity upon children, is the foolish practice of 'scattering' copper 
coins to be struggled for by the street Arabs, etc. 

V. Intercourse with Italians. Gratuities. 

Travelling in South Italy differs essentially in some respects 

from that in France, Germany, and Switzerland, or even in North 

Italy and Rome, chiefly owing to the almost invariable necessity for 

bargaining with innkeepers, cab-drivers, boatmen, and others of a 


similar class. The system of fixed prices is being gradually in- 
troduced, but it gains ground much more slowly in Southern 
than in Northern and Central Italy. On the principal routes, and 
especially in Naples, the insolence of the mercenary fraternity has 
attained to such an unexampled pitch, that the traveller is often 
tempted to doubt whether such a thing as honesty is known here ; 
but a more intimate acquaintance with the people will satisfy him 
that his misgivings apply to the above classes only, and not to the 
community generally. 

Where tariffs and fixed charges exist, they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases where an average price is established by 
custom, the traveller should make a precise bargain with respect 
to the service to be rendered, and never rely on the equity of 
the other party. l Patti chiari, amicizia lunga' is a good Italian 
proverb. In the following pages the average prices of hotel accom- 
modation and other items are stated with all possible accuracy, 
and although liable to fluctuation , will often prove a safeguard 
against gross extortion. The equanimity of the traveller's own 
temper will greatly assist him if involved in a dispute or bargain, 
and he should pay no attention whatever to vehement gesticul- 
ations or an offensive demeanour. The slighter his knowledge of 
the Italian language is, the more careful should he be not to in- 
volve himself in a war of words, in which he must necessarily be 
at great disadvantage. As a rule, the traveller may depend on the 
data in the Handbook. Where information is required, it should 
be sought from printed tariffs, from fellow-travellers, gensdarmes, 
respectably dressed persons present, occasionally from landlords, but 
seldom or never from waiters. 

Gratuities. — The traveller should always be provided with an 
abundant supply of copper coin in a country where trifling donations 
are incessantly in demand. Drivers, guides, porters, and donkey- 
attendants invariably expect , and often demand as a right , a 
gratuity (buona rnano, mancia, da bere, bottiglia, caffe, sigaro, mac- 
cheroni), varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous to a franc 
or more, in addition to their hire. The traveller need not scruple 
to limit his donations to the smallest possible sums, as liberality 
is often a fruitful source of annoyance and embarrassment. 

VI. Conveyances. 
Railways. The remarks made in the first two volumes of this 
Handbook on the railways of Northern and Central Italy apply on 
the whole to the railways of Southern Italy also. The first-class car- 
riages are tolerably comfortable, the second resemble the English 
and French, while the third class is chiefly frequented by the lower 
orders. Among the expressions with which the railway-traveller 
will soon become familiar are — ^ronti (ready), 'partenza 1 (de- 
parture), 'si cambia convoglici (change carriages), and l uscita' 


(egress), which are shouted by the officials with characteristic 
vigour. The stationmaster is called 'capostazione 1 . Smoking com- 
partments are labelled l pei fumatori', those for non-smokers l e vietato 
di fumare'. Railway time is that of the meridian of Rome, 52 min. 
ahead of that of Greenwich and 40 min. before Paris. + 

When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets ('fare il biglietto'). In addition to the fare a 
tax of 5 c. is payable on each ticket, and the express fares are about 
10 per cent higher than the ordinary. It is also important to be at 
the station early. The booking-office at large stations is open 
40 min., at small stations 20 min. before the departure of the 
trains. Holders of tickets are alone entitled to enter the waiting- 
rooms. At the end of the journey tickets are given up at the uscfta, 
exoept in the case of the very large stations, where they are col- 
lected before the passengers alight. 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his lug- 
gage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to guard 
against imposition (1 kilogramme = about 2 1 / 5 lbs.). No luggage is 
allowed free except small articles taken by the passenger into his 
carriage. Porters who convey luggage to and from the carriages are 
sufficiently paid with a few sous, where there is no fixed tariff. 
Those who intend to make only a short stay at a place, especially 
when the town or village lies at a distance from the railway, should 
leave their heavier luggage at the station till their return (dare in 
deposito, or depositare, 10 c. per day per cwt. or fraction of a cwt.). 

Through Tickets to different parts of Italy are issued in Lon- 
don (at the principal railway-stations ; by Messrs. Cook & Son, Lud- 
gate Circus, Messrs. Gaze, 142 Strand, etc.), in Paris, and at many 
of the principal towns in Germany and Switzerland. They are 
generally available for 30 days. 

Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) for the S. Italian lines are 
issued under the conditions already explained in the first two parts 
of the present Handbook, and in the time-tables. The 'Indicatore 
Ufficiale' gives plans of the various tours, which extend as far as 
Sicily. Travellers provided with circular tickets from Northern 
Italy to Rome, may obtain, in connection with these, Teturn-tickets 
from Rome to Naples (41 fr. 90, 29 fr. 35 c. , 18 fr.), which are valid 
for the period for which the circular-ticket is taken. 

Circular tickets require to be stamped at each fresh starting-point 
with the name of the next station at which the traveller intends to halt. 

t The most trustworthy time-tables are those contained in the Indi- 
catore Ufficiale delle Strade Ferrate, delta Navigazione e Telegrafia del 
Regno d'ltalia , published at Turin monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo (with 
map, price 1 fr.), and in Italia, Orario del Movimento Treni e Piroscafi 
(1 fr.) published at Florence by Gius. Arnaboldi. It is advisable, however 
not to trust implicitly to their accuracy but to consult the local time-tables 
as well. 


If, therefore, the traveller leaves the train before the station for which 
his ticket has been stamped he must at once apply to the capostazione 
for recognition of the break in the journey Caccertare il cambiamenlo dt 
deslinazione'). When the traveller quits the prescribed route, intending 
to rejoin it at a point farther on, he has also to procure an 'annotuzio/ie' 1 
at the station where he alights, enabling him to resume his circular tour 
after his digression ('vale per riprendere alia s/.azione . . . il viagyio inler- 
rotto a . . .). If this ceremony be neglected the holder of the ticket is 
required to pay treble fare for the omitted portion of the route for which 
the ticket is issued. — Tickets for tours of 20 days or more may be 
extended for a period not exceeding half of the original duration, on 
payment of l°/o of the original price for each day of the extension. 

Return Tickets (Biglietti d'andala e ritorno)ax& generally avail- 
able for one day only, except those issued on Saturday or the eves 
of festivals, which are available for 2-3 days. It should also be ob- 
served that if the traveller alights at a station short of his destin- 
ation he forfeits the rest of his ticket for the direction in which he 
is proceeding. In returning the ticket is not available unless he 
starts from the end-station for which the ticket was issued. 

Steam Tramways (Tramvie a Vapore), now so common in N. 
Italy, are also already in use in some parts of S. Italy. 

Steamboats. A voyage on the Mediterranean or Adriatic is 
highly recommended to the traveller in fine weather. If the vessel 
plies near the coast, the voyage is often entertaining ; and if the 
open sea is traversed, the magnificent Italian sunsets, lighting up 
the deep blue water with their crimson rays, present a scene not 
easily forgotten. Rough weather is not very often to be appre- 
hended in summer. Most of the routes in this Handbook are served 
by steamers of the Navigazione Oenerale Italiana, Ftorio $ r Rubattino, 
the head office of which is in Rome. 

Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in person at the office 
of the company. The ticket is furnished with the purchaser's name and 
destination, the name of the vessel, and the hour of departure. First and 
second class family- tickets, for not fewer than three persons, are issued 
by all the companies at a reduction of 20 per cent on the passage-money, 
but not on the cost of food. A child of 2-10 years pays half-fare, but in 
this case must share the berth of its attendant. Two children are entitled 
to a berth for themselves. — Enquiry should be made beforehand as to 
the punctuality of the vessel, as it sometimes happens in smaller ports 
that the shipment and unshipment of goods prolong the voyage for a day 
or more beyond the advertised time. 

The Fikst Class saloons and berths are comfortably and elegantly 
lifted up, those of the Second tolerably. Second-class passengers, like 
those of the first, have free access to every part of the deck. Ofiicers ot 
the Italian and French armies, up to and including those of the rank uf 
captain, are entitled to second-class berths only. When ladies are of the 
party it is of course advisable to travel first-class. 

Luggage. First-class passengers are allowed 70 kilogrammes (156 lbs. 
Engl.), second-class 45 kilogr. (100 lbs.), but articles not intended for per- 
sonal use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is generally included in the 
first and second-class fares. DtJeHner « la fourchette, served at 10, con- 
sists of 3-4 courses , table-wine , and coffee. Dinner is a similar repast 
between 5 and 6 o'clock. Passengers who are too ill to partake of these 
cpasts are provided with lemonade, etc., gratuitously. Refreshments, 
rniay of course be procured at other hours on payment (cup of coffee 25 c.i 

Baedeiski:. Italy III. ilth Edition. b 


Fees. The steward expects 1 fr. for a voyage of 12-24 hrs., but more 
if the passenger has given unusual trouble. 

Embarkation. Passengers should be on board an hour before the 
advertised time of starting. The charges for conveyance to the steamboat 
(usually I-IV2 fr. for each person with luggage) are fixed by tariff at all the 
seaports, and will be found in the Handbook. Passengers should there- 
fore avoid all discussions on the subject with the boatmen, and simply 
direct them to row 'al Vaticano', 'alia Bella Venezia', or whatever the 
name of the vessel may be. On the way, the boatmen often make demands 
extravagantly in excess of the tariff, such as, 'Signore,sono cinque lire!' 
— to which the passenger may simply reply, 'avanti', or if necessary 
he may threaten to call in the aid of the 'Capitaneria del Porto'' or 
superintendent of the port. On arriving at the vessel, payment should 
not be made until the traveller with all his luggage is deposited on deck. 

The passenger gives up his ticket on board, receives the number oi 
his berth, superintends the stowing away of his luggage, and finally repairs 
to the deck to observe the progress of the vessel as it quits the harbour 
of which a fine view is generally obtained. 

Diligences. Southern Italy is now so well provided with, rail- 
ways that only those travellers who seek a more particular acquaint- 
ance with the country and its people have occasion to use the 
Diligenze or Vetture Corrieri. These vehicles ply regularly only on 
the chief routes, hut even on the other roads there is seldom any 
difficulty in obtaining a conveyance. On the more frequented routes 
a Carriage with one horse may generally he hired for 3 /4-l fr., and 
on the less frequented for ^j^/iix. per English mile. 

Walking Tours. An Italian never walks if he can possihly 
drive; to him it is an inscrutable mystery how walking can afford 
pleasure. In the more frequented districts, however, such as the 
environs of Naples, the inhabitants are accustomed to this mania of 
travellers from the north ; and the numerous sections of the Italian 
Alpine Club, founded for the exploration of the Italian Alps as well 
as of the Apennines, have also introduced the habit among the 
native cultivated classes. Prolonged and fatiguing walking-tours, 
such as are undertaken in more northern climates, will be found 
impracticable in Italy. Cool and clear weather should if possible 
be selected, and exposure to the scirocco studiously avoided. The 
height of summer is totally unsuitable for tours of this kind. 

Riding. A horse (cavallo), mule (mulo), or donkey (sommaro ; 
Neapol. ciuco ; Sicil. vettura, applied to all three animals), between 
which the difference of expense is trifling, often affords a pleasant 
and cheap mode of travelling, especially in mountainous districts, 
where the attendant (pedone) also acts as a servant for the time 
being. Side-saddles for ladies are also generally procurable. A 
bargain should be made previously , tutto compreso , a gratuity 
being added if the traveller is satisfied. The donkey-drivers have 
an unpleasant habit of inciting their animals to the top of their 
speed when passing through a town or village, and it is as well to 
warn them beforehand that their 'mancia' will suffer if they do not 
go quietly through the streets. 

HOTELS. xix 

VII. Hotels. Private Apartments. 

First Class Hotels, comfortably fitted up, are to be found at 
Naples and some of the places in its vicinity, at Brindisi, Palermo, 
Messina, Catania, and Girgenti, the landlords of many of them being 
Swiss or Germans. Rooms 2 1 / 2 -5fr., bougie 75c. -1 fr., attendance 
1 fr. (exclusive of the portier and frequently also of the 'facchino' 
or boots), table-d'hote 4-6 fr., and so on. The charge for dinner does 
not include wine, which is usually dear. For a prolonged stay an 
agreement may generally be made for pension at a more moderate 
rate. Visitors are expected to dine at the table-d'hote ; otherwise 
they are charged more for their rooms. Meals served at special 
hours or in the travellers' apartments are charged considerably more. 
A charge of l-l'/2 fr- i s generally made for the use of the hotel- 
omnibus from the station; a cab is therefore often cheaper and more 
expeditious, while it offers the additional advantage of enabling the 
traveller to proceed at once elsewhere if he is dissatisfied with the 
accommodation offered in the hotel he may have selected first. 

The numerous Pensions in or near Naples, often kept by 
English or German ladies , are usually comfortable , clean , and 
moderate. Passing travellers are received at many of them even 
for a day or two. As the price of dejeuner is usually (though not 
universally) included in the fixed daily charge, the traveller must 
either sacrifice some of the best hours for sight-seeing and excursions, 
or pay for a meal he does not consume. 

Second Class Inns may usually be found, especially in the 
neighbourhood of Naples, offering a reasonable amount of comfort 
and convenience. It is usual in these houses to arrange for a pension- 
charge (even for a single day), in which wine is generally included. 
In the larger towns, as in Northern and Central Italy, these inns 
generally have a trattoria in connection with them. Room 1V2-3, 
light and attendance 1 fr. per day. Enquiry as to charges, however, 
should always be made beforehand ; and in bargaining for a room 
the 'servizio e candela' should not be forgotten. An extortionate 
bill may even be reduced though no previous agreement has been 
made, but never without long and vehement discussions. Attendance 
is generally included in the charge for rooms ; but if not, 1 fr. per 
day may be divided between the waiter and the facchino, or less 
for a prolonged stay. — Travellers should not omit to provide 
themselves with matches (comp. p. 27). 

The recommendations etc. of landlords with reference to hotels in 
other towns should be disregarded, as they are rarely disinterested. 

Money and other valuables should never be left in the traveller's 
apartment, but should either be carried on the person or deposited 
with the landlord in exchange for a receipt. 

Privatb Apartments are recommended for a prolonged stay. 
A distinct agreement as to rent should be made beforehand. When 
a house or a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written contract 



on stamped paper should be drawn up with the aid of some one 
aquainted with the language and customs of the place (e.g. a banker), 
in order that all legal formalities may be duly observed and 'mis- 
understandings' prevented. To sign such a contract without reliable 
advice is distinctly dangerous. For single travellers a verbal agree- 
ment with regard to attendance, linen, stoves and carpets in winter, 
a receptacle for coal, and other details, will generally suffice. Comp. 
p. xx vi. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Southern Italy is behind the age, 
dirt being perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the bril- 
liancy of their climate. The traveller will rarely suffer from this short- 
coming in the better hotels and lodgings even of the second class ; but those 
who quit the beaten track must be prepared for privations. In the village- 
inns the pig (animate nero) is a privileged inmate, and the poultry are freely 
admitted. Iron bedsteads should if possible be selected, as being less 
infested by the enemies of repose. Insect-powder (polvere insetticida, 
or contro gli insetti, or Keating's ; better procured before leaving home) or 
camphor should be plentifully sprinkled on the bedsand on the traveller's 
clothing in places of doubtful cleanliness. The zanzare, or mosquitoes, are 
a source of great annoyance, and even of suffering, in summer and autumn. 
Windows should always be carefully closed before a light is introduced into 
the room. Light muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the 
face, and gloves are used to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious 
intruders. The burning of insect-powder over a spirit-lamp is also re- 
commended, and pastilles for the same purpose may be purchased at the 
principal chemists 1 . A weak solution of carbolic acid is efficacious in 
allaying the irritation caused by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la liancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: shirt 
(.linen, cotton, woollen), la cai/iicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar, it 
solino; cuff, ilpolsino; drawers, lemutande; woollen undershirt, una fia- 
iiella, or giuba di flanella; petticoat, la sottana ; stocking, la calza; sock, 
la calzetfa; handkerchief (silk), il fazoletto (di seta). To give out to wash, 
dare abucalo (di bucato, newly washed); washing-list, nota; washerwoman, 
laundress, la lavandaja, la siiratrice. 

VIII. Restaurants , Cafes. 

Restaurants of the first class do not exist in Southern Italy ; 
even in Naples good French cookery is to be found only in the large 
hotel*. The national Trattorie, however, are sometimes very good; 
and even in the smaller towns the traveller will have little difficulty 
in finding a tolerable, though not always scrupulously clean, establish- 
ment of this kind. In Sicily a trattoria is usually called Caffe. They 
<ire generally open from 11 a.m. (for the Collazione or de'jeuner), 
and are visually closed about 8 p.m. Dinner (Prrmzo) is usually 
taken between 5 and 8; either alia carta for l'/ 2 -3 fr., or some- 
times a prezzo fisso for 2-5 fr. Italian customers have no hesitation 
in ordering away ill-cooked or stale viands, and they often inspect 
the fish or meat before it is cooked and make a bargain as to the price. 
Wine is usually brought in open bottles (p. xxii). The diner calls 
for the bill witli the words 'il conto'. The waiter (cameriere) expects 
a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. If too importunate in his recommendations or 
suggestions, he may be checked with the word %/stii'. — Residents 
for some time in a town should arrange to pay a monthly subscription 


('pensione' ) at a lower rate, or, as is customary in Sicily, stipulate for 

a reduction (sconto) of price, on condition taking so many meals a 

month in the selected caffe. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants : — 

Anlipasti, relishes or whets 
Minestra, or Zuppa, soup. 

Brodo or Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green 
vegetables and bread. 

Minestra di riso con piselli, rice-soup 
with peas. 

Risotto, a kind of rice-pudding (rich). 

Paste asciutte, maccaroni; al sugo e 
al burro, with sauce and butter ; 
al pomidoro, with tomatoes. 

Came lessa, bollita, boiled meat; in 
umido, alia genovese, with sauce ; 
ben cotlo, well done ; al sangue, al 
inglese, underdone; aiferri, cooked 
on the gridiron. 

Fritto, fried meat. 

Manzo, beef. 

Arroslo, roasted meat. 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 

Majale, pork. 

Arista, chine of pork. 

Agnello, lamb. 

Capretto, kid. 

Monione, mutton. 

Arroslo di vitello, roast-veal. 

Testa di vitello, calf's head. 

Fegato di vitello, calf's liver. 

Costoletta or bracciola di vitello, veal- 

Costolella alia Milanese, veal-cutlet 
baked in dough. 

Esgaloppe, veal- cutlet in bread- 

Ostriche, oysters (good in winter only). 

Pesce, fish. 

Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 

Toiino, tunny. 

Presciutto, ham. 

Salame, sausage (usually with garlic, 

Uova, egg; da bere, soft; dure, hard; 
al piatlo, poached. 

Aniira, duck. 

Polio, fowl. 

Polio oV India or Dindio, turkey. 

Tordo, field-fare. 

Crochelti, croquettes. 

Qnocchi, small puddings. 

Stufatino, cibrio, ragout. 

Contorno , Guarnizione , garnishing, 
vegetables, usually not charged for. 

Patate, potatoes. 

Insalata, salad. 

Polenta, maize-soup. 

Carciofi, artichokes. 

Asparagi, asparagus. 

Spinaci, spinach. 

Piselli, peas. 

Lenticchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Fave, beans. 

Fagivolini or Cornetti, French beans. 

Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 

Sale, salt. 

Pepe, pepper. 

Mostarda francese, sweet mustard. 

Senape, Mostarda inglese, hot mustard. 

Frutta or Giardinetto, fruit- desert; 
frulta secche , nuts, raisins, al- 
monds, etc. 

Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 

Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind of 

Dolce, pudding. 

Fritlata, omelette. 

Fragole, strawberries. 

Per a, pear. 

Mele, apples. 

Persici, Pesche, peaches. 

Uve, grapes. 

Fichi, figs. 

Noci, nuts. 

Limone, lemon. 

Arancio, orange. 

Pane francese or meranico, bread made 
with yeast (the Italian is without). 

Finocchio, root of fennel. 

Formaggio, or in S. Italy caccio, 

The Maccaroni of Naples is much esteemed, but is generally hard, 
and should therefore be ordered 'ben cotti'. It is usually llavoured with 
pomi a"oro (tomatoes), of which the Neapolitans are very fond. Sea-fish 
and ragosta , a kind of lobster , excellent. Shell-fish soup (zuppa di von- 
gole), a good but indigestible dish. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and luncheon , and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices. 

Cafe noir (Gaffe nero) is most commonly drunk (15-25 c. per cup). 
Gaffe latte is coffee mixed with milk before served (30-35 c. ; 'capuccino\ or 
small cup, cheaper); or coffee latte, i.e. with|the milk served separately, may 
be preferred. The usual viands for lunch are liam, sau-age-', cullet-i and 


eggs. Ices (gelato) of every conceivable variety are supplied at the cafe's, 
particularly at Naples, at 30-90 c. per portion ; or half-a-portion (mezza) may 
generally be ordered. Sorbello, or half-frozen ice, and Granita, or iced 
water (limonata, of lemons; aranciata, of oranges; di caffe, of coffee), is 
chiefly in vogue in the forenoon. 

The Wine Shops (Osterie) are almost exclusively frequented by 
the lower ranks. In shops outside the towns the wine is very cheap 
and often excellent. The numbers on the outside of the shops (4, 
5, 6 etc.) indicate the price per 1/2 lltre in soldi - Bread, cheese, 
and eggs are usually the only viands provided. 

Wine (vino da pasta, table-wine; nero, red; bianco, white; pastaso, 
sweet; asciutto, dry; del paese, wine of the country) is usually supplied 
in bottles one-half or one-fifth of a litre (un mezzo litro ; un quinto or bicchiere). 
Wines of a better quality are sold in ordinary quarts and pints. 

Cigars (sigaro) in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad. 
The prices of the home-made cigars (Scelti Bomani, Virginias, Ve- 
vays, Cavours, Napolitani, etc.) vary from 7^2 to 18 c. Good im- 
ported cigars may be bought at the best shops in the large towns for 
25-60 c, and also foreign cigarettes. — Passers-by are at liberty to 
avail themselves of the light burning in every tobacconist's, without 
making any purchase. 

IX. Sights, Theatres, Shops. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12, and generally again 
from 2-4 to 7 p.m. Visitors may inspect the works of art even 
during divine service , provided they move about noiselessly, and 
keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On the 
occasion of festivals and for a week or two before Easter the works 
of art are often temporarily covered. Those which are always covered 
are shown by the verger (sagrestano) for a small gratuity (p. xv). 
— For the use of a chair in the churches a charge of 5 c. is fre- 
quently made. 

Museums, picture-galleries , and other collections are usually 
open from 10 to 4 o'clock. All the collections which belong to 
government are open on week-days at a charge of 1 ft., and on 
Sundays gratis. Artists, but not scholars or authors, are always ad- 
mitted without charge. The attendants are forbidden to accept 
gratuities. The collections are closed on public holidays. 

The Museo Nazionale at Naples, for instance, is closed on New Year's 
Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the king's birthday (14th Mar.), Easter Sunday, 
Ascension Day, Whitsunday, Corpus Christi, Festa dello Statuto (first 
Sunday in June), Day of SS. Peter & Paul (29th June), Assumption of the 
Virgin (15th Aug.), Birth of the Virgin (8th Sept.), St. Januarius (19th 
Sept.), All Saints' -Day (1st Nov.), Feast of the Conception (8th Dec.) and 
on Christmas Day. ' 

Theatres. The performances at the larger theatres, beginning 
at 8, 8. 30, or 9, and ending at midnight or later , consist ex- 
clusively of operas and ballets , the first act of an opera beins 
usually succeeded by a ballet of three or more acts. The pit (platea) 
to which holders of the ordinary biglietto d'ingresso are admitted 
is the usual resort of the men. For the reserved seats (scanni 


chiusi, sedie chime , poltrone , posti distinti) and boxes (palco) ad- 
ditional tickets must be taken. Ladies of course engage a box, or 
at least reserved seats. These seats should always be secured in ad- 
vance. — The theatre is a favourite evening-resort of the Italians, 
and silence during the performance of the music is never very 
strictly observed. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule two-thirds or three- 
quarters of the price asked should be offered (comp. p. 25). 'Non 
volete?' (then you will not?) is a remark which generally has the 
effect of bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases 
should never be made by the traveller when accompanied by a valet- 
de-place. These individuals, by tacit agreement, receive at least 10 
per cent of the purchase-money, which of course comes out of the 
purchaser's pocket. 

X. Post Office. Telegraph. 

In the larger towns the Post Office is open daily from 8 a.m. to 
8 or 8.30 p.m. (also on Sundays and holidays), in smaller places it 
is generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Letters (whether l poste restante', Italian '/erma in posta\ or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting-card instead of giving his name 
orally. Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco-shops. The Italian for letter-box is Buca or 
Cassetta (for letters, per le lettere; for printed papers, per le stampe~). 

Letters of 15 grammes P/2 oz., about the weight of three sous) by 
town-post 5 c, to the rest of Italy 20 c, abroad (per Veslero) to any of 
the states included in the postal union (now comprising the whole of 
Europe as well as the United States, Canada, etc.) 25 c. The penalty 
(segnatassa) for insufficiently prepaid letters is considerable. — Postcards 
(cartolina postale) for both Italy (white) and abroad (green) 10 c, reply- 
cards (con risposla pagata), inland 15 c, for abroad 20c. — Book-packets 
(stampe sotto fascia) 2c. per 50grammes, for abroad 5c. — Kegistration- 
fee (raccommandazione) for letters for the same town and printed matter 
10 c, otherwise 25 c. The packet or letter must be inscribed Craccomun- 
data^), and the stamps must he affixed in front at the different corners. 
— Post Office Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 10Z., are 
now granted by the English Post Office at the following rates : not exceed- 
ing 21., Gd. ; bl., Is.; 11., Is. fid.; 101., 2s. These are paid in gold. The 
identity of the receiver must be guaranteed by two well-known residents 
(perhaps the innkeeper and one of his friends or assistants). The charge 
for money-orders granted in Italy and payable in England is 40 c. per 11. 

A Parcel Post exists between Italy and Great Britain, the rates and 
conditions of which may be ascertained at any post-office. The parcels 
must be carefully packed and fastened and may not contain anything in 
the shape of a letter; and a custom-house declaration must be filled up 
for each. Articles such as flowers, etc., not liable to duty are best sent 
as samples of no value (campione senza valore) in Italy 2 c. per 50 gr., 
abroad 10 c. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following rate per 
word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : Great Britain 
26 c, France 14, Germany 14, Switzerland 6-14, Austria 6-14, Belgium 19, 


Holland 23, Denmark 23, Eus.-ia42, No; way 34, Sweden 26 c. — To America 
fiom 3 3 /4 fr. per word upwards, according to the distance. — In Italy, 
15 words 1 fr., each additional word 6 c. Telegrams with special ha*te 
(telgrt.mmi nrgenti), which take precedence of all others, may he sent in 
Italy at thiice the above rates. 

XI. Climate and Health of Naples. 
Climate. The hills in the vicinity of Naples only afford it par- 
tial protection against the -winds. The Posilipo and the heights of 
S. Elmo and Capodimonte shelter it tolerably well on the N.W. 
and N. ; but the N.E. (Tramontana), S.E. (Scirocco), and S.W. 
(TAbeccio) winds are opposed by no such natural barrier. The alter- 
nation of these air-currents from the N. and S. exercises the most 
material influence upon the temperature of the different seasons 
at Naples , and is the usual cause of the extreme variations which 
sometimes occur in the course of a single day. September is almost 
invariably hot and oppressive, but the first half of October is usu- 
ally much cooler, the mean temperature being about 65° Fahr. and 
the sky generally bright and cloudless. In November the rainy S. 
wind prevails, while in December, -when the N. wind blows, many 
fine days are enjoyed. The weather at this season is often re- 
markably mild. The mean winter temperature is about 50°, but in 
the cold nights of January the thermometer sometimes sinks 5-6° 
below freezing-point. Snow seldom falls in Naples itself, but in 
January the surrounding mountains are sometimes covered with a 
mantle of snow which imparts a bitter keenness to the E. and N.E. 
winds. Fogs are very rare. Towards the end of January, or in Feb- 
ruary at latest, the S. winds again predominate, and a rainy sea- 
son sets in, which often lasts till April. March resembles an 
English April in its changeableness, while April (mean tempera- 
ture 60°) is perhaps the most delightful month of the whole year. 
May (68°) is also an exceedingly pleasant month. In June, July, 
and August the prevalent winds are from the N. and N.E. The 
heat sometimes rises to 100° (mean 72-77°), but is pleasantly tem- 
pered by the sea-wind, which rises in the forenoon and blows till 
about 2 p.m., an advantage unknown at Rome or Florence. 

In Mt. Vesuvius the Neapolitans possess a gigantic barometer. 
The direction in which the smoke issuing from the crater blows 
often announces a change of weather twenty-four hours beforehand. 
When it blows towards Capri , good weather may be expected (in 
winter a clear sky and cool temperature); when it is turned towards 
Ischia, we may look for E. wind (Greco Levante) and cold weather. 
Indications of the approach of the Scirocco are specially important 
as during the prevalence of this depressing wind, perfect repose is 
desirable. Thus, when the crater is concealed by a thick layer of 
clouds, we may expect S. wind, often accompanied by heavy rain. 
Another premonition of the scirocco is afforded when Capri appears 
of a dark blue colour and unusually near and distinct. Long low 


and regular -waves rolling in from the Bocca Piccola also as a nilo 
betoken the approach of the soirocoo. 

Health. The sanitary condition of Naples has greatly improved 
of late years and is on the whole not unsatisfactory. The mistaken 
idea, however, that no change whatever need be made in his mode 
of life often exposes the traveller to risks which a little caution 
would easily evade. The principal danger to visitors to Naples con- 
sists in the so-called Neapolitan fever, a variety of typhus to which 
numerous strangers fall a prey. In the great majority of cases, 
however, this illness takes a favourable course ; and it is only when 
complicated with other maladies that danger to life need be feared. 
By far the most important of the modern improvements is the con- 
struction of the immense Aqueduct (Acqua di Serino), which now 
brings a copious supply of good water to the town from the Serino 
a river in the Apennines, several miles distant. Measures have 
also been taken to open up the crowded and infected lanes and 
alleys by demolishing houses and forming new streets, and finally 
a general sewerage system for the whole town has been begun. 

Whatever be the primary causes of the often exaggerated evil 
sanitary reputation of Naples, the immediate or exciting cause may 
almost invariably be traced to imprudence on the part of the trav- 
ellers, especially of those who wish to see everything in the shortest 
possible time, allow themselves no time for repose, and neglect 
the commonest sanitary precautions. It cannot be too emphatic- 
ally asserted that nearly all the acute diseases by which visitors 
to Naples are attacked are due to imprudences in diet , to ne- 
glected colds, or to excessive fatigue. Even the hardiest traveller 
from the N. should take the utmost care in avoiding these three 
provocatives of disease. On the smallest symptom of indisposition, 
all excursions should be given up until the nervous system has 
recovered its usual tone. A physician should also be consulted. 
Malarial affections are most generally incurred on excursions 
to Lago Agnano or Baiae, or other places in the Phlegraean Fields. 
Psstum and the railway -journey through the Roman Campagna 
are also more or less dangerous in this respect. The best pro- 
phylactic measures consist in warm clothing, an avoidance of the 
hours of sunset, and the shutting of the windows in the railway- 
carriage. Those who, notwithstanding all precautions, are attacked 
by malaria should at once seek change of air in Sorrento, Capri, 
or La Cava. Naples is often trying for persons with weak lungs 
on account of the sudden changes of temperature in winter, and 
such persons should not fix their abode here without medical ad- 
vice. Pozzuoli or Capri is generally much more congenial to pa- 
tients of this class. 

Rooms, or at least bedrooms, facing the S. are almost essential 
for the delicate and highly desirable for the robust. If such can- 
not be obtained , those facing the W. are the next best in win- 


ter, those facing theE. in summer. Corner rooms and lodgings 
on the ground-floor should be avoided. The uppermost floors of 
house are often damp on account of the thinness of the walls and 
ceilings. Care should be taken to see that all the doors and win- 
dows close satisfactorily. The healthiest parts of the town are the 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele, the Rione Principe Amedeo, and the Pizzo- 
faleone. The upper part of the Strada Santa Lucia may be recom- 
mended to those who do not fear a little wind and dust. There are 
also numerous comfortable and healthy dwellings in the Strada 
Chiatamone , the Riviera di Chiaja , and the Mergellina , although 
the drains here emptying themselves into the sea often pollute the 
air very perceptibly when the wind blows inshore. One of the 
physicians mentioned at p. 2i should, however, in this case be 
consulted in the choice of a dwelling, as many of the houses here 
are so defective in hygienic arrangements that they are positively 
unhealthy and dangerous. 

The visitor to Naples should as a general rule wear warmer 
clothing than he would at home in a similar temperature. Natives 
are generally much more careful in this respect than strangers, as 
they know from experience that a cold at Naples is too likely to 
usher in a severe illness. The traveller should therefore always he 
provided with a greatcoat or shawl, which he should make use of in 
the evening, when sitting in a carriage or boat, or when exposed 
to sudden alternations of sun and shade. Exposure to the summer 
sun should be avoided as much as possible, and a sunshade should 
be used both in walking and driving. Long walks should be 
avoided as much as possible; fortunately the low fares of the cabs 
and tramways make driving comparatively inexpensive. It is also 
necessary to he warmly covered during sleep ; the supply of bed- 
clothes at the hotels and lodging-houses is often apt to be scanty. 

Moderation in eating and drinking is , of course, imperative. 
The appetite gradually decreases under a southern sun, but at first 
strangers are sometimes apt to eat excessive quantities of macca- 
roni, cheese, fruit, etc. The traveller should adopt the Neapolitan 
custom of rejecting fish that are not quite fresh. Oysters are also 
dangerous here when not fresh ; and cases of typhus have been 
traced to the consumption of oysters from S. Lucia (p. 36), where 
the shell-fish are kept in undesirable proximity to the mouths of 
the sewers. It is safer, therefore, to dispense with this luxury al- 
together. Ripe fruit eaten in moderation at^ meals is perfectly 
wholesome , but the fruit offered at table-d'hote even in the best 
hotels is often unripe , as the Neapolitans prefer it in this state. 
Water-melons (Anguria) and the figs of the Indian cactus are bet- 
ter left untouched. A free indulgence in fruit should be especially 
avoided in autumn, when the excessive heat predisposes to diar- 
rhoea. The Sorbe, a kind of fruit resembling the medlar and con- 
taining a large quantity of tannin, is often useful in counteract- 


inga diarrhceic tendency. A dozen or so of this fruit may be eaten 
at once without fear of prejudicial consequences. Diarrhoea induced 
by 'violent exertion in hot weather may often be cured by the use 
of Oranita (p. xxii). Rice and the homoeopathic tincture of cam- 
phor are also common remedies, but thorough repose is the chief 
desideratum. The ordinary red wines of the country are usually sound 
and good, and a moderate use of them when pure may be thoroughly 
recommended. Those who find them unpalatable should drink claret. 
The native white wines, though generally lighter than the red, are 
too astringent in their action. 


from the German of 

Prof. Reinhard Kekule. 

Wir tragen 
Die Trammer hiniiber 
Und klagen 

Uber die verlume Sehone ! 

The traveller whose attention is directed to the treasures of 
the National Museum at Naples, to the relics of antiquity scattered 
throughout Southern Italy and Sicily, and who, possibly setting 
foot on the soil of Attica, finds himself, if favoured by fortune, in 
the presence of her glorious ruins — has in all probability had 
his appetite whetted in Rome, and has there collected such data as 
he will readily apply to all that presents itself as new to his obser- 
vation. But even he who turns himself at once to the contemplation 
of an heritage of antiquity such as that comprised in the favoured 
regions of Campania and Sicily has the promise of a rich and ab- 
undant harvest, if he but know how to prize its fruits. 

The National Museum partakes in many of its departments of 
the same character as the Vatican with its statue world, and in- 
cludes many works in marble which have indeed been brought 
thither from Rome, notably those formerly belonging to the Farnese 
family. By the careful observer many of the statues will be re- 
cognised as repetitions of those already seen in Rome. They belong 
to the numerous class of copies made from renowned masterpieces, 
which in the old Roman time were indispensable adjuncts to 
a display of wealth and refinement. Many of these marbles betray, 
owing to a certain redundancy and pliancy of outline, a taste 
peculiar to people of these coasts upon which Nature has lavished 
her choicest gifts. The exquisite Greek coins remind us that we are 
in a land that was once the thriving and envied seat of Greek cul- 
ture : innumerable tripods, candelabra, lamps, braziers, jars, jugs, 
caskets, bracelets, needles, house and kitchen-utensils of all kinds, 
weapons of warriors and gladiators, the numerous figures in bronze, 
above all a stately array of some hundreds of wall-paintings, unique 
in the world , indicate with sufficient clearness that here are col- 
lected the results of excavations which present as in a mirror a 
complete and charming picture of ancient lite, and that we are in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and 
Stabiie, long buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 

His first impression of purely Greek art the Northern traveller 


in Italy receives at Paestum. The drive through a lonely, silent 
country; the picturesque beauty of the ruins and landscape with 
the glittering sea in apparently close proximity; the melancholy re- 
flection that these proud temples before their decay looked upon 
a thriving Hellenic city amid the smiles of nature, instead of a 
fever-stricken pestilential wilderness : all this serves so to excite 
the susceptibility of the beholder, that lie will find the impression 
produced by these ruins , conspicuously that of the Temple of 
Jupiter, almost more overpowering than even the spectacle of the 
Roman forum. There the scale, the solidity and splendour of the 
edifices, as well- as the surpassing wealth of form and sculptured 
ornament, are imposing. Here the architecture appears externally 
poor in merely superficial decoration : poorer than it had originally 
been. The coating of stucco , so fine and firmly set that it gave to 
the porous limestone a surface smooth as marble , is shattered and 
weather-stained , the forms themselves have extensively suffered ; 
wind and weather have obliterated the coloured leaves which de- 
corated the heavy collars of the capitals together with all that gay 
adornment bestowed according to Greek custom. But precisely in 
this absence of adornment , in a simplicity which brings to view 
only what is indispensable and essential, does this stern Doric 
temple with its dense array of mighty columns, with its lofty and 
ponderous entablature and far-reaching projection of cornice, in 
the clear and simple disposal of the masses, in solemnity and 
strength of proportion, in beauty and distinctness of outline, pre- 
sent itself as a revelation of the spirit of Greek architecture, which 
so fills its with amazement that we are apt to overlook the very 
slight expenditure of material space employed to produce this in- 
comparable impression of grandeur and sublimity. One who has 
seen the ruins of Paestum will have the more pleasure in examin- 
ing less impressive mementoes of the Greek ages from the city dedi- 
cated to Poseidon — the fine monumental paintings from Pfestum 
in the National Museum of Naples : Warriors departing for the 
combat whence they are never to return. 

The Temple of Poseidon at Paestum is ascribed to the close of 
the 6th century B.C. From a far remoter past, however, dates 
the fragment of art-history which we are enabled to trace in Seli- 
nunto, although it cannot of course be deciphered on the spot from 
its ruins alone. The imagination is less severely taxed to supply 
all that is lost to the beauteous ruins in Segesta and Oirgenti. In 
Selinunto the effects of earthquakes have been so destructive that a 
clear conception of the temples can only be attained by reference 
to the architects' plans and drawings. The sculptures belonging to 
these temples, brought to light by recent excavations, are to be found 
in the Museum of Palermo. The oldest temple, usually distinguish- 
ed by the letter C, is that on the Acropolis. This was probably de- 
dicated to Apollo as god of succour, and was erected immediately 


subsequent to the foundation of the city, an event assigned variously 
to B.C. 651 and B.C. 628. The neighbouring and northernmost 
temple of the Acropolis, D, presumably sacred to Athena, is scarcely 
more recent. In the three metope-reliefs which belong to the first- 
named temple C, scarcely a trace of Grecian beauty is discernible; 
indeed they are almost ludicrously primitive and rude. And yet 
they afford an instructive insight into the rudimentary Sculpture of 
the Greeks. Possibly, in the place for which they were designed, 
aloft between the triglyphs of a Doric frieze, and set in a frame- 
work of strong and clearly defined architectural lines, the reliefs 
may have had a less repulsive effect. But it is curious to ob- 
serve how the same stage in art which had in architecture attained 
to an essentially coherent system , primitive perhaps in its severity 
and unwieldiness , yet conveying the impression of harmony in its 
completeness, should in the rendering of such figures as would con- 
tribute to its architectural ornamentation be beset by a childish 
restraint and uncertainty of aim ; how the same eye that watched 
over the ordered arrangement of each part and proportion as 
well as the delicate rendering of each line and ornament of the 
building, could be content to give representations of mythical 
events , which, as it appears to us, must have exhibited an aimless 
and startling conspicuousness and a grotesque vivacity, entailing 
the disfigurement of the human form and the entire sacrifice of 
natural proportion. And yet in these characteristics lies the germ 
of a mighty future, in the religious enthusiasm which anim- 
ated the artist as he strove to give intelligible expression to 
the sacred history which he had to relate, in the independence 
and directness with which he embodied its purport in sculp- 
tured forms. Not that we can suppose such scenes to have been 
altogether new to him. He might have seen them in other 
places and in earlier times. But he had to mould them anew 
and from his own individual resources , without available pattern, 
and without that readiness in execution which the hand can only 
acquire by frequent exercise. The head of Medusa alone, this 
earliest figurative expression of destruction and horror, is clearly 
and unfailingly pourtrayed. To the artist as well as his contem- 
poraries this poverty in execution was not apparent. Their sucess- 
ors were not slow to make far different pretensions. If a kind 
fate had preserved the single statue of the youthful god that stood 
in the sanctuary, or at some future time should discover it to us, 
we should probably be overwhelmed with astonishment at the con- 
trast presented by the statue to the reliefs. At a time when such 
reliefs as these were possible, Greek art had already possessed itself 
of a definite type for the statue of Apollo , and for the youthful 
form generally, in archaic stiffness, but conformable with the law 
of nature in shape and proportion ; while by constant comparison 
with nature it continued to gain in purity and truthfulness. 


By the same process representation in relief is gradually en- 
nobled. Offences against proportion and drawing are more easily 
overlooked in relief than in a lifesize work in the round ; the sus- 
ceptibility of the eye moreover is more readily forgotten in the in- 
terest excited by the pictorial narration. The monuments of Seli- 
nunto are pre-eminent in the opportunity they afford for observing 
on the spot what has sprung from these beginnings. Of the group on 
the Eastern hill the Temple F in point of time is next to those of 
the Paean Apollo and of Athena. Then come Temple 6, likewise 
dedicated to Apollo, one to Juno E, and lastly Temple A, occupy- 
ing the Acropolis. Temple F still belongs to the 6th century B.C., 
a period when the building of the Apollo Temple had begun, to 
be completed at a later period. The Heraeum (Temple of Juno) E 
and temple A date from the middle of the 5th century B.C. or 
not much later. Two halves of metope-slabs have been brought 
to light which adorned the temple F (a god and goddess contend- 
ing with giants), and four similar slabs from the Heraeum are so 
far preserved that they furnish a sufficiently intelligible repre- 
sentation of Zeus and Hera , Artemis and Actaeon , Heracles and 
the Amazons, and Athena contending with the Giants. 

In both metopes from F extraordinary clearness and animation 
again arrest the attention. The impetuous rush of the victorious 
goddess, the dying agonies of the fallen giant, his head convulsive- 
ly thrown back, his mouth open and grinning, his utter helpless- 
ness, are rendered with a turbulence , and with an expenditure of 
means, which appear to us very much in excess of what is needed 
for clear expression, and which simply outrage instead of satisfying 
one's sense of the beautiful. The two art -stages to which these 
reliefs, and the quaint rudeness of those of the Apollo Temple on 
the Acropolis belong, offer a certain analogy. In both cases all 
available means are applied with recklessness and in excess. Those, 
however, at the disposal of the later artist were infinitely richer 
and more, perfect. While his predecessor had not altogether mastered 
the forms of art , he had acquired a certain familiarity with them, 
though at the cost of much toil and trouble ; but his power was so 
new and unwonted that he could not refrain from abusing it. The 
Metopaefrom the Heraeum on the other hand, which mark the maturity 
of archaic art, show a command of expression ennobled by a fine 
perception of the beautiful. These qualities declare themselves most 
felicitously in the two compositions which represent the meeting 
of Zeus and Hera on Mount Ida and Artemis punishing Actseon. 
The expression of godlike serenity and joy which pervades the first 
scene transcends all similar efforts whether of earlier or later art : 
while the second is scarcely less admirable from the way in which 
the unmistakable wildness of the subject is subdued to something 
like softness by modulation of movement and occupation of allotted 
space. The technical method employed in the more recent metopes 


is peculiar. In the antique vases with "black figures on a red ground 
the men are usually black, and the women, as far as the body itself 
is visible, white. Here the indication of the lighter and darker flesh 
colour of the two sexes has superficially supplied a necessary char- 
acteristic. But the perfected art also resorted to this distinction in 
rendering flesh-colour. In the paintings of Pompeii the bronzed, 
sunburnt bodies of the men form an effective contrast to the deli- 
cate and fairer forms of the women. Something of the same kind 
is found in the metopes of the Herseum. As the entire temple is of 
tufa, they too are of the same material. Owing to the rugged and 
faulty nature of the material the architect resorted to a coating 
of stucco upon which he displayed his gaudy decoration. In the 
reliefs on the other hand the nude forms of the women are given 
in white marble. The harmony of the different portions of the 
reliefs, multiform as they were , was restored by a profuse appli- 
cation of colour, which the purely architectural accessories also re- 

Every new discovery, in which the excavations of the last twenty 
years have been so prolific, brings the sculptures of Selinunto one 
step farther from the artistic isolation which presented them as al- 
mostinsolubleproblemsto the original discoverers. The quaint, crude 
reliefs of Temple C recall by the style of their carved forms the 
curious poros-sculptures which have been exhumed on the Acropolis 
at Athens ; and doubtless their colouring was as vivid and striking 
as the colouring of those sculptures. The powerful reliefs from 
Temple F y with their representations of warriors exerting their strength 
to the full, range themselves side by side with the Combats of the 
Giants from the treasury of the Megarans at Olympia. The beautiful 
metopes of the Herajum exhibit a close affinity with the sculptures 
of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. They may perhaps display a more 
successful and more charming gracefulness than the Olympian works; 
but in the methods of composition, in the naive vivacity of the 
aesthetic sense, and even in the conception of nature, it is impossible 
to fail to recognize in both the same artistic method, founded on the 
common ground of an equal artistic development, and very clearly 
differentiated, for example, from the yEginetan marbles. With the 
artistic style of the sculptures from the Heraeum at Selinunto, may 
be compared the newly discovered Ionic temple at Locri, as affording 
an example of a not very alien method of treatment. 

Beside all these original decorative sculptures, there is an ad- 
mirable copy of a great work of not much later date that ably main- 
tains its place in virtue of its majestic severity and restrained energy. 
This is the Farnese Head of Juno (p. 62), which at once recalls to 
our minds the Artemis of the Herjeum at Selinunto. In a well- 
known passage in his history of art, Winckelmann describes per- 
fect beauty as twofold , as having a double grace : the one as 
winning , — 'she descends from her eminence , revealing herself 

ANCIENT ART. xxxiii 

to the observant eye with a suavity devoid of self- abasement: 
she is not over-anxious to please, hut would not he over- 
looked'. The other is self-sufficient and would he sought rather 
than court attention , — 'she holds converse only with the 
wise, appearing to the populace inimical and austere, she conceals 
the emotions of her soul, and nearly attains to the blessed repose 
of the divine nature : and thus according to ancient writers the 
greatest artists sought to pourtray her'. To those who know how to 
observe will be revealed beneath the austere solemnity of this Far- 
nese Juno an impressive picture of godlike repose and majesty. 

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus and the Ilersum at Seli- 
nunto find a parallel as regards violence of action and motion in the 
group of the tyrant-slayers Harmodius and Aristogiton, in the Museo 
Nazionale at Naples (p. 62), a marble copy of that work of Critios 
and Nesiotes which stood in the market-place at Athens. But 
in this group we may detect traces of an art that was under different 
conditions. The two Athenians rush to the attack, the sword of 
the younger being raised to strike ; the older of the two (the head 
of this figure does not belong to it, the original was bearded) is at 
hand to protect his brave comrade, as soon as the time comes for him 
to interfere ; and here the words of the great authority already quoted, 
in reference to the attributes of a severe style, are applicable : 'The 
drawing was impressive but hard, powerful but devoid of grace. The 
force of expression detracts from the beauty' . . . 'Art was hard and 
severe as the justice of the time which punished the most trifling 
offence with death'. The same violence of action and rendering of 
form are observable in the reliefs from the "W. pediment of the 
temple of Zeus. But the reliefs appear wild, almost disordered and 
devoid of beauty, beside the symmetrical accuracy and precision, 
the concentrated power, the beautiful flow of lines in the Attic group 
of the murder of Hippias. 

Though in the National Museum there may not be found any 
very pure or important example of the Attic school of Phidias' time, 
a succeeding school is most happily illustrated by the Orpheus Belief 
(p. 66). Orpheus is permitted to bring his consort Eurydice out of 
Hades and to restore her once more to the light of the sun on con- 
dition that he shall not look upon her during the passage. He has 
failed to fulfil this condition. Hermes, the conductor of departed 
souls, with gentle measured gesture takes the hand of Eurydice to 
consign her anew to the realm of shades. In contemplating this com- 
position, beautiful in its simplicity as it is, hope and dismay altern- 
ately possess us. The advance of the train , Orpheus in the act of 
casting the fatal glance , the confiding communion of man and wife 
are quite unmistakable , as well as the interruption of their pro- 
gress and the subsequent return of Eurydice. And here we may 
pause to wonder how antique art could present powerful effect 
clothed in persuasive beauty, or, if subdued , yet with striking ex- 
Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. c 


pression: and with what a modest expenditure of means she could 
assert 'this nohle simplicity and grandeur of repose'. Even in its 
own time this work must have enjoyed a considerable reputation, 
as replicas are still to he seen in the Villa Alhani at Rome and in 
the Louvre at Paris. The Neapolitan example is the most beauti- 
ful, and the severest too, of those extant. It may he remarked, hy 
the way, that the inscriptions introduced, though they may he cor- 
rect in the explanation they give, must be of doubtful antiquity. 

The Argive school of the latter half of the fifth century had as 
its head the famous Poltcletus. He frequently used earlier works, 
even of the Attic school, altering them according to a deliberately 
defined ideal of formal beauty and harmonious effect. An excellent 
example of his style is afforded by the fine reproduction of his Dory- 
phorus from the palestra at Pompeii (now in Naples). 

By far the greater number of sculptures in Naples belong like 
those in Rome to a more recent period of Greek art. The prostrate 
Amazon stretched out in death, a Dead Persian, a Dead Qiant, and 
the Wounded Gaul, which will be readily recognised from its 
resemblance to a master-piece of the Pergamenian school, the 
Dying Gaul in the Museum of the Capitol (the so-called dying- 
glad iator), are parts of a votive offering of King Attalus of Perga- 
mum at Athens, of which single figures are to be seen in Venice 
and in Rome. 

The colossal group of the so-called Farnese Bull (p. 60), which 
brilliantly represents the Rhodian School, is more likely to arrest 
attention. This group will produce a powerful impression upon 
most beholders, and this not hy force of its material hulk alone. 
The effect would have been even more impressive, had the work of 
restoration been successful, particularly in the standing female 
figure. It will be worth our while to analyse the nature of this 
effect, as well as the forces which contribute to it. An occurrence 
full of horror is presented to our view. Two powerful youths are 
engaged in binding on the back of a furious bull the helpless form 
of a woman. The mighty beast is plunging violently, and in another 
moment will be away, hurrying the burden he is made to hear to 
the terrible doom of a martyr. As soon as we have attained to an 
accurate conception of what is passing before us, horror and dismay 
rather than pity take possession of us. What impels the youths 
to the deed? How is it that they are allowed to effect their purpose 
undisturbed? The answer is to be found outside the work itself. 
Antiope, expelled by her father, has given birth to Amphion and 
Zethus and abandoned them. The sons grow up under the care 
of an old shepherd. Antiope has yet other sufferings to endure at 
the hands of her relation Dirce who maltreated her. Dirce wander- 
ing on Mount Cythaeron in bacchanalian revel would slay the 
victim of her persecutions. She bids two young shepherds bind 
Antiope to a bull that she may thus be dragged to her death. The 


youths recognise their mother before it is too late: they consign 
Dirce to the doom prepared for Antiope. The ancient Greeks were 
familiarised with this myth by a celebrated tragedy of Euripides ; 
the subordinate work on the base, the mountain-god Cythasron 
decked with Bacchic ivy, and the Bacchic Cista on the ground, 
would help to recall all the minor incidents of the story. A doom 
pronounced by the gods is executed ; the fate Dirce had prepared for 
another recoils upon herself. But all this, or at least as much as 
will suffice for a satisfactory understanding of the work of art as 
such , cannot be gathered from the work itself. In the Orpheus 
relief we recognise without extraneous aid the separation of two 
lovers calmly resigned to their fate, their severance by the conductor 
of souls. An acquaintance with the exquisite legend will merely 
serve to enhance the thrilling emotions evoked by the sculptured 
forms. The Bull will excite our abhorrence if the story be not 
known to us ; while the knowledge itself and such reflections as it 
would suggest could scarcely reconcile us to the cruelty of the 
deed, nor help us to endure without something akin to petrifaction 
these moments of horror. But when our thoughts are sufficiently 
collected to allow of our realising the event, we are again lost in 
admiring wonder at the aspiring courage, at the command of all 
artistical and technical resources possessed by the author of this 
sculpture which uprears itself with such unfaltering power. The 
base is adorned with suggestions of landscape and appropriate 
animal-life more elaborately than was then usual in works of this 
kind, although analogies are not wholly wanting. But the landscape, 
the figure of the mountain-god Cythaeron, together with all minor 
accessories, are far surpassed in interest by the principal figures 
and their action. The lovely feminine form of Dirce vainly im- 
ploring the powerful youths whose utmost exertions scarcely suf- 
fice to restrain the infuriated beast, the vivid reality of the whole 
scene , the artistic refinement in the execution have scarcely yet 
been sufficiently admired. We readily concede to one like Welcker, 
who brought the finest perceptions to bear on the exposition of 
antique art, 'that it is impossible to attain to the highest excellence 
in any particular direction without at the same time postponing 
one or other consideration of value'. That which was esteemed as 
the highest excellence , the goal which must be reached at the cost 
of all other considerations, has varied with successive epochs of 
Greek art. In the present case repose and concentration are sacri- 
ficed to the overwhelming effect of a momentary scene. Even at 
a time when restoration could not have interfered with the original 
design , the impression of a certain confusedness must have been 
conveyed to the spectator, at least at the first glance. It is emin- 
ently characteristic of this group 'that it powerfully arrests the 
attention at a point where an almost wild defiance of rule declares 
itself. The contrast presented in the scene — the terribly rapid 


and unceasing movement as the inevitable result of a momentary 
pause, which the artist with consummate boldness and subtlety has 
known how to induce and improve, give life and energy to the 
picture in a wonderful degree'. But "Welcker himself, from whom 
these words are borrowed , reminds us how this group first arrests 
attention 'by the uncommon character of its appearance'. The 
group of the Bull assuredly displays excellences which belonged 
to the antique of every epoch , especially the intuitive perception 
that truth in the sphere of art is not identical with an illusory 
realism. The conception of this group proceeds from a complete 
apprehension of the subject to be embodied. But this fulness of 
apprehension is derived from the Tragedy. From the very beginning 
plastic art and poetry have been as twin streams springing from 
one source and flowing separately, yet side by side. Often indeed 
their waters have met and mingled. But it was long e'er the tide 
of poetry seeking a separate channel helped to feed the sister 
stream. The scene presented to us by this Farnese group was 
illustrated by Euripides long before its embodiment by plastic art 
in his tragedy, where Dirce's death is related by the messenger. The 
artist found material for his inventiveness at hand, which his fancy, 
passionately stimulated, presently endowed with plastic form and 
life at a moment which promised 'an uncommon appearance', a 
majestic and overpowering effect which should command astonish- 
ment and admiration. We have already attributed the Farnese group 
to the Rhodian School in speaking of the origin and development 
of art. It was the work of two sculptors Apollonius and Tauriscus 
of Tralles in Asia Minor ; for, according to the Roman author Pliny, 
the group is identical with one by these artists which was brought 
to Rome from Rhodes, and in all probability found its way thence 
to Naples. — The colossal group of a man who bears away the dead 
body of a boy on his shoulders is usually ascribed to the Rhodian 
School. It has been described as Hector with the body of Troilus. 
But the corpse of a beloved brother saved from the battle-field 
would hardly be seized in such fashion. It would rather appear 
to be that of a victim borne away in triumph by a ruthless victor. 

In Naples we have a number of instructive examples of the 
two styles which are frequently designated as an antique Renais- 
sance, the New-Attic School, and the School op Pasitelbs ; of 
the latter in the bronze figure of Apollo playing the Lyre from Pom- 
peii, and in the archaic simplicity of the affecting group of Orestes 
and Electra ; of the former in the Vase of Salpion, or better still in 
the Aphrodite from Capua, the so-called Psyche, and similar works. 
The Museo Nazionale at Naples is richer in large Bronzes than 
any other museum in the world ; and nearly all stages of Greek art 
may bo traced in this great collection. A very early period is re- 
presented by the Head of a Youth, remarkable for the soldering on 
of the hair , which the shrewd collector in his villa at Ilerculaneum 

ANCIENT ART. xxxvii 

had erected as the fragment of a statue. The so-called Dancing 
Women from Herculanenm belong to the same cycle as the sculp- 
tures at Selinunto and Olympia, -where also Phidias had a place, as is 
proved by the copy of the Parthenos found in Athens. The bearded 
head, once erroneously named Plato , illustrates the artistic forms 
of the stage represented by Myron; while later art is illustrated by 
the statuette of Dionysos, known under the misnomer of Narcissus. 
The Besting Hercules and the gay Dancing Faun have long been fa- 
mous. The bead at one time believed to represent Seneca is an 
admirable portrait of some Alexandrian scholar or poet. In Naples 
also, abundant opportunity will be found for continuing the study 
begun in Rome of the heroes of an ideal world, of portraits, sarco- 
phagus-reliefs, or whatever else may especially engage the attention. 
The custom of painting marble statues is illustrated for the earlier 
period in a statue of Artemis, and for the later period in a statuette 
of Venus. Probably, however, curiosity and interest will be most 
excited by the appearance of antique paintings from Pompeii and 
the neighbouring cities of Campania buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 
The history of Greek Painting presents a problem difficult 
of solution. Happily we have outlived the superstition that the 
people amongst whom the Parthenon arose , and who gave birth to 
a sculptor such as Phidias, should have contributed in painting 
nothing worthy of record. What we most desire, however, is still 
wanting. We are not in possession of any work by a master of the 
art ; but only of the products of a subordinate and mechanical art, 
and these only from a single and comparatively recent period. 

The greatest painter of the older time — and probably one of 
the greatest artists of all times — was Polygnotus , a native of 
Thasos. He lived for the most part in Athens, where he was pre- 
sented with the rights of citizenship, and was, though a contemporary 
of Phidias, his senior. As Phidias was a favourite of Pericles and 
employed by him, it would appear that Polygnotus was a protege of 
Cimon. Pausanias, the Greek author of travels (in the time of 
Antoninus), had seen two large paintings by Polygnotus covering 
the wall in Delphi, and has minutely described them. In the one 
the fall of Troy was represented, in the other scenes from the nether 
world. In the first the Trojan Cassandra is the centre figure. Ajax 
has offered violence to her: she sits on the ground, in her hand the 
image of the insulted Athena ; around her the Greek heroes are 
sitting in judgment upon Ajax. In the background is the citadel 
of Troy, the head of the wooden horse reaches above its wall, which 
Epeios, the builder of the horse, is about to demolish. Right and 
left of the central group are scenes of destruction ; heaps of the 
slain, the savage Neoptolemus still persisting in his work of 
slaughter, captive women, and terrified children ; nor were more 
inviting scenes wanting. Close to the captive Trojan women yEthra 
was seen, the liberated slave of Helen, and farther back the tent 

xxxviii ANCIENT ART. 

of Menelaus is taken down and his ship equipped for departure. 
On the other side of the picture was recognised the house of An- 
tcnor, which the Greeks had spared, while he himself and his 
family make ready to quit their desolated home and depart foi 
foreign lands. Thus the entire centre of the composition has refer- 
ence to the crime committed after the conquest, which called aloud 
for punishment by the gods ; these scenes of death and horror were 
enclosed at the extremities by more peaceful incidents — the 
horror of the lower world whose shades envelope renowned heroes 
and heroines ; Odysseus compelled to descend to the abode of the 
departed — all this Polygnotus combined in one grand picture, 
skilfully alternating peace and the torments of hell, prodigious 
ghastliness and tender grace. Polygnotus had not only embodied in 
these pictures the mythical matter with which religious rites, epic 
poem, vulgar tradition and humour, as well as the earlier works of 
plastic art, could furnish him ; not only had he animated this 
material with captivating motives strongly appealing to the be- 
holder's imagination ; but he had, as may still be recognised, while 
painting, asserted his power as a poet and supplied much that was 
original in the realm of fancy. The technical means at the disposal 
of Polygnotus were so limited, so simple and antiquated, that in 
the Roman times admiration of his pictures was ridiculed as a con- 
ceit of dilettantism — just as at one time it was customary to scoff 
at the admirer of Giotto. Nevertheless with these simple means, 
Polygnotus could express himself with so much clearness, so nobly 
and sublimely, that Aristotle boasted of him that his forms were 
more noble and grander than were commonly seen in life, while 
the painter Pauson presented men worse than they really were, and 
Dionysius was true to nature. Having regard to these separate qua- 
lifications he suggested that the youthful eye should receive its im- 
pressions from Polygnotus and not from Pauson. In later times the 
beauty of Polygnotus' pictures continued to charm : in the second 
century A. D. his Cassandra supplied an author of refinement and 
penetration, like Lucian, with the material for a description of fe- 
minine beauty. 

Wliile the fame of Polygnotus and his contemporaries rested 
principally on wall-paintings, later critics would maintain that 
those of his successors who first produced artistic effect in portable 
pictures were the only true painters. As the first painter in this 
sense the Athenian Apollodokus may be named. The work which 
he began was completed by Zeuxis of Heraclea and Pahjrhasius of 
Ephesus. We still possess a description by Lucian of the Centaur 
family by Zeuxis. The female Centaur reclines on the grass, the 
human upper part of the body being raised and supported by the 
elbow. One of her two infants she holds in her arms giving it 
nourishment in human fashion ; the other sucks as a foal her teats. 
The male Centaur looks down from above. He holds in his right 


hand a lion-cub which lie swings over his shoulder as if jokingly 
to frighten his young ones. 'The further excellences of the picture,' 
modestly continues Lucian, though evidently an accomplished 
connoisseur, 'which to us laymen are but partly revealed, "but 
nevertheless comprise the whole of art's resources , correct draw- 
ing, an admirable manipulation and mingling of colour, man- 
agement of light and shade, a happy choice of dimension, as 
well as just relative proportion of parts to the whole, and the com- 
bined movement of the composition — these are qualities to be ex- 
tolled by one of art's disciples who has mastered the subject in its 
detail'. This eloquent description by Lucian has been made the sub- 
ject of a spirited drawing by Genelli. Unfortunately no such record 
of Parrhasius' works remains. The credit of having first applied 
symmetry, i.e. probably the systematic regard for the proportion 
recognised by later leaders in art, to painting, is claimed for Par- 
rhasius, as well as delicacy and grace in the artistic rendering of the 
countenance and hair. He is said, too, to have been supreme in 
the management of contour. But in later times Parrhasius was 
esteemed simple as a colourist compared with Apelles. 

The authors to whom are ascribed most of the notices of painters 
that we possess, distinguish, different schools. The Helladic 
School included the painters of Athens and those of the mother- 
country of Greece along with those of Sicyon. But owing to the 
pre-eminence achieved for Sicyon by the painter Eupompus, the 
llelladic school was again subdivided under the title of Sicyonic 
and Attic or Attic-Theban , after certain artists of these schools. 
To this, or these schools rather, was opposed the Asiatic (Ionic). 
Pausias, whose name is known to us by Goethe's exquisite poem, 
was one of the Sicyonian School, and, so, it appears, was that spirited 
painter Timanthes, whose best-known work was his Iphigenia. She 
stood at the altar ready to be sacrificed, surrounded by the heroes 
of the Grecian camp, in whose persons, according to the character 
of each and with due regard to appropriateness, was pourtrayed 
every degree of mental anguish. Agamemnon himself veiled his 
head. Nicomachus, Aristides, Euphranor, likewise renowned as 
sculptor and master of heroic representation , and Nicias the friend 
of Praxiteles belong to the Theban-Attic school. Amongst the pic- 
tures of Aristides was one of a woman wounded during the siege. 
She is dying while her infant still clings to her breast. In the ex- 
pression of the mother's countenance could, it was thought, be read 
the fear lest her blood should be mingled with the milk the child 
was sucking. — The most brilliant master of the Ionic school — 
though he had had the advantage of studying his art in Sicyon — 
the most renowned indeed of the painters of antiquity, was Apelles, 
the contemporary of Alexander the Great, and incomparable in his 
power of expressing grace in all its forms. As yet we are not in pos- 
session of any distinct clue to the character of his most esteemed 


works, of Artemis , with her band of attendant Nymphs clustering 
around her, hurrying to the chase, nor of Aphrodite rising from the 
sea. We are more fortunate in the instance of two younger painters, 
Aetion and Timomachus. Of the nuptials of Alexander by Aetion 
we have again a masterly description by Lucian, with which all are 
acquainted who have seen the beautiful Raffaelesque composition in 
the Palazzo Borghese at Rome. The Medea of Timomachus is to 
be traced in a series of imitations or reminiscences, on monuments 
of different kinds, but most remarkably in a mutilated picture from 
Herculaneum, and again in another perfectly preserved from 

The services thus rendered us by the Campanian towns in 
bringing to light the works of Timomachus encourage us to hope 
that they may be repeated in the case of other Greek celebrities. 
It is in fact concluded with a considerable show of probability that 
in the Pompeian representations of the liberation of Andromeda by 
Perseus are to be recognised influences of a picture by Nicias. It 
has frequently been attempted with much pains, and with aid of 
more or less audacious assumptions and combinations, to contrive 
copies of these renowned Greek masters, and when after all it has 
been found that such efforts are for the most part vain and futile, 
it has been urged in explanation of the failure that our acquain- 
tance with celebrated cabinet-pictures is too limited. We must, 
then, however unwillingly, accept the conclusion that anything more 
than a very qualified belief in Pompeian pictures is impossible. 
They are invaluable as a clue to many qualities which were com- 
mon to the painting of antiquity ; invaluable , too , because they 
assuredly possess , in obedience to the unvarying traditions of an- 
tique art — which having taken a theme in hand would work it out 
to the last possible variation — a wealth of imagery and redundance 
of lineament which connect them more or less closely with the works 
of the great masters. But it is scarcely to be wondered at that the 
authenticity of copies from celebrated cabinet-pictures of the best 
period should be so rarely established, or wear even the appearance 
of probability; it were a wonder indeed if so much could be accom- 

Demosthenes reminds his countrymen in scathing words how 
in the palmy days of Athens the noblest edifices were erected in 
honour of the gods, while the dwellings of the most distinguished 
Athenians were simple andinconspicuous as those of their neighbours. 
Even at the time these words were spoken a change had come over 
Greek life. For the stern sublimity of the creations of an earliertime, 
Art had substituted a milder and more effeminate type of divinity, 
nor did she now disdain to enter the abodes of men. The splendour 
which had been reserved for the gods, now found its way into pri- 
vate dwellings. What at first had been a bold innovation and an 
exception , presently grew into a universal requirement. From the 


epoch of culture inaugurated by Alexander onwards , sculptor and 
painter alike contributed to the artistical beauty and sumptuous 
adornment of dwelling-houses. Inventiveness , displayed in the 
designing and ornamentation of household furniture of every kind, 
followed as a matter of course , and though in Athens and Hellas 
expenditure in this way remained moderate, in other great cities, as 
Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in Syria , artist and handicrafts- 
man alike vied with the wealth and luxury of the inhabitants, not 
only in beautifying the cities externally, but in lavishing upon the 
dwelling-houses of the rich the utmost attainable splendour. Plans 
were extended and adapted to the employments and highest enjoy- 
ment of life ; floors, walls, and ceilings were arranged and decorated 
in ever new and varying style. Then decoration in stucco and 
painting was supplemented by mosaic work which enlivened the 
floors with an effect as charming as that of painting ; nor was it 
long restricted to the floors. Along with other elements of culture 
the Roman world had borrowed from the Greek the beautifying of 
their houses , and as movement is never absolutely suspended, this 
taste received in Roman times a farther impetus in its original 
direction. We may safely assume, however, reasoning from analogy, 
that it departed farther and farther from the purity and harmony of 
the Greek pattern. 

In the picture which Pompeii presents as a whole we see the 
last trace of that combined art and beauty which with the later 
Greeks permeated life in every vein and in all its phases : a feeble 
and faded picture it must remain, however active the fancy may 
be in investing it with attributes belonging to Hellenic art in the 
zenith of its splendour. From an earlier period, when the influence 
of the Greek was more directly felt, we have not received much from 
Pompeii that is instructive. The general impression is derived 
from the restorations consequent on the earthquake of the year 
A.D. 63. The great mass of decoration is the work of the sixteen 
years intervening between A.D. 63 and the town's final destruction 
in A.D. 79, and was in the newest fashion then prevailing in Rome, 
but necessarily on a scale commensurate with the resources of a pro- 
vincial town. As the Roman senate had ordered the rebuilding of the 
town, the pay of handicraftsmen would doubtlessly be attractive 
enough. The houses were made habitable with the utmost de- 
spatch, and received their decorations with the same haste. It is im- 
possible but to believe that the greater number of houses were thus 
completed by a comparatively small number of masters with their 
staffs of workmen. They had their pattern-books for the decoration 
of entire rooms and walls, as well as for simple pictures, and they 
resorted to these pattern-books more or less according to their need 
or fancy. The favourite motives and forms were so familiar to 
them that they had them literally at their ringers' ends : with incre- 
dibly certain and facile hand, and without concerning themselves 


about means or method, they fling their gaud and glitter over the 
naked walls. And very captivating is this stirring picture-pattern 
world which moved obedient to their will. Vistas of airy fantastical 
forms architecturally disposed and decked with wreaths and gar- 
lands delusively mask the narrow limits of the allotted space; 
while, by way of completing the illusory effect of this mock archi- 
tecture, graceful figures move in the midst, or from the open window 
look in upon the chamber. Arabesques, sprays and borders of 
foliage and flowers, and garlands gracefully enliven and divide the 
walls ; while in the midst of the enclosed spaces, from a dark back- 
ground, figures single or in pairs stand out in dazzling relief, and 
whether winged or otherwise are always lightly and surely poised. 
Here and there lovely maidens are seen dancing in mid-air; Eros 
tinkles on the strings of the lyre which Psyche holds ; Satyrs and 
Nymphs, Centaurs and Bacchantes, female figures with candelabra, 
flowers and fruits people this airy realm of fancy. Separate pic- 
tures at intervals engage the attention. They tell the story of the 
handsome but unsusceptible Narcissus, of Adonis the favourite of 
Aphrodite, whose early loss the goddess bewails with Eros, of Phae- 
dra's shameless passion for Hippolytus ; the loves of Apollo and 
Daphne, of Ares and Aphrodite, Artemis and Actaeon, Ariadne 
abandoned by Theseus, the story of Leda, the life and pursuits of 
Bacchus and his followers, of the god finding the forsaken Ariadne, 
and of Satyrs pursuing Nymphs. Scenes of terror, too, there are : 
Dirce bound to the Bull, Medea meditating the murder of her 
children, the sacrifice of Iphigenia — but even these are rendered 
with an effect of sensuous beauty so entrancing that they are lost 
in the gladsome world of exuberant life about them. Mere tragedy, 
mere convulsive effort, acquired no enduring power over the senses: 
they are rather beguiled by the remembrance of some captivating 
legend, some transient impulse, a throb of compassion, which infuse 
a wholesome element into pictures abounding with expressions of 
rapturous delight. Where passion exerts itself it is but for the 
moment — the power of love for good or evil, the beauty of the 
human form, moments of bliss whether of mortals or the immor- 
tals — such is the material for an ever-recurring theme. Bits of 
landscape, houses with trees, rocks, or a grotto on the strand are 
suggestive of idyllic delights. And around these more conspicuous 
figures are grouped an accompaniment of small friezes with pic- 
torial accessories grave and gay, still life, animals and incidents of 
the chase, pygmies, masks, fresh fruit, and household vessels. 

The liveliest impression is made by the best examples of 
figures separately poised on the walls. Curiosity is most excited 
by the separate pictures; they are the last remnant of the historical 
painting of the old world. They cannot, however, enable us to 
form a just estimate of the works of the greatest ancient masters. 
If genuine and adequate copies of celebrated cabinet-pictures from 


the best period were to be found amongst Pompeian decorations it 
would be by an accident altogether exceptional and capricious. 
The artist-bands who subsequently to the earthquake of A.D. (33 
pushed their work so easily and so rapidly had neither these ca- 
binet-pictures nor the genuine and adequate copies to guide them, 
but simply the drawings of their pattern-books. + Thoroughly trained 
as they were mechanically to the work , they turned their sketches 
to the best possible account, transferred them on the required scale, 
making additions or omissions as the case might be, varying, modi- 
fying and curtailing, as necessity, fancy, and the measure of their 
capacity might prescribe. The enclosed pictures, which in graceful 
inventiveness and execution often enough surpassed the forms oc- 
cupying the open spaces, cannot be considered apart from the 
general decoration with which in manner and method they are 
identical. They betray moreover in spite of all that is beautiful 
and admirable about them, symptoms of degeneracy; just as the 
wall - decorations of Pompeii descending from elegance to the 
trivialities of mock architecture exhibit a degeneracy which must 
not, however, be regarded as inherent in the art of which we see 
here but a feeble reflection. Thus we learn that the way from the 
great painters of Greece to the wall-pictures of Pompeii is neither 
short nor straight, but long and too often hard to find. Many of 
the forms and groups so gracefully poised in the open wall-spaces 
may in their origin have reached back so far as to the happiest 
period of Greek art; it is also possible, that, when framed pictures 
were for the first time painted on the walls of houses in the epoch 
of Alexander, or at whatever other period this style of decoration 
came into vogue, celebrated easel-pictures were copied or laid 
under contribution. The designers of the pattern-books may have 
betaken themselves to a variety of sources , they may have ap- 
propriated and combined, as old and new patterns, entire de- 

t There have been long-standing differences of opinion ahout the me- 
chanism of painting practised in Pompeii. A solution of the problem is 
the result of researches conducted hy the painter O. Donner (in a work 
published by Prof. Helbig, entitled 'Wall-paintings of the cities of Cam- 
pania destroyed by Vesuvius', Leipsic, 1868). According to this authority it 
is certain that the greater number of the pictures as well as wall-decora- 
tions were painted in fresco , i. e. upon a newly prepared and moistened 
surface — and only in exceptional cases and as a makeshift upon a dry 
ground. Conclusive evidence of this is afforded by the presence, to which 
Donner refers, of so-called Fresco-edges , i. e. of spots where the newly- 
prep ared surface came in contact with what was already dry. The sur- 
face intended for the reception of colour was prepared by the painters of 
antiquity with such care that it retained the moisture much longer than 
in recent times has been found attainable. They were thus enabled to 
co ver large wall-spaces without interruption and in this respect had a con- 
si derable advantage over us moderns. — In 1873 Professor Helbig pub- 
lished a supplement to his earlier work (Leipsic), and in 1879 a con- 
tinuation of his list of mural paintings appeared in Italian, under the 
title 'Le Pilture Murali Cmnpnne scoverte negli anni 1SG7-7S , descritte da 
Antonio Sogliano\ 


corations together with, separate figures and finished pictures. Like 
the pattern-books for the sarcophagus-reliefs, they must have been 
full of ideas and motives derived from an earlier and nobler art. 
And as wall-painting is more akin to high art we may encourage 
the hope that patient research will often be rewarded by discovering 
— as hitherto amidst a tanglement of conflicting evidence — not 
the works themselves of the great masters, but those traces of their 
workwhich we so eagerly seek. In Pompeii, however, we learn the 
necessity of caution, for we there find examples of a much earlier 
style of decoration than the 'Pompeian', or even than the style of 
the Augustan age. 

No one could overlook the solemn dignity of aspect which makes 
the Casa del Fauno conspicuous amidst the mass of habitations in 
Pompeii. Here beauty reveals itself in column and capital, cornice 
and panelling, favourably contrasting with the gaudy frippery of a 
fantastical mock architecture with its pictorial accompaniments. 
The wealthy family which occupied this mansion may have rejoiced 
in the possession of many a costly cabinet -picture. But at the 
time the house was built it was not yet the custom, or it was not the 
owner's pleasure to follow the newest fashion. In their place a 
complete series of the finest mosaics formed a part of the general 
decoration of the house. These are still partly preserved and to 
be seen on the spot. Here the celebrated Battle of Alexander was 
found, a grand composition that irresistibly reminded Goethe of Ra- 
phael's 'Siege of Constantinople' ; while Karl Justi suggests as a per- 
haps still more just comparison Velazquez's famous painting of the 
'Surrender of Breda'. In fact these three powerful representations 
of great feats of arms tower, as it were, like three lofty peaks above 
the long series of lesser martial paintings that the world has seen. 
They are closely related to each other in their mighty tide of move- 
ment, in their imposing effect , and above all, in the indissoluble 
unity, with which the artistic imagination has in each case conceived 
and depicted the hero of the day plunged in the thick of the fray 
yet dominating and ruling the surrounding melee. Early Greek art 
apparently made few attempts to represent masses of warriors in 
conflict; the battles were generally dissolved into scattered groups 
of single combatants , and even the leaders were not specially con- 
spicuous. Perhaps the reverse might have seemed to recall the 
customs of Asiatic despots, in the minds of the early Greeks.' At 
the battle of Issus great masses of troops were dashed against each 
other. Alexander in person pressed hard upon Darius, whose brother 
Oxathres interposed himself with his cavalry. The noblest of the 
Persians fell; Darius , menaced by the greatest danger, mounted a 
horse to secure his flight. This is the moment represented by the 
mosaic. The horse that is to save the king is conspicuous in the 
centre. Darius , however , thinks not of his urgent need of rescue 
but sunk in grief and horror, gazes on the corpses of his followers 


who have protected him with their lives.- Alexander has dashed for- 
ward with irresistible strength; his helmet has fallen from his head 
with the violence of his action; and his mighty spear transfixes 
Oxathres on his falling horse. The forms of Alexander, Oxathres, 
and Darius are those first seen and comprehended by the spectator; 
then he becomes aware of the charioteer urging his horses to flight 
in hopeless despair, and of the noble Persian who has sprung from 
his horse and holds it ready for his king. It is a scene of breathless 
suspense and excitement. The excitement is intensified and ac- 
centuated by the wildly agitated surroundings of men and horses, 
overthrown or uninjured. The vividly coloured figures stand out in 
distinctly defined masses from the clear yellowish atmosphere. Land- 
scape is represented by little more than an isolated withered tree and a 
rock. The extended battle-scene rolls before the eye of the beholder 
like some wild hunt. The point of view, as Ottfried Miiller has ob- 
served, is somewhat low, so that the heads of the figures behind pro- 
ject but little above those in front ; and as is usually the case with 
antique reliefs , the mosaic is treated as though the point of view 
moved in a straight line parallel to the length of the picture. But 
within these limits , every difficulty is fairly confronted and over- 
come. The drawing is free, bold, and absolutely sure and the colour- 
effects are vigorous and harmonious ; facts which must excite our 
astonishment, when we reflect that the design has had to be labori- 
ously reproduced in mosaic-work. The mosaic is composed of num- 
berless cubes, mostly of a small size; a calculation has indeed been 
made that no fewer than 1,374,516 cubes have been used in the 
work. The elegant side-scenes refer to Alexander's visit to Egypt; 
and perhaps the original was designed in that country. At all events, 
from this mosaic we gain an insight into the method pursued by 
the great painters in their works. A very different and far grander 
art declares itself in these mosaics than in the wall-paintings. The 
other mosaics found in this mansion also rank high in point of 
beauty as well as in precision and purity of drawing, and owing to 
the difficulties of reproduction in mosaic consequent on the nature 
of the material the fact becomes doubly suggestive that in effectual 
and complete mastery of drawing there is nothing in the whole 
range of Pompeian pictures to surpass the border of masks, garlands, 
foliage and fruits of the Casa del Fauno or the mosaics attributed 
to the artist Dioscorides. But we may well delight in the air of 
cheerful airy grace pervading these pictorial decorations of Pom- 
peii , in this precious heritage of Grecian — and in part old Gre- 
cian — life and beauty which a licentious posterity has scattered 
over its dazzling walls. 

The peculiarities and characteristics of the various styles of Greek 
Architecture may easily be recognized. In the Doiuo Stile, the columns 
rise immediately from the floor of the temple, and have no basis; the (lut- 
ings are separated from each other merely by a sharp edge; the capital 


consists of an echinus, widening from below upwards, and a rectangular 
abacus or block above; the lowest member of the entablature is an un- 
divided architrave, above which are alternate sunken panels (metopes) and 
panels with three perpendicular grooves (triglyphs). In the Ionic Sttle, 
each column has a special basis ; the flutings are separated by very narrow 
perpendicular faces ; the capital is distinguished by the curved volutes at 
each side; the architrave is in three parts, and above it is an undivided 
frieze, frequently adorned with reliefs. In the Corinthian Style the ca- 
pital is distinguished by its acanthus-leaves ; the architrave resembles that 
of the Ionic style. The Tuscan or early-Italian column has a capital al- 
lied to the Doric, though the echinus is smaller; the columns are not 
fluted and each has a special basis. — The following technical terms may 
be found useful. Temples in which the walls project at the sides so as 
to be flush with the columns are called temples in antis; those with co- 
lumns only in front are called prostyle; those -with columns at both ends, 
amphiprostyle; those with columns all round, peripteral. Hypcelhral Temples 
were those with colonnades surrounding an entirely uncovered court. 
There wen 1 no temples with openings in the roof or in the ceiling of 
the cella. 

History of the Kingdom of Naples. 

The former kingdom of Naples contained at the end of 1879 
10,414,000 inhab. (including Benevento) , and is divided into '23 
provinces. In ancient times it embraced the tribes of the Volsci, 
Strumites, Oscani, Campanians, Apulians, Lucanians, Calabrians, 
Bruttians, Siculians , and a number of others of less importance, 
all of whom were characterised by the most marked peculiarities 
of language , custom , and political constitution. The Oscaii lan- 
guage , the one most generally spoken , predominated in Samnium, 
Campania, Lucania , and Bruttium. On the W. and S.W. coast, 
and especially in Sicily , Greek colonists settled in such numbers 
that the S. portion of the Italian peninsula received the name of 
Magna Graecia. After the war against Pyrrhus , king of Epirus, 
in the 3rd cent, before Christ, the Romans became masters of the 
land, but the Greek language and customs continued to predominate 
until an advanced period in the Christian era. That this was the 
case in the time of the early emperors has been distinctly proved 
by the character of the antiquities of the excavated Oscan towns of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii. After the fall of the Western Empire 
this district was occupied by Ostrogoths and Lombards, then by 
Romans from the E. Empire , who in their turn were constantly 
harassed by Arabian bands which attacked them by sea , and who 
Anally succumbed in the 11th cent, to the Norman settlers. The 
Hohenstaufen family next held the country from 1194 to 1254. In 
12(>f> Charles of Anjou gained possession of Naples and established 
his dominion, which was secured by the cruel execution in 1268 
of Conradin, the lawful heir. His power , however, having been 
impaired by the Sicilian Vespers, 30th May, 1282, rapidly declined 
in consequence of the crimes and degeneracy of the royal family 


and of disastrous wars with the island of Sicily, then in possession 
of the Aragonese. Charles VIII. of France, as heir of the Anjou 
family, undertook a campaign against Naples and gained possession 
of the kingdom in a few days, but was unable to retain it. His 
successor Louis XII. allied himself with Ferdinand the Catholic of 
Spain with a view to conquer Naples , but in consequence of dis- 
sensions was compelled to abandon his enterprise after the victory of 
Oonsalvo da Cordova on the Liris. Naples, like Sicily and Sardinia, 
then yielded to the power of Spain, which maintained her dominion 
till 1713. Gonsalvo da Cordova was the first of the series of Spanish 
viceroys, many of' whom, such as Don Pedro de Toledo under 
Charles V. (1532-54), did much to promote the welfare of the 
country. The rule of others, especially during the 17th cent., was 
such as to occasion universal distress and dissatisfaction , a mani- 
festation of which was the insurrection under Masaniello at Naples 
in 1647. At the peace of Utrecht in 1713 Philip V. of Spain, of 
the house of Bourbon , ceded Naples and Sicily to the house of 
Hapsburg , but after prolonged conflicts they reverted to his son 
Charles in 1734, under the name of the 'Kingdom of the Two Sici- 
lies'. Notwithstanding revolutionary disturbances, the Bourbons 
continued to reign at Naples until the close of the century. In 
1806 Napoleon I. created his brother Joseph king of Naples , who 
was succeeded in 1808 by his brother-in-law Joachim Murat. 
In June, 1815, King Ferdinand, who with the aid of the English 
had meanwhile maintained his ground in Sicily, returned to 
Naples , and in his person the Bourbon dynasty was restored. 
The following October, Joachim Murat ventured to land at Pizzo 
in Calabria , but was captured , tried by court-martial , and shot, 
15th Oct. 1815. Popular dissatisfaction, however, still continued, 
and in 1820 a rebellion broke out in Italy and Sicily, but it was 
speedily quelled by the Austrians under Frimont in 1821 , who 
occupied the country till 1827. King Ferdinand I. was succeeded 
in 1825 by his eldest son Francis 1. , and the latter in 1830 by 
Ferdinand II. , whose reign was characterised by an uninterrupted 
succession of internal struggles, partly in Naples and partly in Si- 
cily , especially after the year 1848. In the spring of 1859, when 
the war between Sardinia and Austria broke out in N. Italy, which 
by the peace of Villafranca would have entirely changed the inter- 
nal condition of Italy, Ferdinand II. died, and his son Francis II. 
(married to the Princess Mary of Bavaria) was compelled to yield 
to the storm which burst forth afresh. In May , 1860, Garibaldi 
began his victorious march through Sicily and Calabria, which 
ended at Naples in August. In the meantime the Piedmontese 
troops, at the instigation of Cavour, had also entered the kingdom 
of Naples. On 1st Oct. Francis II. was defeated at a skirmish on 
the "Volturno. On 7th Oct. King Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi 
entered Naples side by side amid the greatest popular enthusiasm. 


Francis was then besieged at Gaeta from 4th Nov., 1860, to 13th 
Feb., 1861, and at length compelled to surrender and retire to 

In a land , whose history , like its volcanic soil, has been dis- 
turbed by a long succession of internal struggles , and where so 
many and so different nations have ruled, repose and the develop- 
ment of civilisation must necessarily be difficult of attainment. 
The present government has adopted a wise course in endeavouring 
to raise the standard of national education , in energetically sup- 
pressing the brigandage in the provinces , and the 'Camorra' and 
gangs of thieves in the city , and in introducing a number of re- 
forms well adapted to improve the condition of the nation. 

Dates. The following are the most important dates in the 
history of the Kingdom of Naples (comp. pp. 237-2391. 

I. Period. The Normans, 1042-1194: 1042, William, son of 
Tancred of Hauteville , Comes Apuliae. — 1059, Robert Guiscard 
(i. e. 'the Cunning'), Dux Apulia et Calabriae. — 1130, Roger, 
proclaimed king after the conquest of Naples and Amalfi, unites 
the whole of Lower Italy and Sicily. — 1154-66, William I. ('the 
Bad'). — 1166-89, William II. ('the Good'). — 1194, William III. 

II. Period. The Hohenstaufen, 1194-1268: 1194, Henry VI. 
of Germany, I. of Naples. — 1197, Frederick II. — 1250, Conrad. 

— 1254, Manfred. — 1268, Conradin. 

III. Period. House of Anjou, 1265-1442 : 1265, Charles I. of 
Anjou. From 1282 to 1442 Sicily formed an independent king- 
dom under the house of Aragon. — 1285, Charles II., 'the Lame'. 

— 1309, Robert 'the Wise'. — 1343, Johanna I. (married Andreas 
of Hungary). — 1381, Charles III. of Durazzo. — 1386, Ladislaus. 

— 1414, Johanna II. — 1435, Renato of Anjou, banished by Al- 
phonso 'the Generous'. 

IV. Period. House of Aragon, 1442-1496 : 1442, Alphonso 1., 
'the Generous'. After his death Sicily and Naples were again 
separated. — 1458, Ferdinand I. — 1494, Alphonso II. — 1495, 
Ferdinand II. — 1496, Frederick banished (d. 1554 at Tours, the 
last of the House of Aragon). 

V. Period. Spanish Viceroys, 1503-1707. — On 7th July, 
1707, during the Spanish War of Succession, Count Daun marched 
into Naples and established the Austrian supremacy. 

VI. Period. Austrian Viceroys, 1707-1734. — Charles III. of 
Bourbon, crowned at Palermo 1734, recognised by the Peace of 
Vienna 1738, defeats the Austrians at Velletri 1744, finally re- 
cognised by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748. In 1758 Charles 
was proclaimed king of Spain , and resigned the crown of Naples 
and Sicily in favour of his son. 

VII. Period. The Bourbons, 1734-1860: 1734, Charles III. — 
1759, Ferdinand IV. (regency during his minority till 1767), mar- 
ried Caroline of Austria, sister of Joseph II., but a monarch of 


very different character from the latter. — 23rd Jan. 1799, the 
Repubblica Parthenopea proclaimed by General Championnet. — 
14th June, 1799, the French banished. Reaction of Cardinal Ruffo. 

— 14th Jan., 1806, Joseph Buonaparte established by Massena. — 
15th July, 1808, Joachim Murat, king of Naples. — 1816, Ferdi- 
nand assumes the title of Ferdinand I. of the Two Sicilies. — 
1825, Francis I. —1830, Ferdinand II. — 1859, Francis II. —21st 
Oct. 1860, the Kingdom of Naples annexed to Italy by plebiscite. 

VIII. Period. House of Savoy. Victor Emmanuel II. (d. 1878). 

— Since 1878, Humbert I. 

Art. In art, as in literature , the attainments of the natives 
of S. Italy have been insignificant. The Norman Period, however, 
under Arabian influence , produced both on the mainland and in 
Sicily (p. 244) works of architecture and sculpture which at least 
hold their own when compared with the contemporaneous monu- 
ments of Central Italy. These, however, are not found in the metro- 
polis, but at the seats of the princes and bishops, as Bari, Trani, 
Amalft, Bavello, and Salerno. The art of decoration, as applied in 
mosaic flooring , pulpits , and choir-screens , was in particular 
brought to great perfection. The brazen doors , at first imported 
from Constantinople, were afterwards made in the country itself; 
thus those at Canosa were executed by a master of Amalfi, and 
those at Bavello and Trani are the work of a native of the place 
last named. The arts of mosaic composition and mural painting 
were sedulously cultivated in S. Italy during the whole of the 
early middle ages , a fact mainly due to the constant intercourse 
maintained with Byzantium. — In the Period op Giotto, during 
which great advances in painting were made throughout the rest 
of the peninsula, S. Italy remained nearly inactive , content to 
depend on foreign artists for the supply of her artistic wants. 
Thus Arnolfo di Cambio , the famous Florentine architect, also 
practised his profession in the South; and Pietro Cavallini, the 
most celebrated Roman painter at the beginning of the 14th cent., 
Giotto himself (in S. Chiara) , and probably Simone Martini of 
Siena, all left memorials of their skill in S. Italy. — During 
the Fifteenth Century the realism of the Flemish school of the 
Van Eycks produced a marked effect on Neapolitan art. The 
most important works of this period are the frescoes, unfor- 
tunately in poor preservation , in the cloisters of S. Severino at 
Naples. They are associated with the name of Antonio Solario, 
l lo Zingaro', an artist of whose life and work we possess most im- 
perfect and in part misleading accounts. To judge from these 
paintings he was related in style to the Umbro-Florentine school. 
Piero and Ippolito Donzello and Simone Papa are said to have 
been pupils of Lo Zingaro, but Piero Donzello at any rate learned 
his art at Florence. 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. d 


In the Sixteenth Century Raphael's influence extended even 
to Naples, as is apparent from the works, among others, of Andrea 
Sabbatini of Salerno, known as Andrea da Salerno, who flourished 
in 1480-1545. This artist studied under Raphael at Rome, and, 
like Polidoro da Caravaggio (1495-1543), was one of the foun- 
ders of the Neapolitan school of the 17th century. — In the Sev- 
enteenth Century the Neapolitan school is characterised by its 
'naturalistic' style. Among the most prominent masters were the 
Spaniard Giuseppe Ribera, surnamed lo Spagnoletto (1588-1656), 
a follower of Caravaggio; the Greek Belisario Corenzio (1558- 
1643), a pupil of the last; Giambattista Caracciolo (d. 1641), and 
his able pupil Massimo Stanzioni (1585-1656). The school of 
Spagnoletto also produced Aniello Falcone (1600-65), the painter 
of battle-scenes, and the talented landscape-painter Salvator Rosa 
(1615-1673). In 1629 Domenichino came from Rome to Naples, to 
decorate the Cappella del Tesoro for the Archbishop , but seems 
to have exercised no influence upon Neapolitan art. He fled to 
Frascati in 1635, to escape the plots laid for him by Ribera, but 
returned to Naples the following year and died there in 1641. In 
Luca Giordano (1632-1705), surnamed Fa Presto from his rapid- 
ity of execution, who also worked at Rome, Bologna, Parma, 
and Venice , Neapolitan painting reached a still lower level. — 
The history of Neapolitan art is as yet imperfectly investigated, 
but there seems little reason to doubt that farther research will 
serve to confirm the conclusion that Naples has never been able to 
dispense with the assistance of foreign artists. 

1 . From Rome to Naples by Railway, 

Two main roads lead from Rome to Naples : one along the coast by 
Terracina (R. 2), the ancient Via Appia ; the other through the valley of 
the Sacco and Garigliano, the Via Latina; both uniting near Capua. The 
Railway, following the latter route (154!/2 M. in length), is now the most 
important means of communication between Central and Southern Italy. 
Duration of journey 5 l /4-ll hrs.; fares by the fast trains, 31 fr., 21 fr. 70 c. ; 
by the ordinary trains, 28 fr. 15, 19 fr. 70, 12 fr. 70 c. — Comp. p. xvi. The 
finest views are generally to the left. — For a more detailed description 
of the stations between Rome and Segni, see Baedeker's Central Italy. 

Soon after leaving the city, the train diverges from the Civita 
Vecchia line. The Sabine and Alban mountains rise on the left. 
9 M. Ciampino is the junction of the lines to Frascati and to Velletri- 
Terracina (p. 11). The Naples line turns to the E. and passes be- 
tween the Alban mountains, on the riglit, and the Sabine moun- 
tains, on the left. 16 M. Monte Compatri, situated to the right, on 
the slope of the Alban Mts. 21 1/2 M - Zagarolo; 22 l / 2 M. Palestrina, 
both to the left, on the slope of the Sabine Mts. 26Y2 M. Labico. 
— 281/2 M. Valmontone, a small town on an isolated volcanic emi- 
nence, possessing a handsome chateau of the Doria Pamphili. The 
train now enters the valley of the Sacco, the ancient Trerus or To- 
lerus, and skirts its left bank, running parallel with the ancient Via 
Latina. To the right Monte Fortino, picturesquely situated on the 

33 M. Segni, the junction of a line to Velletri (p. 11), -which is 
now used by local trains only. The old town of Segni (Locanda di 
Ulisse Colagiacomo) , a very ancient place, the Signia of the Ro- 
mans, said to have been colonised by Tarquinius Priscus and still 
possessing huge remnants of the ancient walls and gateways , is 
situated on a hill to the right, about 5 ! /2 M. from, the railway. See 
Baedeker s Central Italy. 

39 M. Anagni (*Locanda Oallo), once a flourishing town, and 
in the middle ages frequently a papal residence, lies on the heights 
to the left, 5M. from the station (omnibus 1 fr.). Pope Innocent III., 
Count of Segni, was born here in 1161 (d. 1216). At Anagni 
on 7th Sept. 1303, Pope Boniface VIII., then considerably ad- 
vanced in years , was taken prisoner by the French chancellor 
Guillaume de Nogaret, acting in concert with the Colonnas, by 
order of King Philippe le Bel, but was set at liberty by the 
people three days afterwards. The Cattedrale di S. Maria, a well- 
preserved edifice of the 11th cent. , and pure in style, is adorned 
with a mosaic pavement by the master Cosmas , and in the crypt 
with ancient frescoes. The treasury contains ancient papal vest- 
ments, etc. The ancient town-wall, which probably dates from the 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. 1 

2 Route 1. ALATRI. From Rome 

Roman period, is well preserved, particularly on the N. side. 
Remains from the middle ages are abundant. 

The next towns, with the imposing ruins of their ancient 
polygonal walls, are also situated on the hills at a considerable 
distance from the line. This is the territory of the Hernici, with 
the towns of Anagnia, Aletrium, Ferentinum, and Verulae, which 
allied themselves with Rome and Latium in B.C. 486, but were 
subjugated by the Romans, after an insurrection, in B.C. 306. The 
environs of these towns are picturesque. 

42 M. Sgurgola (from which Anagni may also be reached : 3 3 / 4 M.) 
is a village on the hill to the right, above the Sacco ; still higher is 
Carpineto. — 45'/2 M. Morolo. 

48y 2 M. Ferentino. The town (poor Locanda), situated on the 
hill (1450 ft.) to the left, 3 M. from the line, the ancient Ferenti- 
num, a town of the Hernici, was destroyed in the 2nd Punic War, 
and afterwards became a Roman colony (pop. 11,000). The ancient 
town-wall, constructed partly of enormous rectangular blocks and 
partly in the polygonal style, is still traceable throughout nearly 
its whole circuit; a gateway on the W. side especially deserves 
notice. The castle, the walls of which now form the foundation of 
the episcopal palace, occupies the highest ground within the town. 
The Cathedral is paved with remains of ancient marbles and mosaics. 
The font in the small church of 8. Giovanni Evangelista is ancient. 
Interesting antiquities and inscriptions will also be observed in 
other parts of the town. 

A diligence (lfr.) plies several times daily from the station to(9VzM.) 
the town of Alatri (Locanda Centrale, clean) the ancient Aletrium, 
picturesquely situated on an eminence to the N., and presenting an 
admirably preserved specimen of the fortifications of an ancient city. 
The town with its gates occupies the exact site of the old town. The "Walls 
of the castle, constructed of huge polygonal blocks, are still entire ; the 
gateway attracts special attention on account of the stupendous dimensions 
of the stones of which it is composed. The town and castle were provided 
with an aqueduct — At a distance of 3 M. is the famous Grolta di Colle- 
pardo , extending upwards of 2000 ft. into the limestone rock, with 
beautiful stalactites. About 3 /4 -^- farther is observed an extensive depres- 
sion in the soil, called II Pozzo d"Antullo , several hundred yards in cir- 
cumference and 200 ft. in depth, overgrown with grass and underwood. 

On a hill , about 5 M. to the S. E. of Alatri , is situated Veroli , the 
ancient Verulae, from which a pleasant road leads to Isola (p. 188; carriage 
from Alatri to Isola 10-12 fr.). 

53i/2 M - Frosinone. The town (Locandade Matteis ; pop. 11,000), 
situated on the hill, 2 M. to the N.E. of the railway, is identical 
with the ancient Hernician Frusino, which was conquered by the 
Romans in B.C. 304. The relics of walls and other antiquities are 
scanty, but the situation is very beautiful. 

57 M. Ceccano. The village is most picturesquely situated on the 
hillside , on the right bank of the Sacco, the valley of which 
now contracts. At the foot of the hill, to the left of the river, 
once lay the ancient Fabrateria Vetus, numerous inscriptions from 
which are built into th» walls of the church by the bridge. A 

to Naples. AQUINO. 1 . Route. 3 

road leads from Ceccano over the hills to Piperno and Terracina 
(P- 13). 

62y 2 M. Pofi. — 69 M. Ceprano {Rail. Restaurant, the last of 
any size before Naples). Outside the station a pleasing glimpse is 
obtained of the valleys of the Liris and the Tolerus. The town of Ce- 
prano is 2^2 M. from the station. — The train now crosses the Liris, 
which descends from the N., forming the old boundary of the States 
of the Church. — 70 M. Isoletta. 

In the vicinity, on the right bank of the Liris, in the direction of 
S. Giovanni in Carico, are the scanty ruins of the ancient Fregellae, a 
Roman colony founded in B. C. 328, and a point of great military im- 
portance, as it commanded the passage of the river. It was destroyed 
by the Romans in B. C. 125, in consequence of an insurrection, and Fabra- 
teria Nova was founded in its stead. A number of antiquities may be 
seen in the Qiardino Cairo, at the village of S. Giovanni in Carico, 3 M. 
from the station. 

The train now traverses the broad and fertile valley of the Liris, 
or Garigliano, as it is called after its union with the Sacco. 75 M. 
Roccasecca ; branch - line to Sora, which is to be carried on to 
Avezzano (see R. 14). 

78 M. Aquino, the ancient Aquinum , a small town pictur- 
esquely situated to the left on the hill and on a mountain-stream, 
is celebrated as the birthplace of the satirist Juvenal (under Nero) 
and of the philosopher Thomas Aquinas. The illustrious 'doctor 
angelicus', son of Count Landulf, was born in 1224 in the neigh- 
bouring castle of Rocca Secca, and was educated in the monastery 
of Monte Cassino (p. 5). The Emperor Pescennius Niger was also a 
native of Aquinum. By the side of the Via Latina may be distin- 
guished the relics of the ancient Roman town : inconsiderable frag- 
ments of walls, a gateway (Porta S. Lorenzo), a theatre, remains 
of temples of Ceres (8. Pietro) and Diana (8. Maria Maddalena), and 
a triumphal arch. Near the stream are the ruins of 8. Maria Libera, 
a basilica of the 11th cent., commonly called II Vescovado, occupying 
the site of an ancient temple , and consisting of handsome nave 
and aisles. Above the portal is a well-preserved Madonna in mosaic. 

Beyond Aquino, on a bleak mountain to the left, the cele- 
brated monastery of Monte Cassino (p. 5) becomes visible. 

851/2 SI. Cassino. — Inns, outside the town: Alb. Pompei, tysM. from 
the station, prettily situated, R., L., & A. 3, pens, from 5'/2 fr. ; Alb. Cas- 
sino ; Alb. Varkone, on the site of the villa of M. Terentius Varro (p. 5), 
well spoken of. 

Carriages. From the station to the town: r un posto', i.e. a seat in a 
carriage, 50 c, at night 1 fr. ; Carrozzella, i.e. a small vehicle with one 
horse, lb c. or I1/2 fr. ; 'Carrozza', I1/2 or 3 fr. — From the station to the 
top of Monte Cassino: by day, carrozzella, 1 pers. 3 fr., 2 pers. 4 fr. ; car- 
rozza, 1 pers. 5, 2-3 pers. 6, 4-5 pers. 7 fr. ; at night, one or more pers. 
10 fr. These fares include the return. For waiting at the top, iy 2 fr. is 
charged for a carrczzella up to 3 hrs., 2 fr. for a carrozza. — Donkey to 
Monte Cassino 1 fr., with guide and light luggage, l'/2 fr. 

A Visit to Monte Cassino requires about 5 hours. (Luggage may be left 
at the station in exchange for a receipt.) The excursion should be so 
arranged that the traveller may return to the town a considerable time 


4 Route 1 . 


From Rome 

before sunset ; at the same time it must be borne in mind that visitors 
are strictly excluded from 12 to 3.30 p.m. The monastery affords good 
quarters for the night, although the fare is sometimes of a frugal description. 
No payment is demanded, but the traveller should give about as much as 
he would have paid at a hotel. Ladies are of course admitted to the church 
only. Travellers who wish to spend the night or dine here should apply 
immediately on arriving to the padre forestieraio. Letters of introduction 
will be found very useful. At an early hour on Sundays and holidays 
the church and courts of the monastery are crowded with country -people 
from the neighbouring mountain districts, whose characteristic physiognomies 
and costumes will be scanned with interest by the traveller. 

Cassino, formerly called San Germano, a town with 13,500 
inhab. , is picturesquely situated in the plain at the foot of the 
Monte Cassino, on the small river Rapido (Lat. Vinius), 3 / 4 M. from 

the station, and is commanded by a ruined castle, called La Rocca. 
It occupies nearly the same site as the ancient Casinum, which was 
colonised by the Romans in B. C. 312, and was afterwards a flourish- 
ing provincial town. On its ruins sprang up San Germano during 
the middle ages. Pillars of great antiquity are still to be seen in 
the churches. Various courts have been held here by popes and em- 
perors, and in 1230 peace was concluded here between Gregory IX. 
and Frederick II. The foggy character of the climate is alluded to 
by the ancients. 

The town presents few objects of interest. Following the Ro- 
man road to the S. for i / 2 M., we see, on the right, the colossal re- 
mains of an * Amphitheatre, which, according to an inscription pre- 
served at Monte Cassino , was erected by Ummidia Quadratilla at 
her own expense. The foundress is mentioned by Pliny i n his letters 

to Naples. MONTE CASSINO. 1. Route. 5 

(vii. 24) as a lady of great wealth, who even in her old age was an 
ardent admirer of theatrical performances. Farther on, and a little 
higher up, stands a square monument built of large blocks of tra- 
vertine, with four niches, and surmounted by a dome, now convert- 
ed into the church *Del Crocefisso (custodian 3-i soldi). Opposite, 
on the bank of the Rapido, lay the villa of M. Terentius Varro, 
where, as we are informed by Cicero (Phil. ii. 40), M. Antony 
afterwards indulged in his wild orgies. — The path leading back 
to the town from the Crocefisso is probably the ancient Via Latina, 
and traces of ancient pavement are occasionally observed. From this 
path, by keeping to the high ground to the left, we may proceed 
to Monte Cassino without returning to the town. 

The monastery of *Monte Cassino, situated on a lofty hill to 
the W. of the town, is reached in l l /- 2 hr. The road affords ex- 
quisite views of the valley of the Garigliano and the surrounding 
mountains. The monastery was founded by St. Benedict in 529, on 
the site of an ancient temple of Apollo, to which Dante alludes 
(Parad. xxii. 37), and from its magnificent situation alone would 
be entitled to a visit. The monastery, which has been declared to 
be a 'National Monument', and which continues its existence in 
the form of an educational establishment, has ever been conspicuous 
for the admirable manner in which its inmates have discharged their 
higher duties. They are the intelligent keepers of one of the most 
precious libraries in the world, and they educate about eighty stu- 
dents of theology. The monks at present number about thirty, and 
there are ten lay brethren, twenty pupils of the upper classes, and 
numerous servants. The institution also comprises a telegraph-office 
and a printing-office. The revenues once amounted to 100,000 du- 
cats per annum, but are now reduced to about 20,000. The exten- 
sive edifice resembles a castle rather than a monastery. 

The present entrance was constructed in 1881, to the right of the 
low passage through the rock which was formerly used; near the latter 
St. Benedict is said to have had his cell, which has lately been restored 
and decorated with frescoes. Several Coukts are connected by arcades. 
The first one has a fountain of very good water, adorned with statues 
of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. On a square space higher 
up, enclosed by columns from the ancient temple of Apollo , stands the 
Church, erected in 1727 to replace the ancient edifice founded by St. 
Benedict. The fortunes of the abbey are recorded in Latin above the 
entrance of the hall. The principal door of the church is of bronze 
and is inscribed with a list, inlaid in silver, of all the possessions of the 
abbey in 1066. It was executed at Constantinople by order of the Abbot 
Desiderius, afterwards (1086) Pope Victor III. The interior is richly de- 
corated with marble, mosaics, and paintings. On each side of the high- 
altar is a mausoleum; one to the memory of Piero de' Medici (p. 18), who 
was drowned in the Garigliano in 1503, executed by Francesco Sangallo by 
order of Clement VII. ; the other that of Guidone Fieramosca, last Prince 
of Mignano. Beneath the high-altar, with its rich marble decorations, re- 
pose the remains of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. The sub- 
terranean chapel contains paintings by Marco da Siena and Mazzaroppi. 
The choir-stalls are adorned with admirable carving (by Coliccio, 1696), 
and the chapels adjoining the altar with costly mosaics. Above the doors 
and on the ceiling are frescoes by Luca Giordano (1677), representing the 

6 Route 1 . MONTE OASSINO. From Rome 

miracles of St. Benedict and the foundation of the church. The organ is one 
of the finest in Italy. In the refectory is a 'Miracle of the Loaves', by Sassano. 

At a very early period the Library was celebrated for the MSS. 
executed by the monks. To the Abbot Desiderius of the 11th cent, we 
are probably indebted for the preservation of Varro, and perhaps of other 
authors. The handsome saloon at present contains a collection of about 
10,000 vols., among which are numerous rare editions published during the 
infancy of the printer's art. The MSS. and documents are preserved m the 
archives, in the passage leading to which a number of inscriptions are built 
into the wall, most of them rescued from the ruins of the ancient Casinum. 
Among the MSS. are : the commentary of Origen on the Epistle to the 
Romans, translated by Rufus, dating from the 6th cent. ; a Dante with mar- 
ginal notes, of the 14th cent, (the archives contain an interesting portrait 
of the poet) ; the vision of the monk Alberic, which is said to have sug- 
gested the first idea on which Dante founded his work; various classical 
authors, the original MSS. of Leo of Ostia and Riccardo di San Germano. 
The "Archives comprise a still rarer collection, consisting of about 800 
documents of emperors, kings, dukes, etc., and the complete series of 
papal bulls which relate to Monte Cassino, beginning with the 11th cent., 
many of them with admirable seals and impressions. Among the letters 
are those exchanged by Don Erasmo Gattola, the historian of the abbey, 
with learned contemporaries. At the end of an Italian translation of 
Boccaccio's 'De Claris Mulieribus' is a letter of Sultan Mohammed II. to 
Pope Nicholas IV., complaining of the pontiff's preparations for war and 
promising to be converted as soon as he should visit Rome, together 
with an unfavourable answer from the pope. An ancient bath-seat in 
rosso antico, found on the bank of the Liris, is also preserved here. The 
tower in which St. Benedict is said to have lived contains pictures by 
Novelli, Spagnoletto, and others. 

The monastery commands a magnificent 'Prospect in all directions, 
which the visitor should not omit to enjoy from the different points of 
view. To the W. and S. extends the broad valley of the Garigliano with 
its numerous villages , separated from the Gulf of Gaeta by a range of 
hills, and the sea is occasionally distinguishable. To the E. is the valley 
of S. Germano, commanded by the rocky summits of the Abruzzi. To the 
N. a wild mountainous district. 

Close to the Monte Cassino rises the Monte Cairo (5480 ft.), which may 
be ascended in 3-4 hrs.; the view from the summit is considered one of 
the finest in Italy. 

Continuation of Journey to Naples. To the left, beyond 
S. Germano, we perceive the villages of Cervaro, S. Vittore, and 
8. Pietro in Fine. 92 M. Rocca d'Evandro. The train quits the 
valley of the Garigliano, and enters a richly cultivated defile, beyond 
which the country towards the right becomes flatter. 96 M. Mig- 
nano. The train now runs through a barren, undulating tract. 
101 M. Presenzano, which lies on the slope to the left. 

105'/2 M. Caianello-Vairano, whence a high-road leads via Sol- 
mona (R. 13) to Pescara on the Gulf of Venice, and to Aquila and 
Terni. A railway has been opened as far as Rocca Ravindola (p. 186). 

110 M. Riardo ; the village, with an old castle, lies on the left. 

113 M. Teano; the town (Locanda dell' Italia; 5000 inhab.) 
lies at some distance to the right, at the base of the lofty Rocca 
Monfina, an extinct volcano (3420 ft.), which may be visited from 
this point. The extensive, but dilapidated old castle was erected 
in the 15th cent, by the dukes of Sessa. Ancient columns in the 
cathedral, inscriptions, remains of a theatre, and other antiquities 

to Naples. CAPUA. 1. Route. 7 

are now the sole vestiges of the venerable Teanurn Sidicinum, once 
the capital of the Sidicini, which was conquered by the Samnites 
in the 4th cent. B.C., afterwards subjugated by the Romans, and 
in Strabo's time the most flourishing inland city of Campania after 

118 M. Sparanise, the junction of the line to Gaeta (p. 17). 

To the left, about 4 M. to the N. E. of the railway, lies Calvi, the 
ancient Gales, a Roman colony founded B. C. 332, the wine of which 
(vinum Calenum) is praised by Horace. It now consists of a few houses 
only, but contains an ancient amphitheatre, a theatre, and other anti- 
quities. Carriage with one horse from Capua, and back, 2-3 fr. 

As the train proceeds we obtain for the first time a view of Mt. 
Vesuvius in the distance to the right, and then of the island of 
Ischia in the same direction. 121 ^ M. Pignataro. The train here 
intersects the plain of the Volturno, a river 94 M. in length, the 
longest in Lower Italy. "We now enter upon the vast plains of the 
ancient Campania (now Terra di Lavoro), one of the most luxuriant 
districts in Europe , which is capable of yielding , in addition to 
the produce of the dense plantations of fruit-trees and vines, two 
crops of grain and one of hay in the same season. 

127 M. Capua. — Albekgo & Teattoeia del Centeo, in the 
Piazza de* Giudici. — Carriage from the station to the town with one 
horse (cittadina) 30, with two horses (carrozza) 50 c; per hour, 1 or 2 fr. ; 
to Caserta, 2 or 4 fr. ; to Aversa 3 or 6 fr. ; to S. Maria di Capua Vetere 
1 or 2 fr.; to 8. Angelo in Formis 1 fr. 20 or 2 fr. 50 c. 

Capua, a fortified town with 14,000 inhab., the residence of 
an archbishop, lies on the left bank of the Volturno, by which the 
greater part of it is surrounded. It was erected in the 9th cent., 
after the destruction of the ancient Capua, on the site of Casi- 
linum, a town which was conquered by Hannibal after an. obstinate 
resistance, and fell to decay in the time of the emperors. 

Turning to the right on entering the town, and taking the first 
street to the left, we reach the Piazza de' Giudici, or market-place, 
in 6 min., and then enter the Via del Duomo to the right. 

The Cathedral, dating from the 11th cent., possesses a hand- 
some entrance-court with ancient columns, but in other respects 
has been entirely modernised. 

Inteeiob. 3rd Chapel on the left: Madonna della Rosa of the 13th 
century. 3rd Chapel on the right: Madonna with two saints by Silvestro 
de' Buoni. The Ceypt, dating from the Romanesque period, but now mod- 
ernised, contains Mosaics from an old pulpit, a Roman Sarcophagus with 
a representation of the Hunt of Meleager, and a Holy Sepulchre by Ber- 
nini, being one of his best works. 

The Via del Duomo, passing through an archway, leads to the 
Corso Museo Campano. (Proceeding thence in a straight direction, 
we may reach the ramparts, which command a pleasing view of 
the Volturno.) In this street, on the right, is situated the Museo 
Campano, which is entered from the first side-street on the right. 
It is open daily, 9-3 o' clock, except on Sundays and festivals. 

The Cooet contains reliefs from the amphitheatre of Capua (see p. 8) ; 

8 Route 1. S. MARIA DI CAPUA VETERE. From Rome 

inscriptions ; ancient sarcophagi , including one of the period of Con 
stantine; mediaeval tomb-monuments ; a sitting statue of Frederick II. 
(sadly mutilated and without its head), which formerly surmounted the 
gateway of the tete-de-pont constructed by him on the right bank of 
the Volturno about 1240, and destroyed in 1557 ; heads of statues of Petrus 
de Vineis (?) and Thaddseus of Suessa (?), and a colossal head of Capua 
Imperiale' (casts at theMuseo Nazionale in Naples), also from Frederick Il.'g 
tete-de-pont. The rooms in the Interior contain ancient terracottas, vases, 
coins, a few pictures of little value, and a small library. 

The bridge across the Volturno, restored in 1756, is adorned 
with a statue of St. Nepomuc. Beyond it is an inscription in 
memory of the Emperor Frederick II. The Torre Mignana within, 
and the Cappella de' Morti without the town commemorate the 
sanguinary attack made on Capua by Csesar Borgia in 1501, on 
which occasion 5000 lives were sacrificed. 

On our left after the train has crossed the Volturno, lies the 
battle-field on which King Francis II. was defeated by the Gari- 
baldians and Piedmontese on 1st Oct., 1860. 

130 M. S. Maria di Capua Vetere {hoc. Roma; Trattoria Ver- 
mont di Torino, Via AlessandroMilbitz,leadingto the Amphitheatre) 
is a prosperous town, on the site of the ancient Capua, containing 

considerable ruins. 

Capua, founded by the Etruscans and afterwards occupied by Samnite 
tribes, entered into alliance with the Romans B.C. 343, for the sake of protec- 
tion against the attacks of theSamnites of the mountains. Owing to the luxur- 
iant fertility of the district, the power and wealth of the city developed them- 
selves at an early period. It was the largest city in Italy after Rome, but soon 
became noted for its effeminacy and degeneracy. In the 2nd Punic War, after the 
battle of Cannae (B. C. 216), it entered into an alliance with Hannibal, who took 
up his winter-quarters here. That his soldiers became so enervated by their 
residence at Capua as no longer to be amatch for the Romans, is doubtless a mere 
hypothesis. Certain, however, it is, that the Romans soon obtained the su- 
periority, and after along siege reduced the town, B. C. 211. Its punishment 
was a severe one, and the inhabitants were entirely deprived of all civic pri- 
vileges. It was rescued from its abject condition by Csesar, and under his suc- 
cessors regained its ancient splendour. It continued to prosper until the wars 
of the Goths, Vandals, and Lombards. In the 8th cent, it was destroyed by the 
Saracens, and the inhabitants emigrated to the modern Capua (p. 7). 

Proceeding straight from the station, taking the first street to 
the left, and following the Via Alessandro Milbitz in nearly the same 
direction to its farther end (5 min.), we turn to the left into the 
Via Anflteatro which leads in a curve round the town to (10 min.) 
the ancient amphitheatre. Before reaching it, we cross an open space 
where we observe on the left the ruins of a Roman Triumphal Arch, 
now a gate, through which the Capua road passes. 

The *Amphithbatre of Capua (adm. 1 fr. for each pers.), which 
is said to be one of the largest and most ancient in Italy, is con- 
structed of travertine. The longer diameter is 185 yds., the shorter 
152 yds. in length. The arena measures 83 yds. by 49 yds. 

Three of its passages are tolerably well preserved, but of the 80 en- 
trance-arches two only. The keystones are decorated with images of gods. 
The Arena, with its substructures, passages, and dens for the wild beasts 
(to which a staircase descends from the passage to the left), is, like that 

to Naples. CASERTA. 1. Route. 9 

of Pozzuoli, better defined than the arena of tlie Colosseum at Koine. The 
Passages contain remains of ancient decorations , fragments of columns, 
bas-reliefs, etc. To the right, near the entrance, the visitor may ascend 
to the upper part of the structure, in order to obtain a survey of the ruins 
themselves, and of the extensive surrounding plain. Large schools were 
once maintained at Capua for the training of gladiators, and it was here 
in B.C. 83, that the dangerous War of the Gladiators under Sparlacus the 
Thracian broke out, which was with difficulty quelled by Crassus two 
years later. 

Above Capua rises Mons Tifata, once the site of a temple of Jupiter, 
now crowned by a chapel of S. Nicola. At its base, about hi fa M. from 
S. Maria, stands the old church of S. Angelo in Formis, with frescoes of 
the 11th cent, (valuable in the history of art), occupying the site of a cel- 
ebrated temple of Diana, around which a village had established itself. 

The high-road from Capua to Maddaloni (p. 10) via S. Maria 
and Caserta presents a scene of brisk traffic. The road from S. Maria 
to Caserta (a drive of 8/4 hr.) passes two handsome Roman tombs. 

134 M. Caserta. — Hotels. Vittoeia, with garden; Villa 
Reale, well spoken of; both in the Via Vittoria; Villa di Fieenze, near 
the palace, R., L., & A. 272, pens. 8 fr. ; all with trattorie. — In the round 
piazza with its colonnades, at the entrance to the town from the palace, 
is a favourite Cafe". 

Carriage with one horse, per drive within the town or to the 
station. 35 c, with two horses 60 c. ; drive in the royal gardens ('le Reali 
Delizie'), per hr. with one horse, 1 fr. 30 c, with two horses, 2'/z fr., 
each additional 1/2 hr. 50 or 85 c. ; to S. Maria di Capua Vetere 1 fr. 40 or 
2 fr. 30, to Capua 2 fr. 25 or 3 fr. «0 c. 

For a Visit to the Palace (interior only 12-4; the garden till sunset) a 
permesso from the royal intendant at the Palazzo Reale at Naples (p. 35) 
is required, but it may if necessary be obtained through one of the hotel- 
keepers at Caserta. Fee 1 fr.; for the chapel 25 c. 

Caserta, a clean and well-built town with 19,000 inhab. ('com- 
mune' 30,600) and a large garrison, may be called the Versailles 
of Naples. It possesses several palaces and barracks, and is the 
residence of the prefect of the province of Caserta. It was founded 
in the 8th cent, by the Lombards on the slope of the hill, but the 
modern town stands on lower ground. 

The *Royal Palace of Caserta, opposite the station, was erected 
in 1752, by Vanvitelli, by order of King Charles III., in the richest 
Italian palatial style. It forms a rectangle. The S. side is 830 ft. 
long and 134 ft. high, with thirty-seven windows in each story. 
The courts of the palace are traversed by a colonnade, from the 
centre of which ascends the handsome marble staircase, with 116 
steps. The marble statue of Vanvitelli , by Buccini , was erected 
in 1879. The palace is at present unoccupied. 

The Chapel, lavishly decorated with marble, imitated lapis lazuli, 
and gold, contains a 'Presentation in the Temple' by Mengs, five paintings 
by Conca, and an altarpiece by Bonito. — The Theatee is adorned with 
twelve Corinthian columns of African marble from the temple of Sera- 
pis at Pozzuoli, and contains forty boxes, besides that appropriated to 
the royal family. 

The *Oarden, with its lofty pruned hedges, contains beautiful 
fountains and cascades, adorned with statues. The grand terrace 
above the cascade (2 M. from the palace) affords beautiful points 
of view. The Botanical Oarden is interesting as proving that the 

10 Route 1. MADDALONI. 

trees of the colder north can be grown here with success. The Ca- 
sino Eeale di S. Leucio, in the park, about 2 M. to the N., near some 
large silk-factories, commands another fine prospect. 

About 3 M. to the N.E. of the palace, on an elevated site, is 
Caserta Vecchia, with several interesting deserted palaces and the 
12th cent, church of S. Michele. 

From Caserta and from Capua there are roads to Caiazzo (about 9 M.) 
and on to Piedimonte d'Alife (rustic Inn) , prettily situated about 15 M. 
from Caiazzo, with flourishing mills, founded by Swiss merchants, at the 
foot of the Matese, the highest summit of which (Monte Miletto, 6725 ft.) may 
be ascended from Piedimonte in 5-6 hrs. On the top there is a lake sur- 
rounded by woods. View as far as the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea. 

Caserta is the junction of the Naples and Foggia railway 
(R. 17) , which runs above our line as far as Maddaloni , the next 
station, and for the branch -line to Castellammare (30'^ M. , in 
2 hrs. ; fares 5 fr. 55, 3 fr. 90, or 2 fr. 50 c> The latter follows the 
main line as far as Cancello, where it diverges to the left and runs 
round the E. and S. sides of Mt. Vesuvius, past the stations of 
Marlgliano , Ottaiano, S. Giuseppe, Terzigno, and Boscoreale, to 
Torre Annunziata , the junction of the railway from Naples to 
Castellammare and Gragnano (pp. Ill, 143). 

138 M. Maddaloni (20,000 inhab.), situated to the left, with 
an extensive deserted palace of the Caraffa family, is commanded 
by a ruined castle. On the Foggia line are the (2!/ 2 M.) Ponti della 
Valle (see p. 204), a celebrated aqueduct constructed by Vanvi- 
telli to water the gardens of Caserta, and usually visited hence. 

141i/ 2 M. Cancello, whence branch-lines diverge to Castellam- 
mare (see above) and to Avellino (R. 11). 

About l'/ijM. to theS.W. of Cancello, among the woods (Bosco d'Acovia), 
are the insignificant ruins of the ancient Oscan Suessula. The rich se- 
pulchral remains found here , chiefly vases and bronze ornaments , are 
preserved in the neighbouring Villa Spinelli. 

Since the opening of the railway (R. 17) the high-road from Cancello 
to Benevento (25 M.) has been used for the local traffic only. It leads 
by S. Felice and Arienzo, and then passes through a narrow defile, con- 
sidered by many to be identical with the Furculae Caudinae which proved 
so disastrous to the fortunes of Rome, whence it ascends to the village of 
Arpaia. It next passes the small town of Montesarchio (the ancient Gau- 
dium according to some), with its castle, once the residence of the d'Avalos 
family, and recently used as a state prison, in which, among others, the well- 
known Poerio (d. 1867) was confined (eomp. p. 40). 

To the left we observe Monte Sornma (p. 113), which conceals 
the cone of Vesuvius. 146 M. Acerra (14,500 inhab.) was the 
ancient Acerrae, to which the Roman citizenship was accorded as 
early as B. C. 332. The train crosses the trenches of the Begi 
Lagni, which drain the marshes of Pantano dell' Acerra, the an- 
cient Clanius, now VAgno, and form the boundary between the 
provinces of Caserta and Naples. 148 M. Casalnuovo. Vesuvius 
becomes visible on the left. 

1541/2 M. Naples. Arrival, see p. 19. 


2. From Rome to Naples via, Terracina and Gaeta. 

166 M. From Rome to Terracina, 75 x /2 M., Railway in 43/4 hrs. (no fast 
trains); fares 13 fr. 80, 9 fr. 70, 6 fr. 25 c. — From Terracina to Formia, 
21 '/2 M., Diligence twice daily (at 7 a.m. and 1.30 p.m.; from Formia at 
4.30 and 7 p.m.) in 4>/2 hrs., fare 4 fr. — Gaeta is now visited from Formia 
by railway, 5>/2 M. in 20 min. (fares 1 fr., 70 c, 50 c, there and back 
1 fr. 60, 1 fr. 15, 75 c). — From Formia via Sparanise to Naples, 69 M., 
Railway in 43 4 -5'/4 hrs.; fares 12 fr. 60, 8 fr. 80, 5 fr. 70c. 

From Rome to (9 M.) Ciarnpino see p. 1. The lino diverges from 
the Naples line towards the S. — 10 72 M - Frattocchie. On the left 
rise the Alban hills. — 18 M. Cecchina, whence a steam-tramway 
runs to Albano. To -the right we obtain a glimpse of Monte Circello 
(1030 ft. ; p. 14), rising abruptly from the sea; nearer are the Volscian 
Mts. — 20*/2 M. Civita Lavinia, the ancient Lanuvium. 

26 M. Velletri {Locanda Campana, Qallo, both good, with trat- 
torie), the ancient Velitrae, a town of the Volscians, which became 
subject to Rome in B.C. 338, is famous for its wine (pop. 8000). It 
stands picturesquely on a spur of the Monte Arternisio, 6 min. from 
the station. Velletri is the residence of the Bishop of Ostia. The 
loggia of the Palazzo Lancelotti commands a beautiful and extensive 
view. In the new cemetery, where Garibaldi defeated the Neapolitan 
troops on 19th May, 1849, a column of victory was erected in 1883. 

From Velletri to Segni, 15 M., railway in 3/4 hr., via (5 M.) Ontanese 
and (lu M.) Artena. 

The Terracina line intersects a desolate plain, devoid of interest. 
On the right lies the Logo di Oiulianello, an ancient crater. 33 M. 
Oiulianello. Farther on, the line skirts the slopes of Monte Calvello. 

36 y 2 M. Cori. The railway- station lies about 2'^ M. below the 
old town, the ancient Cora, which claimed to have been founded by 
the Trojan Dardanus or by Coras and still prospered during the Roman 
empire. Of its former importance, the remains of the ancient walls, 
constructed of huge polygonal blocks, the portico of the so-called 
Temple of Hercules and the remains of a Temple of Castor and Pollux 
still bear testimony. For farther details, see Baedeker's Central Italy. 

38 M. Cisterna (Inn, poor), a small town with a castle of the 
Gaetani, situated 3 M. from the station on the last hill before the 
Pontine marshes are reached, was called Cisterna Neronis in the 
middle ages, and is believed to occupy the site of the ancient Tres 
Tabernae where the apostle Paul on his journey met the friends coming 
from Rome to welcome him (Acts, 2V). — 43 l / 2 M. Ninfa, a deserted 
mediaeval town, the ivyclad ruins of which date mainly from the 
12th and 13th cent. The malaria which reigns here in summer has 
been the cause of its abandonment. 

45!/2 M. Sermoneta-Norma. To the left, on an eminence, stands 
Sermoneta, with an ancient castle of the Gaetani family. Higher up 
lies the small mountain- village of Norma, below the ancient Norba, 
which was destroyed by the troops of Sulla during the civil wars, 
and is still surrounded by the well-preserved remains of a wall in the 
polygonal style, IY2ML in circumference, with several gates and towers. 

12 Route 2. PONTINE MARSHES. From Borne 

Farther on, the line skirts the Pontine Marshes (Paludi Pontini), 
which vary in breadth between the mountains and the sea from 6 to 
11 M., and from Nettuno to Terracina are 31 M. in length. A 
considerable part of them is now cultivated ; particularly, however, 
they afford extensive pastures , the most marshy parts being the 
resort of the buffaloes. Towards the sea the district is clothed with 
forest (macchia). The malaria in summer is a dreadful scourge. 

According to Pliny (Hist. Nat. iii. 5) , these marshes were anciently 
a fertile and well-cultivated plain, occupied by twenty-four villages, but 
towards the close of the republic gradually fell into their present con- 
dition owing to the decline of agriculture. A want of fall in the sur- 
face of the soil is the cause of the evil. The streams and canals are 
totally inadequate to carry off the excess of water which descends from 
the mountains during the rainy season, and its escape is further impeded 
by the luxuriant vegetation of the aquatic plants. Attempts to drain the 
marshes were successively made by the censor Appius Claudius in B. C. 
312 (so says tradition), by the consul Cornelius Cethegus 130 years later, 
by Csesar, Augustus, Nerva, Trajan, and finally by Theodoric, King of the 
Goths, all of which were of temporary benefit only. Similar operations were 
undertaken by the popes Boniface VIII., Martin V., Sixtus V., and Pius VI. 
To the last is due the present admirably constructed road across the 
marshes, the cost of which amounted to 1,622,000 scudi (350,000J. sterling). 
At present the drainage is carried out in a most practical and comprehen- 
sive manner by the proprietors themselves, under the direction of the 
'Ufflcio della bonificazione delle paludi Pontini' at Terracina. 

52 M. Sezza (Locanda Nazionale, in the Piazza, unpretending) 
is the ancient Setia of the Volscians, a Roman colony after 382 B.C., 
and frequently mentioned in the Italian wars up to the time of Sulla. 
Under the empire its name was remembered only on account of its 
wine, which Augustus preferred even to Falernian. Considerable 
remains of its ancient walls have been preserved ; they are built of 
massive polygonal blocks, but with more attention to horizontal courses 
than was the case at Cori. The rough rusticated work here is an 
unusual feature in ancient town-walls, which in most other examples 
are carefully smoothed. A massive substructure in the same style, 
below (to the right) the entrance of the town, has been arbitrarily 
named Tempio di Saturno. 

To the right, the high-road leads straight on through the Pontine 
plain, following the ancient Via Appia, the famous road constructed 
during the Samnite war, B.C. 312, by Appius Claudius, the censor 
(see above). On the left rise the slopes of Monte Trevi, crowned by 
the ruins of a town destroyed in the 16th century. 

61 M. Piperno (Locanda della Rosetta, tolerable) was founded 
early in the middle ages by refugees from the ancient Volscian town 
of Privernum. The Cathedral, in the picturesque piazza, was built 
in 1823 and modernised in the interior in 1782. 

The railway crosses the Amaseno and affords a picturesque view 
of its valley which is enclosed by lofty mountains, studded with ruined 
ca-tles and villages : Rocca Gorga, Maenza, Rocca Seccn, Prossedi, 
etc. — 04 M. Sonnino, once famous for the picturesquoness of the 
costume of the women, and for the audacity of the brigands. 

to Naples. TERRAOINA. 2. Route. 13 

About 1 M. from the station of Sonnina is the Cistercian convent of 
*Fossanuova, where St. Thomas Aquinas died in 1274 while on his way 
to the Council of Lyons. The convent-church, built about 1225 , with 
rectangular choir and a rectangular tower over the crossing, is one of the 
earliest examples of Italian Gothic. It has recently been restored. The 
cloisters, chapter-house, and refectory are also interesting. One of the 
rooms contains a relief of St. Thomas Aquinas, by Bernini. 

The line turns to the S. — 69 M. Frasso. On the slope of Monte 
Leano once lay the sacred grove and fountain of Feronia mentioned 
by Horace (Sat. I, 5, 23). We now join the Via Appia. To the right, 
11-12 M. distant, the Promontorio Circeo (p. 14) is visible on the 
whole journey, from.Velletri onwards. 

75^2 M. Terracina. • — Hotels: Grand Hotel Royal, at the S. en- 
trance to the town, with a view of the sea at the back, E. & L. V/i fr., 
well spoken of; Locanda Nazionale, in the Piazza, less expensive. 

Terracina, situated conspicuously on a rocky eminence (Hor. 
Sat. i. 5, 26), the Anxur of the ancient Volscians, and the Tarra- 
cina of the Romans , was formerly on the confines of the papal 
dominions, and still constitutes the natural frontier town between 
Central and Southern Italy. Pop. 7500. It is an ancient episcopal 
residence, and is one of the most picturesque spots in Italy. The 
high-road intersects the extensive but thinly peopled quarter of 
the town which was founded by Pius VI. , while the old town is 
built on the slope of the hill. Above the latter extend the ruins of 
the ancient city, crowned by the remains of the palace of Theodoric 
the Ostrogoth. 

The *Cattedb,ale S. Cesaueo, in a large square, the ancient 
Forum, the pavement of which is well preserved, occupies the site 
of a Temple of Roma and of Augustus, dedicated to that emperor 
by A. ^Emilius, who also caused the forum to be paved. In the 
travertine slabs the inscription 'A. jEmilius F. F.' is distinctly 
legible in large letters. The vestibule of the cathedral rests on 
ten ancient columns, with recumbent lions at their bases. On the 
right is a large granite basin, which, according to the inscription, 
was used in torturing the early Christians. The beautiful fluted 
columns of the canopy in the interior belonged to the ancient 
temple. The pulpit, with its ancient mosaics, rests on columns 
with lions at their bases. — The clock tower (ascended by 91 steps) 
commands an extensive prospect. 

The summit of the promontory may be attained in 3 /4hr., di- 
Tectly from the new town but more conveniently from the old town, 
by ascending to the right, under the archway adjoining the cathe- 
dral. The latter route is partly by an ancient road passing remains 
of tombs and ancient walls, and then to the right by a gap in the 
wall encircling the olive-plantations, and through the latter along 
the dividing wall. The whole excursion requires about 3 hrs.; 
guide unnecessary. The so-called *Palace of Theodobjc, King of 
the Ostrogoths, erected about 500 A.D. and afterwards converted 
into a castle, occupies the summit. A corridor of twelve arches 

14 Route 2. TERRACINA. From Rome 

opens towards the sea on the S. side. The purposes of the dif- 
ferent parts of the structure cannot now be ascertained. Admirable 
*View. Towards the W. the prospect embraces the plain as far as 
the Alban Mts., then the Monte Circello ; towards the S. are the 
Pontine or Ponza Islands, the N.W. group of which comprises Ponza 
(Pontise, once a Roman colony), Palmarola (Palmaria), and Zan- 
none, all of volcanic origin, and the S. group Ventotene and S. Ste- 
fano; between the groups lies the small island of La Botte. The is- 
lands are still used, as in ancient times, as a place of detention for 
convicts. (Steamer from Naples, see p. 104.) Ventotene is the Pan- 
dateria of melancholy celebrity, to which Augustus banished his 
abandoned daughter Julia, and Tiberius relegated Agrippina, the 
daughter of Julia, and where Nero is said to have caused his di- 
vorced wife Octavia to be put to death. Towards the E. the plain 
of Fondi is visible; the village on the sea is Sperlonga (p. 16); 
farther off is the promontory of Gaeta with the Torre d'Orlando 
(p. 18), and finally the island of Ischia. 

The Harbour of Terracina, still recognisable by the break- 
water, was of great importance during the Roman period, but is 
now entirely filled with sand. A new Molo affords indifferent 
shelter to coasting-vessels. The galley-convicts at the bagno here 
are partly employed in the harbour works, and partly in the quarries. 

At the S. egress of the town is the Taglio di Pisco Montano, 
an interesting piece of Roman engineering. Beyond the Hotel Ro- 
yal the Monte Angelo with its picturesque and massy rocks ap- 
proaches close to the sea, in consequence of which Appius origin- 
ally conducted his road over the hill. At a later period the rocks 
were removed for the construction of a new and more spacious 
road. On the perpendicular wall thus produced the depth is in- 
dicated at intervals of 10 Roman feet, beginning from the top; 
the lowest mark, a few feet above the present road, is OXX. On 
the top, on a detached rocky protuberance, is a hermitage, now 

A good path leads along the shore in 3-4 hrs. to the (11 M.) the Pro- 
montorio Circeo, or Circello (1030 ft.), the Circeii of the ancients, the tra- 
ditional site of the palace and grove of the enchantress Circe, daughter of 
the sun, described by Homer. It is an isolated limestone rock, partly over- 
grown with wood. Accommodation of a rustic character may he obtained at 
S. Felice. The hill is strewn with the ruins of several mediseval towers, 
and also with a few fragments of the ancient town of Circeii, which 
became a Roman colony in B. C. 393 and still existed in Cicero's time. 
Thus, about halfway up the hill, under a group of lofty trees, is a low 
parapet of Roman workmanship enclosing a well called the Fontana 
di Mezzo Monte. At another point is the Fonte della Bagnaia , also with 
fragments of Roman masonry, and on the summit are the remains of a 
Temple of Circe. The "View from the top is magnificent: to the S.E. 
Ischia, Capri, and Mt. Vesuvius are distinctly visible ; to the N. the dome 
of St. Peter's can be distinguished; to the E. and N.E. we see the moun- 
tains as far as Velletri; to the W. and S.W. is the sea, with the Pontine 
Islands (see above). The rock is honeycombed with grottoes, some of which 
are of great extent. Cicero and Atticus, Tiberius and Domitian frequently 
r esorted to this spot. — Remains of Roman palaces and aqueducts have also 

to Naples. FONDI. 2. Route. 15 

been found at Lago di Paola, a small lake at the N. base of the promon- 
tory, where large oyster-beds were maintained by the Romans. 

The High Road beyond Terracina still follows the direction of 
the Via Appia, and is flanked by remains of ancient tombs. The 
mountains which we skirt approach so near the sea as occasionally 
to leave barely space for the road. This pass was the ancient 
Lautulae. Here, in B. C. 315, the Romans fought a battle with 
the Samnites, and in the 2nd Punic War Fabius Maximus kept 
Hannibal in check at this point. On a hill about y 2 M. to the 
left is situated the monastery of Retiro, on the site of the villa 
in which the empeior Galba was born. Then to the right is the 
Lake of Fondi, the Laeus Fundanus or Amyclanus of the ancients, 
named after the town of Amyclae which is said to have been founded 
here by fugitive Laconians. The village towards the E. on the slope 
facing the sea is Sperlonga (see p. 16). 

The papal frontier was formerly at Torre dell' Epitafla. We 
next reach the gateway of the tower de' Confini, or La Portella, 
4 M. from Terracina. On a height to the left is the village of Monti- 
celli; by the roadside are fragments of tombs. We now enter the 
extremely fertile Terra di Lavoro (p. 7). 

The next place (11 M. from Terracina) is Fondi (5000 inhab.), 
the ancient Fundi , where Horace derides the pride of a civic of- 
ficial 'with broad purple border and censer' (Hor. Sat. i. 5 , 34). 
Change of horses, and halt of 1 / i hr. (tolerable inn). The Chateau, 
part of which adjoins the cathedral, is miserably dilapidated. Some of 
the window-frames and decorations in the most tasteful Renais- 
sance style testify to its ancient splendour. In the 16th cent, it 
belonged to the Colonnas, and in 1534 it was occupied by the beau- 
tiful Countess Giulia Gonzaga. One night the countess narrowly 
escaped being captured by the daring pirate Haireddin Barbarossa, 
who purposed conveying her to the Sultan Soliman II. Exasperated 
by his failure , he wreaked his revenge on the town , as an in- 
scription in the church records. The town was again destroyed 
by the Turks in 1594. In the vicinity is the church of 8. Maria 
in the Gothic style, with an ancient facade and portal, disfigured 
in the interior by whitewash. It contains an ancient pulpit adorned 
with mosaic, and on the right a Madonna by Silvestro de' Buoni. 
A chapel is shown in the Dominican monastery in which Thomas 
Aquinas once taught. Considerable remains of the ancient town- 
walls are preserved. The principal street coincides with the an- 
cient Via Appia. In other respects the town is a sombre-looking 
place, and like Itri (see below) was for centuries a haunt of brigands. 

Beyond Fondi the road traverses the plain for 3 M., after 
which it ascends Monte S. Andrea through mountain -ravines, 
where additional horses are necessary. It then descends to the 
poor town of Itri, with a ruined castle, where remains of sub- 
structures of the ancient Via Appia, built into the houses, are 

16 Route 2. FORMIA. From Rome 

visible from the road. Itri was once notorious for the robberies 
committed there. It was here that the robber-chief Marco Sciarra 
promised a safe conduct and protection to the poet Tasso ; and 
Fra Diavolo (whose real name was Michele Pezza) was also a native 
of Itri. He was at last captured by the French near Salerno and 
executed. Anecdotes are still related of this daring brigand, and 
Washington Irving's sketch 'The Inn of Terracina', the foundation 
of Auber's opera, has greatly contributed to maintain their interest. 

A mountainous path leads from Itri, to the right, in 2 l /i hrs. to the 
fishing-village of Sperlonga, situated on a sandy promontory, and deriving 
its name from the grottoes (speluncae) in the neighbouring rocks. In one 
of these, as Tacitus informs us (Ann. iv. 59), Sejauus saved the life of Ti- 
berius, which was imperilled by a falling rock. On the way to the grotto 
we observe Roman ruins, and the grotto itself contains benches and stucco 
ornaments. The excursion may best be made by boat from Gaeta, from 
which Sperlonga is about 9 l /2 M. distant. 

From Itri the road descends for some distance on galleries, 
and finally between woods and vineyards towards the coast, re- 
vealing an exquisite view of the bay of Gaeta, with its glittering 
villas and other edifices; in the distance are Ischia and Procida; 
still further off rise the Monte S. Angelo (p. 145) and Vesuvius. 

Farther on, we perceive to the right, in the middle of a 
vineyard, on a square base, a massive round tower, believed 
to be Cicero's Tomb. It was in this neighbourhood, not far 
from his Formianum, that the proscribed orator, who sought 
to elude the pursuit of the triumvirs Octavian, Antony, and 
Lepidus, was murdered by the tribunes Herennius and Popilius 
Lienas , 7th Dec, B.C. 43, in the 64th year of his age. On a 
height above the road may be traced the foundations of a temple 
of Apollo, said to have been founded by Cicero. Numerous re- 
lics of ancient buildings are still extant on the whole bay, which, 
like the bay of Naples, was a favourite resort of the Roman nobles, 
and was covered with the most sumptuous villas. Tradition has 
assigned several of these to Cicero, but without the slightest 
historical foundation. The road now descends to Formia. 

Formia (* Hotel del Fiori , on the coast, R. l l / 2 fr., pre- 
ferable to the inns at Gaeta), the ancient Formiae, a town with 
10,000 inhab., was called Mola di Oaeta under the former regime. 
The beauty of its situation constitutes its sole attraction. The 
mountain-range on the N. side of the bay rises abruptly from the 
sea, the lower slopes being clothed with gardens of lemons, oranges, 
and pomegranates, and with vineyards and olive-plantations. 

One of the most delightful points is the so-called Villa of 
Cicero , or Villa Caposele , above the town , formerly a favourite 
residence of the kings of Naples. It now belongs to .Sign. Gaetano 
Rubino (permission to visit it obtained by leaving a card at his palazzo 
opposite the prefecture; boy to act as guide ^2 fr.)- 

At the entrance are ancient inscriptions and statues. The lower 
part of the garden contains considerable remains of an ancient villa, 
supposed to have belonged to Cicero, but evidently from its construction 

'to Naples. GAETA. 2. Route. 17 

dating from the 1st or 2nd cent, of the Roman imperial era. Among the 
vaulted halls is one with eight columns and a semicircular apse, now 
converted into offices. During the siege of Gaeta, General Cialdini es- 
tablished his headquarters here. The upper terrace commands an un- 
interrupted survey of the charming hay, Gaeta, Ischia, the promontories 
of the Bay of Naples, and the mountain range to the S. of the Liris, which 
separates the latter from the region of the Volturno. 

Excursion to Gabta. The railway (S 1 ^ M., in 20 min. ; see 
p. 11) skirts the coast, past numerous remains of villas, which the 
Romans were in the habit of building out into the sea as far as pos- 
sible. Among them a spot is pointed out as the scene of the assas- 
sination of Cicero (see p. 16). 

Gaeta (Albergo Villa Oaeta, well spoken of; Italia; Caff'e 
Nazionale), the ancient Portus Caieta, with 19,000 inhab., is an 
important fortress, but insignificant as a commercial town. The 
promontory of Gaeta resembles the cape of Misenum in formation, 
presenting from a distance the appearance of a gigantic tumulus. 
Tradition has pointed it out as the tomb of Caieta, the nurse of 
./Eneas , and Munatius Plancus , a contemporary of Augustus and 
founder of Lyons (d. after 22 B. C), accordingly erected a con- 
spicuous and imposing monument on its summit. From this eminence 
projects a lower rock which bears the citadel with the Torre Angio- 
vina and the town. 

The strength of the place was first put to the test during the bar- 
barian immigrations. Gaeta successfully resisted the attacks of the Germanic 
invaders, and with Amain and Naples constituted one of the last strong- 
holds of ancient culture. It afterwards became a free city, presided over 
by a doge, and carried on a considerable trade with the Levant. It bade 
defiance to the assaults of the Lombards and Saracens, and preserved its 
freedom down to the 12th cent., when with the rest of Southern Italy it 
was compelled to succumb to the Normans. The fortress was extended and 
strengthened at various periods by the Arragonese, by Charles V., and 
especially by the last Bourbon monarchs. In 1501 it surrendered to the 
French, in 1504 to the Spaniards under Gonsalvo da Cordova, in 1734 to 
the' Spaniards again, and in 1798 to the French. In 1806 it was gallantly 
defended by the Prince of Hessen-Philippsthal, who, aided by the Eng- 
lish fleet, held out for nearly six months against a powerful French army 
under' Massena. Pope Pius IX. when banished in Nov., 1848, sought an 
asylum here, and remained at Gaeta until his return to Rome in April, 1850. 
In Nov., 1860, Francis II. of Naples, the last of the Bourbon kings, sought 
refuge here, and his queen Mary, Duchess of Bavaria, took a prominent 
part in the defence of the fortress, but the town was at length compelled 
to capitulate by the Italian fleet on 23rd Feb., 1861. The king was conveyed 
to Rome by a French man-of-war. 

The Cattedrale di 8. Erasmo has a remarkable campanile ; at 
the entrance are four ancient columns and relics of old sculptures. 
The modernised interior and the crypt are uninteresting. At the 
back of the high-altar (covered) is the banner presented by Pope 
Pius V. to Don John of Austria, the hero of Lepanto, representing 
the Saviour with SS. Peter and Paul. — Opposite the principal portal 
of the church is a sculptured Gothic column resting on four lions. 

Near the Piazza is the modern Gothic church of S. Francesco. 
Among the antiquities of the town may be mentioned the remains 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. 2 

18 Route 2. GAETA. 

of an amphitheatre and of a theatre, and also a column bearing the 
names of the twelve winds in Greek and Latin. 

The so-called *Torre d'Orlando, or tomb of Munatius Plancus 
(see p. 17), situated on the summit of the promontory, is now en- 
closed by the new fortifications (permission of the commandant of 
Gaeta necessary, now rarely granted). It consists of a huge circular 
structure of travertine blocks, resembling that of Caecilia Metella at 
Rome, 160 ft. high and as many in diameter. At the top is a frieze 
with military emblems. Instead of this tomb the Torre Angiovina, 
or Anjou Tower, of the citadel overlooking the town, may be visited 
(adm. usually granted by the officer on duty; ascent too difficult 
for ladies). The view embraces towards the N.W. the coast as far as 
Mte. Circeo , to the W. the sea with the Ponza Islands , to the E. 
and S. the bay of Gaeta, Ischia, Procida, Capri, and Misenum. 

The Railway prom Formia to Sparanise (p. 1 1) generally follows 
the direction of the high-road, at first not far from the sea. Farther 
on, we observe to the left a long series of arches of an ancient aque- 
duct. 7 M. Minturna, on the slope to the left, the ancient Min- 
tumae, with the remains of a theatre and an amphitheatre. 11 M. 
S. S. Cosma e Damiano Castelforte. The line crosses the Qarigliano, 
the Liris of the ancients, in the marches of which Marius once sought 
to elude the pursuit of the hirelings of Sulla. On the right bank 
of the Garigliano, 27th Dec. 1503, Don Gonsalvo da Cordova fought 
the decisive battle with the French which placed Naples in his power. 
Piero de' Medici , who, having been banished from Florence, had 
followed the French, endeavoured to escape to Gaeta in a boat with 
four field-pieces. The boat, however, sank, and all its occupants 
were drowned. Piero was buried at Monte Cassino (p. 5). The high- 
road crosses the river by a suspension-bridge constructed in 1832. 

The ancient Via Appia farther on skirts the sea, and to the W. of 
Monte Massico, whose wines Horace and Virgil have immortalised, reaches 
Mondragone, near the Sinuessa of Herace (destroyed by the Saracens in the 
10th cent.), where to his great joy he was met on his journey (Sat. i. 5, 39) 
by his friends Plotius, Varius, and Virgil. Horace then crossed the Savo 
(Savone) by the Pons Campauus and proceeded to Capua. In the vicinity, 
towards the Volturnus, was the Ager Falernus, where excellent wine, 
highly praised by the ancients, is still produced. 

16 M. Cellole Fasani. — 20i/ 2 M. Sessa Aurunca, the ancient 
Suessa Aurunca, situated on a volcanic hill, with interesting ruins 
of a bridge, amphitheatre, etc. Other relics are preserved in the 
ancient cathedral and the churches of S. Benedetto and S. Giovanni. 
In the principal street are memorial stones with inscriptions in 
honour of Charles V., above which is an old crucifix with a mosaic 
cross. — To the right rises Monte Massico (see above). 

23 M. Cascano; 25y 2 M. Carinola; 28 M. Maiorisi. The line 
then crosses the Savone, not far from the picturesque castle of Fran- 
colisi, and reaches — 

31'/2 M. (37 M. from Gaeta) Sparanise (see p. 7), 

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Geograph.^nstnlt vmi Wagner* Debes Leipzig- 

3. Naples. 

a. Arrival, Hotels, Pensions, Restaurants, Cafes, etc. 

Arrival, (a) Br Railway. The station (Stazione Centrales PI. H, 3) is 
situated at the E. end of the town. The principal hotels all send Omnibuses 
(l'/2 fr.) to meet the trains. Cabs: with two horses (nearest the entrance) 
1 fr. 40 c, each trunk 20c. ; with one horse (outside the railings, farther 
distant; seats for two persons only) 80 c, each trunk 20 c. ; no charge is 
made for smaller articles of luggage. The Facchini who take the luggage 
to the cab are paid, according to tariff: 10c. for a travelling-bag or a hat- 
box, 20 c. for heavier articles, 40 c. for boxes weighing 2vi0-400 lbs.; but 
a few soldi more are usually given. As a long delay often takes place 
before the delivery of the luggage, it is perhaps the best plan to take a 
cab direct to the hotel and send some one for the luggage, though, of 
course , this incurs a little extra expense. The services of officious by- 
standers should be declined. The formalities of the municipal douane are 
soon terminated, the declaration of the traveller that his luggage con- 
tains no comestibles liable to duty being generally accepted. 

(b) By Steamboat. As soon as permission to disembark is granted, 
a small boat (1 fr. for each person, with luggage li/ 2 fr.) conveys the 
passengers to the Dogana near the Immacolatella (PL G, 5), where luggage 
is examined. This done, one of the 'facchini della dogana 1 places the 
luggage on the fiacre or other conveyance (40 c. for each trunk, 10 c. for 
each small article). The offices of the steamboat-companies are close to 
the harbour. 

Police Office (Questura), Palazzo S. Giacomo (Municipio; P). E, F, 6), 
on the side next the Via Paolo Emilio Imbriani. The guardians of the 
public peace consist of Carabinieri (black and red coat with three-cornered 
hat), the Guardie di Pubblica Sicurezza (dark uniform with white buttons 
and military cap), and the Guardie Municipali (with yellow buttons and 
numbers on their caps). The latter are specially entrusted with the super- 
vision of vehicles. — Complaints about cabmen should be made at the 
Ufficio Centrale del Corso Pubblico, in the Municipio, 1st floor (p. 37). 

Hotels (comp. also Introd. p. xxiv : Climate and Health of Naples). 
Families visiting Naples towards the end of winter or in spring, when the 
influx of visitors is at its height, had better secure rooms by letter, some 
time before their arrival. The charges at the larger hotels are then tole- 
rably high, but it must not be forgotten that only the first-class houses 
are fitted with lifts, electric lighting, and other conveniences, besides being 
thoroughly heated, a matter of importance in cold weather. In summer 
prices are everywhere lower. Most hotels receive guests en pension if a stay 
of several days is made; while on the other hand many of the undermen- 
tioned pensions receive guests even for a single day. 

In the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the adjoining Rione Principe Amedeo 
(PI. B, C, D, 7, 6), in a healthy situation and with a splendid view: 
"Hotel Bristol (PI. a; D, 6), with good sanitary arrangements, R. 3-6, 
B. 11/2, dej. 3, D. 5, L. 3/ 4i a. 1, pension 11-14 fr. ; "Parker's Hotel Tea- 
montano (PI. b; C, 6); adjoining, *Hot. Britannique (PI. q ; C, 6; Mrs. 
Hacpherson), R., L., & A. from 3'/ 2 , B. I1/2, dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 8-12 fr.; 
these two patronized by the English and Americans. — A little below 
the Curso Vittorio Emanuele, but also with a fine view: 'Westend Hotel 
(late Hot. Nubile; PI. c; C, 6), in the same style as the Grand Hotel (see 
below), li. from 3, L. 3/ 4 , A. 1, B. l'/ 2 , dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 10-14 fr. 

Lower Town, near the sea. In the Piazza Umberto: "Grand Hotel 
(PI. d; B, 7), in an open and healthy situation close to the sea, with a 
splendid view, R. from 4, L. »/,, A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 10-15 fr. — 
In the Riviera di Chiaja (PI. D, C, B, 7), near the Villa Nazionale, with a 
view of the Villa and the sea : No. 276 , s Gran Bretagna (PI. e ; D , 7), 
R., L., & A. from 31/2, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 10-15 fr. ; No. 127, 
Hotel-Pension de la Riviera (PI. f; C, 7), pens. 8-10 fr. ; No. 118, Hotel- 
Pens, de la Ville, R. , L. , & A. from 3, B. 1, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 
7-8 fr. — In the Via Partenope, facing the sea, with the Strada Chiatamone 


20 Route 3. NAPLES. Hotels. 

behind: Vittoeia (PI. v; E, 7); Hasslee (PI. H ; E, 7), patronized by Ger- 
mans, E. from 3, L. 1/2, A. 3/4, B. I1/2, dej. with wine 3, D. with wine 
4V2, pens. 11-12, or without dej. 9-10 fr.; Washington (PL K; E, 7), E., 
L., & A. from 3, B. l'/ 2 , dej. 3'/2, D. 4V2 (both incl. wine), pens. 8 fr. ; ''Ho- 
tel Eotal des Eteangees (PI. j ; E, 7), R., L., & A. from 5 , B. li/s, dej. 
4, D. 5, pens, from 12'/2 fr., patronized by the English and Americans; 
"MGteopole (PI. c; E, 7), E. from 2, L. 3/<, A. */<, B - I'A*, i6 3- 21 /2, D. 4, 
pens, from 71/2 fr.; 'Hot. du Vesuve (PI. g; E, 7), R. from 3, A. «/ 4 , B. I1/2, 
dej. 2V2, D. 4 fr. — In the Strada S. Lucia, to the E. of the Pizzofalcone 
(PI. E, 7): Hotel de Rossie (PI. n; F, 7), R. 2-3 fr., L. 60, A. 60c, B. l'/ 4 , 
dej. 274, D. 372, pens. 7-9 fr. 

The following second-class hotels, near the centre of traffic, are_ chiefly 
visited by commercial men. At the top of the Strada Medina : Hotel de 
Geneve et Centkal (PI. 0; F, 5), with lift, B. 3, B. IV2, D. incl. wine 472, 
L. & A. 172, pens. 10 fr. ; La Pateia, 32 Via S. Giuseppe, diverging to the 
left of the Strada Medina a little farther on (PI. F, 5), R. 272 fr., unpre- 
tending; Ceoce di Malta, Gradini S. Giuseppe 6. — In the Piazza S. Fer- 
dinando , at the beginning of the Toledo (PI. E, 6): Hotel d'Eueope and 
Hotel d'Oeient, belonging to the same landlord, entrance by Strada Nar- 
dones. — In the Largo della Caritat Hotel de l'Univees, R. 272-3, L. 72, 

A. 7z, B. 1 fr. 20 c, dej. 2-27 2 , D. 3-37 2 (both incl. wine). - In the 
Via Guantai Nuovi : Hotel de Naples, Palazzo Serena, No. 102, R. from 172! 

B. 1, dej. 274, D. 372 (both incl. wine), pens. 9 fr. — Near the railway- 
station, in the new Via Firenze (PI. H, 3): No. 11, Bella Napoli. 

Pensions. The following may all be recommended for a stay of from 
3-4 days upwards (comp. p. xix). — Via Partenope, No. 1, corner of the 
Largo Vittoria (p. 34): Pension Macpheeson (same proprietrix as Hotel 
Britannique, p. 19), with lift, patronized by the English, 8-12 fr. — Chia- 
tamone, No. 23: Pens. d'Allemagne, 7-9 fr. — S. Lucia: No. 5 (1st floor), 
Pens, de Geneve, patronized by Germans, 6-7 fr. — Strada Nardwm: 
No. 60 (1st & 2nd floors), to the W. of Piazza S. Ferdinando and the To- 
ledo, Pens. Tedesca, 6 fr. — Rampe Brancaccio (PI. D, 6; too steep for 
carriages); No. 20 (1st floor), Maison Bouebon, patronized by Germans, 
6-7 fr. — Parco Margherita (PI. D, 6): No. 2, Pens, du Midi, 7-9 fr.; No. 
3, Pens. Stoeet-Pinto, 6 fr. ; Pens. Poli, 6-7 fr. — Corso Principe Amedeo 
(PI. C, 6), No. 14, Hotel d: Pension Bellevoe, 7-9 fr. — Mergellina 34 
(PI. B, 7), Pal. Torlonia, Mks. Falcioni-Hensley (English Boarding House). 
— Strada Nuova di Posilipo (p. 87), Pens. Ang- laise ( Villa Cappella; Miss 
Baker), 6-8 fr. ; Pens. Sabelli, 6-8 fr. ; both patronized by the English. 

Hotels Garnis. For a stay of some duration (10 days and upwards) 
the traveller .may prefer to take rooms at a private hotel, where he will 
be more independent than at a hotel or a pension. Charges vary with the 
season , culminating on unusual occasions , such as an eruption of Mt. 
Vesuvius, which invariably attracts crowds of visitors. The rooms are 
generally large and fitted up for two persons: with one bed 172-4, with 
two beds 3-6 fr. per day. The number of days for which the room is 
engaged should be expressly stated, otherwise the visitor may be required 
to leave unexpectedly, and a distinct bargain should be made as. to charges 
(«. g, : A. 72 fr., L. 30 c. per day). Breakfast may usually be obtained in 
the house, but better at a cafe. The best lodgings are in the new houses 
in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the Rione Principe Amedeo, with 
splendid view (50-60 fr. monthly, incl. attendance): e. g. in the Casa 
Amedeo, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 143; also in S. Lucia, Nos. 28, 31, 92; in the 
.Chiaja, Nos. 171, 260, 263, etc. 

Restaurants (Trattorie; comp. p. xx) very numerous. Italian cuisine. 
Smoking universal ; ladies, however, may visit the better of these establish- 
ments. — "Birreria Gambrinus, Piazza S. Ferdinando, dej. ,11-1 o'cl. 2, D., 
6-9 o'cl., 4fr.; "Birreria di Monaco, Piazza Municipio, Via S. Carlo' 49-50, 
dej. incl. wine 2-2'/2, D. incl. wine, 3-5 fr.; 'Rent. Starace, Galleria Cm- 
berto 1, dej. 272, D. 4 fr. (both incl. wine). These three h;tve excellent 
cuisine and good wines; also Munich beer on draught, 35-55 c ; music in 
the evening at the two last. — Restaurant. Continental, Strada Medina 61 well 
spoken of; Birreria-Restaurant Eden. S. Lucia, onDosife the Hotel du 

Restaurants. NAPLES. 3. Route. 21 

Vesuve, with garden. — Giardini di Torino", Toledo 300, at the corner 
of the Vico Tre Ee, moderate; Regina <T Italia, Toledo 319, entrance in 
the Vico S. Sepolcro, much frequented; Trattoria Com fortabile, also in the 
Toledo, close to the Largo dellaCarita; Falcone, Strada Guantai Nuovi 9; 
Al Campidoglio , same street; Trattoria Milanese, opposite the post-office, 
with N. Italian cuisine and wines ; Cafi Santangelo, in the Galleria Prin- 
cipe di Napoli (p. 41), lunch 2-3, D. 4-5 fr., convenient for visitors to the 
museum, hut not recommended in cold weather. Several cheaper trattorie 
may also be. found in this neighbourhood. 

The Trattorie di Campagna, by the Posilipo, close to the sea, are very 
popular in summer and command superb views, especially by moonlight. 
Figlio di Pielro , La Sirena , close to the ruins of the Palazzo di Donn' 
Anna (p. 87), l'/a M. from the W. end of the town; two Trattorie in the 
Palazzo itself; about 1/4 M. beyond it is the Antica Trattoria dello Scoglio 
di Frisio; all these are mediocre and dear, so that previous agreement, 
as to charges is strongly recommended. The following are somewhat 
cheaper houses: Trait, della Stella di Posilipo, Bellavista, etc.; all beauti- 
fully situated on the Posilipo, near the tramway-terminus. The Trattoria 
Pallino (p. 85), on the Posilipo (exquisite view), and the Trattoria Pastafina, 
at the W. extremity of the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, near the station of the 
line to Cuinre (Ferrovia Cumana; p. 91), are also much frequented. 

Wine. The wine of the environs is generally excellent, 50-80 c. per litre, 
such as Salerno, Gragnano, Ischia, Vino di Procida, del Monte di Procida, 
and di Posilipo. Marsala , Falerno , Capri , and Lacrima Christi are sold 
by the bottle. Wine-stores: Str. S. Caterina a Chiaja 136, 146; Via Paolo 
Emilio Imbriani 42 (good Vesuvio), etc. Good Neapolitan, Sicilian, and 
S. Italian wines may also be obtained at numerous small and very un- 
pretending wine-stores, such as the Osteria Vincenzo Bifulgo, Vico Conte 
di Mola (PI. B, 6). Foreign wines sold by Luigi Caflisch, Toledo 315 and S. 
Caterina a Chiaja 142; Rouff, Scala, Strada S. Caterina a Chiaja; etc. 

Cafes (comp. p. xxi). The best cafes are at the S. end of the Toledo, 
near the Piazza del Plebiscite. Here are situated: "Cafi-Restaurant Gam- 
brimis (see p. 20); farther on, "Restaurant Starace (see p. 20). There are 
also several smaller cafes in the Toledo: No. 316, Gran Cafe" <f Italia. — 
Gaffe di Monaco, near the Castel Nuovo. — At the Villa Nazionale : Caffe di 
Napoli, adjoining the Aquarium, concerts in the afternoon or evening (ac- 
cording to the season). — Coffee prepared in the Oriental style may be 
obtained at the Caffe Turco, in the Piazza del Plebiscito, and the Caffe Turco, 
Strada S. Brigida. 

Beer. In the Birrerie and trattorie mentioned above; Sedlmayr zum 
Spaten (Munich beer in bottles), Strada Guantai Nuovi 46, 3rd floor. 

Confectioners: "Caflisch, Toledo 253-255 and Strada S. Caterina a Chiaja 
142; Van Bol A Feste , Piazza S. Ferdinando 51 ; Ferroni, S. Brigida 3. — 
Boulangerie Francaise, S. Brigida 2; Machine-made Bread, Via Vittoria 11 ; 
German Baker, Str. Carlo Poerio a Chiaja 69. — English Grocery Stores 
(Smith & Co.), Galleria Umberto. 

Cigars. The government-shop (Spaccio normale) is in the Toledo, No. 248, 
opposite the Galleria Umberto I. Imported Havannah cigars cost from 25 c. 

b. Carriages, Tramways, Boats. 

Information about cab-fares, and the tramway and railway communi- 
cations in the environs of Naples will be found in the Orario, published 
monthly, and sold everywhere in the streets (5 c). 

Carriages. The distances in Naples are so great, carriage-fares are so 
moderate, and walking in the hot season is so fatiguing, that most tra- 
vellers will prefer driving to walking. A private two-horse carriage for 
excursions costs 20-25 fr. per day, or 12-15 fr. for half-a-day, besides a 
gratuity of 2-3 fr. Carriages may be hired at the hotels, etc. — The 
ordinary cabs are of course the cheapest conveyances. The cabmen of Naples 
are notorious for their attempts at imposition. In order to avoid imposi- 
tion, the best course is to pay the exact fare, and not a single soldo more. 

22 Route 3. NAPLES. Cabs. 

Those who are disposed to pay literally are sure to be victimised. The 
Neapolitans strike a bargain before entering the vehicle, and sometimes 
pay even less than the tariff-charge. In order to avoid misunderstandings, 
the driver should be asked to repeat the given direction before starting 
('avete capito dove dovete andare'). In case of altercations, application should 
be made to the nearest policeman (p. 19), or at the office of the Corso 
Pubblico on the first floor of the Municipio. In the latter case the tra- 
veller should not forget to take one of the tickets bearing the driver's 
number from the pocket hanging behind the box of the vehicle. — A careful 
study of the tramway and omnibus routes given below will render the 
traveller practically independent of cabs. 

Cab Fares. — a. Within the City proper, extending W. to the Mer- 
gellina, N. to the Tondo di Capodimonte (PI. D, E, 1), and E. to the Ponte 
della Maddalena (to the E. of the Castel del Carmine; PI. H, 4). 

Open one-horse carriage ('carrozzella'', for two By day By night 
persons, or three at most): '"mJUuS)'* 

Per drive — 70 c. 1 fr. 10 c. 

By time (generally disadvantageous), first hour 1 fr. 50 c. 2 fr. 10 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 10 c. 1 fr. 50 c. 

Closed one-horse carr. (vetture-coupee), per drive 1 fr. — 1 fr. 50 c. 

By time : first hour 2 fr. — 2 fr. 50 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 50 c. 2 fr. — 

With two horses: per drive 1 fr. 40 c. 2 fr. 20 c. 

First hour 2 fr. 20 c. 3 fr. 20 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 70 c. 2 fr. 20 c. 

Each box from the station to the town 20 c, smaller articles free. 
For a drive in the corso in the Via Caracciolo (p. 33), a carr. with 
one horse costs 3 fr. , with two horses 6 fr. the first hr. , 2 or 4 fr. each 
additional hour, 
(b) Outside the Citt: — One-horse Two-horse 

Fuorigrotta 1. 20 2. 40 

Bagnoli and Lago d"Agnano (Bog Grotto) ... 2. 50 4. — 

Pozzaoli 3. — 4. 75 

Arenella, Aniignano, Vomero, S. Martino, 

or Villaggio di Capodimonte 2. — 3. 25 

Campo di Marie or Cimelero Nuovo 2. — 3. 25 

Portici 2. 25 3. 50 

Resina 2. 50 4. — 

Torre del Greco 3. 50 5. — 

These are the fares from the stands nearest to the respective points. Un- 
less a special bargain be made, the fares from other stands are 70 c. to 1 fr. 
10 c. in excess of the above. Cabs may also be hired by time for visits 
to these places ; one-horse carr. 2i/2, two-horse 3V2 fr. per hr. For longer 
excursions, an agreement should be made with the driver beforehand. On 
Sundays and holidays the fares are somewhat higher. 

Tramways in the town. — Fare 15-30c, according to the distance. 
The 2nd class seats, which are cheaper by 5 c, should be avoided. 

1 (Horse Cars). From the Post Office (PI. F, 5) across the Pi- 
azza del Municipio (PI. F, 6), by the Via S. Carlo, the Piazza or Largo 
S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6 ; p. 36), Piazza del Plebiscito, Strada S. Lucia (PI. E, 
F, 7), Chiaja, past La Toreetta (junction of the tramway to Pozzuoli, see 
p. 23) through the Mergellina, and past the Palazzo di DonrC Anna to the 
trattoria Stella di Posilipo (p. 21). 

2 (Horse Cars). From the Largo S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6 ; p. 36), by 
the Piazza del Municipio (PI. F, 6), Strada del Piliero (PI. F, G, 6, 5), etc., 
past the Castel del Carmine (PI. H, 40; p. 39), to Portici (p. 108; every 10 
min.) and Torre del Greco (p. 110; every 20mln.). 

3 (Horse Cars). From the Museum (PI. E, F, 3) as in No. 4 via Porta 
Capuana and the Castel del Carmine to Porlici (p. 108). 

4 (Horse Cars). From the Piazza S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6 ; p. 36) as 
above to the Castel del Carmine (PI. H, 4; p. 39), then to the N. through 
the Corso Garibaldi past the Central Station (PI. H, 3) to the Porta Capu- 

Tramways. NAPLES. 3. Route. 23 

ana (PI. H, 3; p. 49), and by the Strada Carbonara (PI. G, 3), Strada 
Foria, and Piazza Cavour to the Museum (PI. E, F, 3; p. 55). 

5 (Horse Cars). From the Tiro Provinciale (PI. H, 1) by the Strada 
Foria and Piazza Cavour to the Museum (PI. E, F, 3 ; p. 55). 

6 (Horse Cars). From the Reclusorio (PI. G , H, 2, 1) through the 
Borgo S. Antonio and the Cvrso Garibaldi (PI. H, 3, 4), and past the Castel 
del Carmine, then along the Harbour, and as in No. 4 to La Torretta 
(PI. B, 7; see below). 

7 (Steam Tramway). From the Museum (PI. E, F, 3) by a rack-and-pinion 
line through the Via Salvator Rosa (PI. E , 3) to the Piazza Salvator 
Kosa (PI. E , D , 4) ; then by ordinary steam-tramway along the whole 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele to the Piazza di PiedigroUa (PI. B, 7) and thence to 
La Torretta (PI. B, 7; see above, No. 1 and 6, and below). Trains (24 daily 
in each direction) about every 40 min., from 6.40 and 7 a.m., performing 
the journey in 50 min. (fare 15-30 c). The train stops as required, but 
there are fixed stations at the Piazza Salvator Rosa, Vico Cariati (PI. E, 6), 
Rione Amedeo (Parco Margherita, PI. C, 6), and Via Tasso (PI. C, 6). 

Cable Tramways (Ferrovie Funicolari) to the top of the Vomero (PI. C, 5) 
from Rione Amedeo (PI. C, 6; with station beside the Hotel Bristol in the 
Corso Vitt. Eman. PI. D, 7) and from Monte Santo (PI. E, 4; near the 
station of the Pozzuoli, Baise, and Cumse Railway). 

Tramways in the Environs. — 1 (Horse Cars). The line mentioned 
above (No. 2) to Portici and Torre del Greco. 

2 (Horse Cars). From the Porta Capuana (beside the railway-station 
for Nola, PI. H, 3) to the Camposanto (p. 49) and to Poggio Reale. 

3 (Steam Tramway). From the Porta Capuana to the Tiro a Segno 
(PI. H, 1) , and via Capodichino, S. Pietro a Patierno, Casoria, Afragola, 
and Cardito to Caivano (every I-IV2 hr.). 

4 (Steam Tramway). From the Porta Capuana (as in No. 3) to Capo- 
dichino, and via Secondigliano , Melito (branch to Giugliano), to Aversa 
(p. 203), every 2 hrs. 

5 (Steam Tramway). From 1a Torretta (PI. B, 7 ; steam-tramway 
from the Museum , see above) through the new Grotta di Posilipo to Poz- 
zuoli (p. 93). The cars are drawn from the Piazza S. Ferdinando (p. 22) by 
horses and are attached to the locomotive at La Torretta, so that 
passengers need not alight. To make sure of a seat it is advisable to take 
the car from the Piazza S. Ferdinando. 

Omnibuses. The chief starting-point is the Piazza S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6 ; 
p. 36), whence among others start the omnibuses (every 5 min.) ascend- 
ing the Toledo to the Museum (PI. E, F, 3), and plying thence to Capodimonte 
(PI. E, 1); and those running by the Corso Principe Amedeo to the Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele Station (PI. B, 6) of the line to Pozzuoli mentioned at 
p. 91 (20 c). — The omnibuses plying from the Piazza del Municipio to 
the environs are not recommended to strangers. 

Boats. Row in the harbour 1-1 1/2 fr. for the first, 1 fr. for each ad- 
ditional hour. A previous agreement should be made. Boats to the mail- 
steamers, lfr. including luggage; to the Ischia, Sorrento, and Capri steamers 
30c. — A large steamer, starting at the new wooden bridge in the Via 
Caracciolo, makes Circular Tours in the Gulf of Naples on Sun. evenings 
in summer (weather permitting). Fares from 6.30 till 8 , 1 fr. ; from 
9.30 till midnight, 2 fr. 

0. Bankers, Money Changers, Consulates, Physicians, Hospitals, Baths, 
Post and Telegraph Office, English Church, etc. 

Bankers. W. J. Turner & Co., S. Lucia 64; Meuricoffre d; Co., Via 
del Municipio 52 ; Holme & Co. , Strada Flavio Gioia 2 ; Th. Cook <& Son, 
Piazza dei Martiri 52; C. Aselmeyer, Via S. Brigida 6. Bills of exchange 
and foreign cheques must be stamped on presentation for payment with 
a '■bollo straordinario\ obtainable at the Uffizio del Bollo Straordinario 
in the Municipio. 

Honey Changers are stationed at several of the most frequented parts 
of the streets. Small amounts of 1-2 fr. may be exchanged here gratuit- 

24 Route 3. NAPLES. Baths. 

ously for copper. In changing silver, the traveller should beware of false 
or obsolete coins (see p. xi). No other banknotes should be taken than 
the Biglietti di Stato, or those of the Banca Nazionale and the Banco di 
Napoli. The change should of course be counted. In order to avoid impo- 
sition and many a trial of patience, the traveller should always be well 
provided with copper coins. 

Consulates. American (Mr. John S. Twells), 64 Strada S. Lucia (11-3); 
Austrian, S. Anna dei Lombardi 44; British (Capt. Hartwell, R.N.), 4 Monte 
di Dio, Pizzofalcone (10-3); Danish, Via S. Brigida6; Norwegian and Swe- 
dish, Via Amedeo 15; Dutch, Piazza del Municipio 52; French, Via Vittoria, 
Pal. Amodio; German, Via Pontano 13; Russian, Via Chiatamone30; Swiss, 
Piazza del Municipio 52. 

Physicians. Dr. C. Wright Barringer, Riviera di Chiaja 267; Dr. Johnston 
Lavis, Chiatamone 7; Dr. Gairdner , Pal. Fraia, Via Amedeo 128; Dr. Can- 
tani (of Prague), director of the Clinica Medica at the university, Str. 
Fuoriporta Medina 23 ; Dr. Malbranc, physician of the German hospital (see 
below), Via Amedeo 145, Palazzo Grifeo; Dr. Schrbn, professor at the 
university, Palazza Montemiletto, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 440 (hour of consul- 
tation 9-10); Dr. Imfeld, Eldorado, Piazza Mondragone; Dr. Scotti (ocu- 
list), physician to the International Hospital (see below) ; Dr. Cardarelli, 
Strada Costantinopoli 33 ; Dr. Ernesto Chiaradia. 31 Bisignano (speaks English). 
— Dentists: Dr. Atkinson, Via Roma (gia Toledo) 228; Dr. Kessel, Piazza 
dei Martiri 19. 

Chemists. Anglo-American Pharmacy (J. Durst). Piazza Garofalo a 
Chiaja 31 ; Santoro, Piazza Carolina 7 (above the Piazza del Plebiscito), 
Homeopathic Druggist, Toledo 388. — Drug-dealers, Fratelli Hermann, Piazza 
del Municipio 73. — Surgical and Hygienic Articles. Mineral Water, etc., H. Pe- 
tersen, Strada S. Anna dei Lombardi 49, near the post-office. 

Hospitals. In the event of serious illness travellers are strongly re- 
commended to procure admission to the Ospedale Jnternazionale, Villa 
Bentinck, Via Tasso (PI. C, 6), in a most healthy situation, supported by 
voluntary contributions, and open to strangers of all nationalities, under 
the superintendence of Dr. Scotti (1st cl. 15, 2nd cl. 6 fr. per day). — 
Another good and less expensive hospital is that of the German commu- 
nity of Naples (Deutsches Krankenhaus; PL C, 7), Rione Amedeo, Via 
Pontano, Largo Terracina a Chiaja (1st cl. 10, 2nd cl. 6 fr. per day; su- 
perintendent, Dr. Malbranc). 

Baths. Warm : "Bains du Chiatamone, also Russian and Turkish baths ; 
others at Vico Belle Donne a Chiaja 12 and Loggia Berio alia Speran- 
zella, both belonging to a Swiss proprietor. — Sea-Bathing in summer. 
The most frequented place is beyond the Villa Nazionale, but as the drains 
of the town empty themselves in the vicinity, the water is anything but clean. 
A better place is at the Posilipo near the Villa Monplaisir, immediately 
beyond the precincts of the city ; large cabinet I1/2 fr. with towels, small 
cabinet 60 c. ; fee 5 c. 

Lieux d'Aisance (Latrine Pubbliche ; 10 c.) at the Villa, by the egress 
towards the sea, near the large fountain ; also by the promontory of S. 
Lucia , to which a flight of steps descends , to the left ; at the harbour, 
near the Immacolatella; in the Toledo, to the left of the Museum; at the 
Reclusorio ; in the Piazza del Plebiscito, to the left of the colonnades; 
on the stairs ascending to the Ponte di Chiaja. 

Post and Telegraph Office in the Palazzo Gravina (PI. F, 5 ; p. 43), 
Strada Montoliveto. Branch Offices in the Piazza S. Caterina a Chiaja, the 
railway-station, Str. del Duomo 58, at the Immacolatella on the quay (PI. 
G, 5), Via Salvator Rosa 287, in the Torretta (PI. B, 7), opposite the 
Museo Nazionale (p. 55). Letters should be posted at the branch-offices 
2 hrs. , and at the general post-office 1 hr. before the departure of the 
mail- train for which they are intended. — The chief Telegraph Office, 
on the first floor of the Palazzo Gravina, is open day and night. Branch 
Offices: Str. S. Giacomo 42. Str. del Duomo 136, Corso Garibaldi 45, 
nearly opposite the station, and Piazza Garofalo a Chiaja 12. 

English Church (Christ Church), in the Strada S. Pasquale, leading out 
of the Riviera di Chiaja, on the site presented to the English residents 

Shops. NAPLES. 3. Route. 25 

by Garibaldi when dictator in 1860; service on Sun. at 11 a.m. and 3. 
15. p.m. ; on Wed., Frid., and festivals at 11 a.m. ; chaplain, Rev. H. T. Barff, 
yilla Scoppa, Parco Grifeo, Corso Vitt. Emanuele. — Presbyterian Church 
(Chiesa Scozzese), Vico Cappella Vecchia 2 ; service on Sun. at 11 a. m. 
and 3.30 p. m., on Wed. at 3 p. m. (Rev. T. Johnstone Irving). — Wes- 
leyan Methodist Church, Vico S. Anna di Palazzo; English service at 11 
(Rev. T. W. S. Jones). — Baptist Church, Strada Foria 175 (Rev. R. Walker; 
service at 11). — Floating Bethel ('Victoria''), in the harbour; service at 
6.30. — Italian Service of the Waldensian Church, S. Tommaso d'Aquino, 
Vico Portaria a Toledo, on Sun. at 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. — French and 
German Protestant Church , Strada Carlo Poerio , Piazza dei Martiri 
(PI. D, 6). 

The Evangelical Schools for Italian children (supported by the Evan- 
gelical Aid Committee>, in the building connected with the Presbyterian 
Church (see above) and at the Waldensian Church (see above) , may 
be visited on Monday forenoons , 9-12. — A visit to the Kindergarten 
School in the Ex-Collegio Medico, Largo S. Aniello, may also be found 

d. Shops. 

Coral, tortoise-shell, and lava ornaments may be mentioned as spe- 
cialities of Naples. Copies of ancient bronzes, Etruscan vases, etc., are 
also well executed here. Bargaining is absolutely necessary in order to 
prevent extortion. If a number of different articles are bought in one 
shop, a round sum should be offered for the lot, 25-30 per cent below 
the aggregate of the single prices. Those who know something of the 
language will of course buy to the best advantage. The buyer should be 
careful to maintain a polite and unexcited demeanour. 

Antique Bronzes. Copies may be obtained from Gen. Chiurazzi, Gal- 
leria Principe di Napoli No. 6 (studio in the Albergo dei Poveri); and in 
the photograph- shops of Sommer, Amodio , etc. (Narcissus 100-150 fr. ; 
Dancing Faun 130-160 fr.). The bronzes executed by Sabatino de Angelis, 
Strada Nuova di Capodimonte, are said to be especially good; specimens 
may be bought in the Galleria Principe di Napoli (p. 41) , near the Cafe 
Santangelo. — The green bronzes are cheaper than the copper-coloured. 

Antiquities. Scognamiglio , Piazza dei Martiri 54; Barone , Str. Tri- 
nita, Maggiore 6, second floor, nearly opposite S. Chiara; 67. Varelli, Gal- 
leria Umberto I., No. 8 (p. 36). 

Booksellers. Furchheim, English and German Bookseller, Piazza dei 
Martiri 59, English and foreign books, newspapers, photographs, etc. ; Delken 
d- Rocholl, Piazza del Plebiscito; R. Marghieri, Galleria Umberto I., No. 77. 

Bookbinder, Bianconcini, Toledo 149; Cadamartori, Monte di Dio 77. 

Bronzes, see Antique Bronzes. 

Chemists, see p. 24. 

Coral and Lava, Cameos, Gold Ornaments. •Achille Squadrilli, Largo 
Vittoria, opposite the entrance to the Villa Nazionale, an old-established 
house with a large assortment and fixed prices (5 per cent discount allow- 
ed). "Casalta, Piazza dei Martiri 60, gold ornaments after Pompeian 
models ; Rocco Morabito , Piazza dei Martiri 32 ; Merlino , Strada del 
GigantelS; M. Pisdone, Riviera diChiaja271; N. Piscione, Str. Calabritto 
35; Giacinto Melillo, Riviera di Chiaja 286; De Caro, S. Lucia 70. — 
Cameos : Stella, Str. Pace 9 (portraits in lava, coral, etc.). — The so-called 
lava-ornaments are manufactured of a kind of calcareous tufa, also found 
on Mount Vesuvius, having been probably thrown up by former erup- 
tions, and presenting various tints of grey, brown, greenish, and reddish 

Haberdashers & Hosiers. Ville de Londres, Strada Chiaja 198. 

Hairdresser, see Perfumer. 

Hatters. Best shops in the Toledo and Strada Chiaja. 

Marbles of Vitclano. These beautiful coloured marbles , from the 
quarries which furnished the adornments of the grand staircase at Caserta 
(p. 9), may be seen at Piazza Cavour 54, near the Museum. 

26 Route 3. NAPLES. Theatres. 

Millinery. Gi/lteridge & Co., Toledo 192 and Salita Museo 92-94; 
Qoudstikker & Fits , Toledo , Galleria Umberto I. •, Shilton & Co. , Strada 
S. Brigida; Magazzini Generali Italiani (Mele <t Co.), Via del Municipio. 

Music, see Pianos. 

Opticians. Heinemann, Toledo 251; Taylor, Chiaja4; Angelo Ochs, To- 
ledo 314; Schnabel, Toledo 231; Talbot, Chiaja 215. 

Peefumeks. Zempt , Galleria Principe di Napoli (p. 41) ; Aubry, Strada 
Chiaja 255; Barca, Toledo, Galleria Umberto I.; Picarelli, Stajano, Via 
Calabritto, Nos. 33 and 4, are both for ladies. 

Photographs. Furchheim (p. 25); Sommer, Largo Vittoria; Scala, 
S. Lucia 73; Amodio, Via Vittoria 17; all of these also sell bronzes, terra- 
cottas, etc.; Achille Mauri, Toledo 256; Giac. Brogi of Florence, Strada 
Chiatamone 19bis. 

Pianos (also for hire). G. Helzel, Strada di Chiaja 138; Scognamillo, 
Piazza Martiri, Palazzo Calabritto. — Music : Societa Musicale Napoletana (Ger- 
man manager), Strada di Chiaja 226; Cottrau, Chiaja 73; Ricordi, Galleria 
Umberto I. (p. 36). — Music Masters, very numerous; addresses obtained 
at the music-shops. 

Shoemakers. Baldelli, Strada di Chiaja 240; De Notaris, Str. di 
Chiaja 189; Calzoleria Reale di M. Forte, Toledo 259, Via S. Carlo, Galleria 
Umberto I. ; Ferro, Piazza S. Ferdinando 49. 

Stationers. Richter (lithographer), Colonnade di S. Francesco di Paola 
10-12 and Toledo 309 ; Lattes, Via S. Giuseppe 25 and Strada di Chiaja 81 ; 
Tipaldi, Str. Montoliveto 51 (artists' requisites); Furchheim (p. 25). 

Straw -Plaiting from Ischia, where this industry has been intro- 
duced since the earthquake of 1883: Lavoro e Carita, Chiaja 84. 

Tailors. Lennon & Murray (English), Str. Calabritto 2; Kieper, Str. 
Montoliveto 61 ; both good but expensive. Ready-made clothes at Fra- 
telli Bocconi, Toledo 343. 

Tortoise Shell. JSguadrilli, Piazza Vittoria (see p. 25); L. Labriola, 
Str. Chiatamone 23bis; M. Labriola, Fratelli Labriola, Rocco Morabito (see 
p. 25), Tagliaferri, all in the Via Calabritto. 

Umbrellas and Fans. Gilardini, Toledo 335; De Martina, Strada di 
Chiaja 210. 

Vases, Majolica, Terracottas, and Statuettes (of Neapolitan fig- 
ures, very characteristic): Industria Ceramica Napoletana, Via Chiaja 5; 
Cacciapuoli, Via Chiaja 84; Ginori, No. 31 in the continuation of the Strada 
S. Brigida; Scala, S. Lucia 73; Mollica, Strada del Gigante 17. Also at 
several of the photograph-shops (see above). 

Watchmakers. Gutwenger, Str. S. Caterina a Chiaja 66; Wyss, Str. S. 
Brigida 47; Lista, Str. S. Brigida 7. 

Wood Carvings from Sorrento: Gargiulo (p. 148), Via Calabritto 5. 

Goods Agents. E. G. Vickers & Co., Via Vittoria 19; Grimaldi, S. 
Brigida 15; in the last two railway and steamboat-tickets are also issued. 

e. Theatres, Street Scenes, Religious and National Festivals. 
Theatres (comp. p. xxii). The -Teatro S. Carlo (PI. F, 6 ; p. 36), one of 
the largest theatres in Europe, contains six tiers of boxes, 32 in each. Operas 
and ballet only. Parterre 6 fr. (fauteuil or poltrona 12 fr.) ; boxes , 1st 
tier 55 fr., 2nd tier 65 fr., 3rd 40 fr., and so on. — Teatro del Fondo 
(or Mercadante), in the Piazza del Municipio , closed at present. — Tea- 
tro Nuovo, in the Vico del Teatro Nuovo, a side-street of the Toledo. 
Comic opera. — Teatro Bellini, Strada Bellini (PI. F, 4), entrance 
by the Via Conte di Ruvo. Dramas and operas. Parterre 2 fr.; boxes 6, 10, 
14 fr., etc. — Teatro Rossini, Strada fuori Porta Medina. Comedies and 
operas. — Teatro Sannazaro, Str. di Chiaja. Dramas and comedies; also 
pieces in dialect. Parterre 3 fr. — Teatro Politeama (PI. F, 7), Strada Monte 
di Dio. Musical entertainments, operettas, circus. — Teatro Fiorentini 
(PI. E, F. 5), in the street of that name. Dramas. Parterre 1 fr. 20 c, fau- 
teuil 2 fr. 70 c, boxes, 1st tier 11 fr. , 2nd tier 12 fr., etc. — Teatro 
Fenice (PI. E, F, 6), Piazza del Municipio; Teatro K. Carlino, Piazza del 
Porto , at the end of the Str. del Castello ; Teatro Petrella, Str. Flavia 
Gioia. At these' farces and dialect pieces. — The Salone Margherita, 

Street Scenes. NAPLES. 3. Route. 27 

Galleria Umberto I., is a kind of cafe chantant or music-hall. 

The visitor may become acquainted at two Popular Theatres in the 
Strada Foria (PI. G, 2) with 'Pulcinella', the 'Punch and Judy 1 of the 
Neapolitans, to whom the spectacle is an unfailing source of amusement. 
These performances are said to derive their origin from the ancient Oscan 
comedy of Atella. Those who have some knowledge of the Neapolitan 
dialect will find them not beneath their notice. Acerra (p. 10) is said to 
be the original home of Pulcinella. At Christmas and Easter curious reli- 
gious plays are performed in these theatres. — The numerous Marionette 
Theatres , in the Strada Foria and on the Marinella , with their blood- 
thirsty plays of melodramatic chivalry, are also characteristic. 

Street Scenes. — The life of the people in Naples is carried on with 
greater freedom and more careless indifference to publicity than in any 
other town in Europe. From morning till night the streets resound with 
the cries of the vendors of edibles and other articles. Strangers especially 
are usually besieged by swarms of hawkers, pushing their wares, and all 
eager and able to take full advantage of the inexperience of their victims. 
The most medley throng is seen in the Toledo (p. 40), especially towards 
evening and after the lamps are lit. At fixed hours the importunate 
tribe of Oiornalisti or newsvendors makes itself heard , and late in the 
evening appear the lanterns of the Trovatori , hunting for cigar-ends and 
similar unconsidered trifles. The Strada del Castello or di Porto (PI. F,5), 
opposite the Castello Nuovo (p. 37), is another centre of popular life. 
A double row of awnings stretches in front of the houses, and itinerant 
cooks set up their stoves and drive a brisk trade in fish, meat, or maccaroni, 
while in the Calata di S. Marco (to the left) other dealers tempt the crowd 
with fragments from the trattorie or trays of carefully assorted cigar-ends. 
The narrow side-streets between the^Mercato (p. 39) and the Mercato del 
Pendino (PI. G, 4), especially in the forenoon, also afford most character- 
istic studies of the humbler city life. Every Monday and Friday morning 
the streets in the neighbourhood of the Porta Nolana (PI. H, 4) break 
out in a curious and animated rag-fair, where all kinds of old clothes 
change hands. The vicinity of the Porta Capuana (PI. H, 3) is another 
centre of variegated life and bustle. This is a haunt of the Public Readers, 
who are also to be regularly seen about 4 p.m. at the Villa del Popolo 
(p. 39), opposite the Castello del Carmine; Quack Doctors extol their nos- 
trums in interminable harangues, which they punctuate by drawing teeth ; 
and not seldom Funeral Processions pass, escorted (as at Rome, Flor- 
ence, etc.) by the fantastically disguised members of the brotherhood 
to which the deceased has belonged. The gorgeous coffins, however, 
which appear in the processions, are usually empty, the corpse having 
as a rule been previously conveyed to the cemetery'. During the weeks 
before Christmas hundreds of so-called Zampognari perambulate the streets, 
playing their bag-pipes and flutes before the shrines of the Madonna, but 
all disappearing before Christmas Day. — The Corso, mentioned at p. 33, 
takes place in the afternoon in winter, and in the evening in summer, in 
the Via Caracciolo, near the Villa Nazionale. — The numerous restaurants 
and eating-houses on the Posilipo (p. 85), at Fuorigrotta (p. 92), etc., are 
filled every fine Sunday afternoon with gay crowds , amusing themselves 
with songs and careless merriment. — The herds of goats which are 
driven into the town every morning and evening will also attract 
the stranger's interest. The animals enter the houses and ascend even 
to the highest story to be milked. Cows are also driven through the 
streets at the same hours, and are milked by the herdsmen at the doors of 
the houses. These animals do not add to the cleanliness of the city. 

Shoe-blacks ('lustring or 'lustrascarpe'), whose knocking is intended to 
attract passers-by, 10 c. 

Matches. A box of vestas (cerinl , 5 c.) is a desirable acquisition , as 
matches are never provided at the hotels. 

Vendors of Iced Water (acquaiuoli) in summer are usually provided 
with two large tubs filled with snow, in which the water is cooled, and 
a supply of lemons, etc. (2-10 c). The excellent Serino water (p. 81), 

28 Route 3. NAPLES. Festivals. 

however, is to be preferred to these beverages, the water in which is of 
unknown origin. — There are also several mineral springs in the town, 
containing sulphur, iron, and carbonic acid gas ; the best known are at S. 
Lucia and in the Str. Chiatamone, near the Hotel Royal des Etrangers. 
The water has a slightly medicinal effect, but the smell is disagreeable 
(5 c. per glass). 

Newspapers (5 c. each). The most important are: the Corriere di 
JVapoli, the Tribuna (a Roman paper circulating extensively in Naples), 
and the Mattino, published in the morning ; the Roma, issued about 2 p.m.; 
and the evening-papers , the Pvngolo and the Paese. All these are sold 
in the streets, in the Galleria Vmberto I., etc. — The Naples Bcha (Jour- 
nal des Etrangers), published weekly (Sun. ; 10 c-) contains the visitors' list 
and various information of use to strangers. — Foreign newspapers may 
be seen in the larger hotels and cafes and bought at Furchheim's (p. 25). 

The Religious and National Festivals have lost much of their former 
significance, but the more important are still extremely interesting. The 
Festival of the Vekgine di Piedigrotta (p. 86 ; Sept. 7-8th), celebrated 
until 1859 with great magnificence in memory of the victory of Charles III. 
over the Austrians at Velletri in 1735, was formerly the greatest of all, 
but has now become chiefly a night-festival, celebrated, sometimes in an 
uproarious manner, in and around the Grotta di Posilipo (p. 86). — A more 
interesting sight is now presented on Whitmonday by the Return of the 
Pilgrims from the shrine of the Madonna di Monte Vergine near Avellino 
(p. 175). The Neapolitan pilgrims (often 20 000 in number) return to the 
town via Nola in a gay procession which vies with those of the Bacchanalians 
of old, and is welcomed by crowds which take up position about 5 p.m. 
in the streets skirting the harbour. On the following day the pilgrims 
proceed to celebrate the festival of the Madonna dell' Aeco, 6 M. from 
Naples, at the foot of Monte Somma, from which they again return in pro- 
cession in the most exuberant spirits. — On Maundy Thursday until late 
at night, and on Good Friday morning, the Toledo is thronged with ped- 
estrians taking part in a sort of ceremonial promenade, known as Lo 
Strusoio, from the rustling of the silk garments. The shops are all bril- 
liantly dressed and lighted, and no carriages are allowed to enter the street. 
— On Ascension Day the festival of the Madonna of the baths of Scafati 
(p. 160) takes place near Pompeii. — On 15th Aug. is celebrated the festival 
of Capodimonte. — On the last Sunday in August the Fishermen's Festival 
at S. Lucia (p. 34) presents many interesting scenes. — The so-called 
Ottobrate (excursions with gaily decorated horses and carriages) take place 
every Sun. and Thurs. in October. — The Horse Races, which take place 
on the Tuesday and Thursday after Easter, in the Campo di Marte, are 
practically another great popular festival, at which the Neapolitan nobility 
appear in handsome four-horse drags and coaches. — An enormous crowd 
assembles in the cemeteries on 2nd Nov. (All Souls' Day). — Other festi- 
vities of a more strictly ecclesiastical character are celebrated at Christ- 
mas, Easter, on Ascension Day, on the festivals of Corpus Christi (Fete de 
Dieu), St. Anthony, and above all on that of St. Januarius in May, Sep- 
tember, and December. The Good Friday procession at Sorrento (p. 148) 
and the procession on Corpus Christi Day at Torre del Greco (p. 110) are 
particularly worth seeing. 

The Festival of the Constitution (la Festa dello Statuto), of more 
recent origin , is celebrated throughout Italy on the first Sunday of June. 
In the forenoon military parade in the Largo Vittoria at the Villa Nazio- 
nale ; in the evening illumination of public buildings. The King's Birth- 
day (March 14th) is also celebrated by a military parade at the Villa 

The Carnival, which, however, does not take place every year, is seen 
to best advantage in the Toledo and near the Royal Palace. On the after- 
noon of Ash Wednesday merry entertainments take place in the trattorie 
at Posilipo and the other environs. 

The drawing of the Tombola or Lotto, which takes place every Sat. 
at 4 p.m., in the Via Mezzncannone (PI. F, 4, 5; p. 47), always attracts a 
large concourse of spectators. 

Disposition of Time. NAPLES. 3. Route. 29 

f. Duration of Stay and Disposition of Time. Guides. 

With respect to the duration of the visitor's stay it is difficult to 
offer a suggestion; the taste and inclination of the individual must here 
more than almost anywhere else decide the question. Suffice it to ob- 
serve that within a period of ten days all the most interesting points 
may he visited, whilst many months may be delightfully spent in explor- 
ing the incomparable beauties of the environs. Where time is limited, 
it should be devoted almost exclusively to the latter, as the town con- 
tains few objects of interest, with the exception of the Villa Nazionale, 
the Aquarium, the Museum, the Triumphal Arch in the Castel Novo, the 
Porta Capuana, and one or two of the churches, besides a walk by the 
Harbour and the view from the belfry of S. Martino. Choice of season, 
see p. xxiv. 

The Chief Sights' of the city may be seen hastily in 3-4 days. The 
mornings may be devoted to the churches, the middle of the day to the 
Museum, and the afternoons to walks or drives in the neighbourhood. 
The evening may then be spent at the Villa Nazionale or in the theatre. 
The following are specially worthy of mention: — 

""Museo Nazionale (p. 55), daily 9-3 o'clock, in winter 10-4, admission 
1 fr., Sundays until 1 p.m. gratis. 

Museo Filangieri (Pal. Cuomo ; p. 53), Tues. & Sat. 10.30-2 free ; other 
times 'J2-1 fr. 

Museum and Church of S. Martino (p. 83), with *View, 10-4, admission 
1 fr., Sun. 9-2 free. 

"Aquarium (p. 33), adm. daily 2 fr., in July and August 1 fr., on Sun- 
day and holiday afternoons half-price ; season-tickets at the office. 

Catacombs (p. 80) daily, admission 1 fr. 

Palaces: Reale (p. 35), Capodimonte (p. 81). 

Churches: '"Cathedral, best seen about noon (p. 51); "Sta. Chiara (p. 44) ; 
'S. Domenico, 7-11 a.m. (p. 45); 'Monte Oliveto (p. 43); "L'lncoronata, 
early in the morning (p. 42) ; Cloisters of S. Severino (p. 47) ; S. Gio- 
vanni (p. 50); S. Maria del Carmine (p. 39); S. Lorenzo (p. 54); S. Paolo 
Maggiore (p. 54). 

Views: "Camaldoli (p. 90), "Strada Nuova di Posilipo (p. 85), "Via Tasso 
(p. 85). — "S. Martino (p. 83). — "Villa Nazionale, in the afternoon or 
(in summer) evening (p. 32). 

Most of the Excursions in the Environs (RE. 4-11) may be made 
from Naples in one day, but both time and money may often be econo- 
mised if the traveller combines several of them so as to avoid the ne- 
cessity of returning to Naples every evening. Those who intend to 
explore the surrounding scenery should therefore give np their rooms at 
Naples, but leave behind them all superfluous luggage, in order that 
they may start on their tour unfettered. In making these excursions it 
is generally advantageous to travel as a member of a party of 3-4 per- 
sons, by whom carriage and boat fares, fees, and other expenses are shared. 
In this case too more favourable terms may be obtained at hotels 
(comp. p. xix). 

Small Change is even more frequently required in the environs of 
Naples than in the city itself. Contributions are levied on the traveller 
on every possible occasion, whether for admission to a point of view, 
or for leave to cross a field, or for services rendered. An abundant supply 
of small silver and copper should therefore be procured at a money- 
changer's (p. 23) before starting. 

A week or a fortnight may be very pleasantly spent as follows : — 

Pozzuoli, Baiae, Capo Miseno (R. 4) I-IV2 da y- 

Procida and Ischia (R. 5) IV2 n 

Ascent of Mt. Vesuvius (R. 7), Herculaneum (p. 109). 1 ,, 

Pompeii (R. 8) 1 /i-l ,, 

Castellanimare, Sorrento, Capri (R. 9) 2-3 ,, 

Cava, Paestum, Salerno, Amalfi (R. 10) 3-4 „ 

Caserta and Capua (pp. 7-10) 1 ,, 

C/2-13 days. 

30 Route 3. NAPLES. History. 

A visit to the islands, especially those of Procida and Ischia, should 
not be undertaken in winter unless the weather he calm and settled. 

Gommissionnaires charge 6 fr. a day, or for a single walk 1 fr. ; hut 
travellers who intend making purchases had better dispense with their ser- 
vices. Some of the best guides are as a rule attached to the hotels. They 
organise also excursions in the environs, e. g. to Amalfl, Ravello, ana 
Psestum, in two days (50 fr. each person, including quarters for the night). 
Similar excursions are arranged by the well-known firm of Thos. Cook <fc Son 
(agent, Jl. Fserber, a Swiss; office in the Piazza dei Martiri52, PI. D, E, 
7 ; p. 40), and are now much in vogue, especially among the English tourists. 
Enquiries as to fares, etc., should be made at the office. The traveller 
necessarily surrenders much of his independence in these excursions. Messrs. 
Cook are the proprietors of the Ferrovia Funicolare del Vesuvio (p. 112). 

' Vedi Napoli e pox mori I ' 

Naples (N. lat. 40° 51') , the capital of the former kingdom of 
Naples, now of a province, the seat of a university, of anarch- 
bishop, and of the commander-in-chief of the 10th Italian army- 
corps, with 527,600 inhab. and 9400 men garrison, is the most 
populous town in Italy, and occupies one of the most beautiful situat- 
ions in the world, at the foot and on the slope of several hills rising 
in an amphitheatre on the \V. side of the Bay of Naples. The magni- 
ficent bay has from the most ancient times been the object of enthus- 
iastic admiration, and it is annually visited by thousands of strangers 
in quest of enjoyment or health. In historical and artistic interest 
this part of the Italian peninsula is singularly deficient. The 
dearth of handsome buildings and indigenous works of art creates a 
void, for which Herculaneum and Pompeii with their matchless 
treasures of antiquity alone in some measure compensate. Nature, 
it would appear , has so bountifully lavished her gifts on this 
favoured spot, that the energy and strength of the most powerful 
nations have invariably succumbed to its alluring influence. Greeks, 
Oscans, Romans, Goths, Byzantines, Normans, Germans, and Spa- 
niards have in succession been masters of the place ; yet it has 
rarely attained even a transient reputation in the annals of politics, 
art, or literature. 

The History of theCityof Naples extends back to a very remote age. The 
origin and name of the city are Greek. About the year B.C. 1056 jEolians from 
Chalcis in Euboea founded the colony of Kyme, Lat. Cumae, on a rocky 
eminence in the bay of Puteoli, which soon became a powerful and pros- 
perous commercial town. From Curnee the colony of Phaleron or Parthe- 
nope (named after the tomb of a Siren of that name, Plin. H. N. iii. 5) 
appears to have emanated at a very early period, and to have been at va- 
rious times re-inforced by immigrants from Greece, who founded the Nea- 
polis (or new city), whilst Parthenope, the portion erected by the original 
colonists, was named Palaeopolis (old city). The latter was probably situated 
on the Pizzofaleone (p. 34), whereas the site of Neapolis is bounded towards 
the E. by the present Castel Capuano (PI. G, 3; p. 49), to the N. by the 
Strada Orticello (PI. F, G, 3), to the W. by the Strada S. Sebastiano (PI. F, 4), 
and to the S. by the declivity towards the present harbour, between S. Gio- 
vanni Maggiore (PI. F, 5) and S. Maria del Carmine (PI. H, 4). This 
distinction was maintained till the conquest of Palaeopolis by the Romans, 
B.C. 326. After that period Naples remained faithful to Rome, both in the 
wars against Pyrrhus and against Hannibal, and owing to the beauty of its 
situation it soon became a favourite residence of the Roman magnates. Lu- 

Topography. NAPLES. 3. Route. 31 

cullus possessed gardens here on the Posilipo and the hill of Pizzofalcone, 
where, in A. D. 476, Romulus Augustulus, the last feeble monarch of the 
Western Empire, breathed his last. Augustus frequently resided at Naples, 
and Virgil composed some of his most beautiful poetry here. The emperors 
Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, Titus, and Hadrian were among the chief bene- 
factors of the city, which continued to enjoy its municipal freedom and 
its Greek constitution. It suffered fearfully during the wars of the bar- 
barian immigration. In 536 it was taken by storm by Belisarius, and 
again in 543 by the Goths under Totilas. The city soon threw off the 
Byzantine supremacy, and under its doge or 'duca 1 maintained its inde- 
pendence against the Lombard princes, until after a long siege in 1130 it 
at length succumbed to the Normans under Roger. Frederick II. founded 
the university (1224), but seldom made Naples his residence. It was con- 
stituted the capital of the kingdom by Charles I. of Anjou (1265-85) and 
was greatly extended by subsequent princes, especially by Ferdinand I. of 
Aragon (1458-94), the viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo (1532-53), and Charles III. 
of Bourbon (1748-59). — Since the annexation of Naples to the kingdom 
of Italy the population has remained almost stationary (1860: 517,000). 
The city can boast of almost no Grfeco-Roman antiquities (p. 53), but 
(besides the churches) it possesses a fragment of the city-wall, five forts 
(Castello S. Elmo , dell' Ovo, Nuovo, del Carmine, Capuano), and four 
gates (Porta del Carmine, Alba, Nolana, and Capuana) of mediaeval con- 

The City is divided into two unequal parts by the heights of 
Oapodimonte, S. Elmo, and Pizzofalcone , which terminate in the 
narrow ridge surmounted by the Castello dell' Ovo. To the S. E. of 
Capodimonte, and eastwards as far as the Sebeto, lies the greater 
and most ancient part of Naples, now the business quarter, inter- 
sected from N. to S. by the Toledo (now Via di Roma), the main 
street. The architecture of this part of Naples , the narrow dingy 
streets, the high and narrow houses with balconies in front of every 
window , are far from attractive. The population here is densely 
crowded, and it is now the anxious endeavour of the authorities to 
remedy the consequent physical and social evils (to which the ter- 
rible cholera epidemic of 1884 again bore sad witness) , by the 
construction of new streets ('sventramento', i.e. cutting up) and 
commodious dwellings. A hundred million francs are to be devoted 
to this purpose by the town and the state in equal proportions. The 
construction of spacious and airy quarters has meanwhile gone in 
advance of the removal of the narrow and unhealthy streets. — 
The western and smaller quarter of the city, in which nearly all 
the principal hotels are situated, extends westward from the Pizzo- 
falcone along the coast and the mountain-slopes. An entirely new 
quarter is being built on the top of the hill, but, like the other 
new quarters, is of no interest to the tourist. 

The length of Naples from the Mergellina (p. 86) to the bar- 
racks at the mouth of the Sebeto is 3 M., the breadth from Ca- 
podimonte to the Castel dell' Ovo 2 M. The squares are still ge- 
nerally called Larghi , though sometimes Piazze ; the principal 
streets are called Strade, the cross-streets Vichi ; the narrow lanes 
ascending the hills, and generally inaccessible to carriages, Calate 
or Salite , or when so precipitous as to require steps, Gradoni or 
Rampe. The streets are all well paved, except as regards accom- 

32 Route 3. NAPLES. 1 '. Side of the City 

modation for foot-passengers. In 1885 a large aqueduct, iheAcqua 
di Serino, was opened, supplying the city with water from the neigh- 
bourhood of Avellino (see pp. 81, 175). 

Naples is one of the noisiest cities in Europe. The clatter of 
wheels at all hours of the day and night , the cracking of whips, 
braying of donkeys, and shrill shouting of hawkers , render Naples 
a most distasteful place, especially to those whose stay is limited. 
To these annoyances are added the insolent importunities of dri- 
vers, guides, street-vendors, beggars, etc., who often combine the 
most cringing manners with the grossest attempts at extortion. 
Some travellers, especially if there be ladies in the party, will find 
the constant use of cabs the only sure method of escaping annoy- 
ance ; but those who can adapt themselves to the manners of the 
place will find an abundant source of interest in the life and bustle 
of the streets (comp. p. 27). 

Our description of the sights is arranged in topographical order, 
and is divided as follows : — 

I. The Side of the City next the Sea, from the Villa Nazionale 
(PI. C, D, 7) eastwards, round the Pizzofalcone, by S. Lu- 
cia, the Piazza del Plebiscito, and the Piazza del Municipio, 
and along the quay to the S. E. angle of the town (Pl.H, 4). 
II. The Toledo, with its side-streets, as far as the Museum. 

III. The Old Town, to the E. of the Toledo. 

IV. The Museum. 

V. The Higher Quarters : Capodimonte , Corso Vittorio Ema- 

nuele, S. Martino, and the Castel S. Elmo. 
VI. The Posilipo, and other points in the immediate environs. 
The traveller may again be reminded here that, if his time is 
limited, he had better disregard most of the sights within the town. 

I. Side of the City next the Sea. 
The *Villa Nazionale, generally called La Villa (PI. C,D, 7), is 
a beautiful pleasure-ground, laid out in 1780, and several times 
extended since. It is bounded on the side next the sea by the broad 
Via Caracciolo and on the inland side by the Riviera di Chiaja, and 
may be regarded as the central point of the strangers' quarter. 
The grounds are arranged chiefly in the Italian style, and are em- 
bellished with trees of the most various descriptions, among 
which many palms have been planted within the last few years. 
Near the E. entrance is a large Antique Oranite Basin from Psestum, 
brought from Salerno, and deposited here in 1825 to replace the 
celebrated group of the Farnese Bull, which was then removed from 
this spot to the Museum (p. 60). To the left, farther on, is the 
Aquarium (see p. 33). In the centre of the promenade, the most 
frequented spot, where the band plays, are a cafe' and a restaurant. 

next the sea. NAPLES. 3. Route. 33 

Here also rise a statue of the historian Giambattista Vico (d. 1744) 
and one of P. Colletta, the liberal-minded Neapolitan general, 
minister-of-war, and historian (1775-1831), and a bust of Errico 
Alvino, the architect. The gardens also contain small temples in 
honour of Virgil and Tasso ; a statue of Thalberg, the pianist, who 
died at Naples in 1871 ; and, on the side next the sea, two hand- 
some fountains. 

The white building in the middle of the Villa contains a large 
**Aquarium, opened in 1874, and belonging to the 'Zoological Sta- 
tion'. The aquarium is entered from the E. side (admission, see 
p. 29; catalogue, 50 c, illustrated, 1 fr.). 

The Neapolitan Aquarium contains such an abundant stock of curious 
marine animals of every description that it is perhaps the most inter- 
esting establishment of the kind in the world ; and the wonderful variety 
of animate existence in the Mediterranean gives it a great advantage over 
aquaria drawing their main supplies from more northern waters. Among 
the contents are 6-8 varieties of cuttle-fish (the feeding of the large Oc- 
topus is interesting) , a number of electric rays (which visitors are per- 
mitted to touch so as to experience the shock from which the fish derives 
its name), numerous beautifully coloured fish of the Mediterranean, a 
great many different kinds of living coral, beautiful medusae and crested 
blubbers, many extraordinary - looking crabs and crayfish, pipe-fish, etc. 

The Zoological Station was established by the German naturalist 
Dr. Dohrn in 1872-74 for the purpose of facilitating a thorough scientific 
investigation of the animal and vegetable world of the Mediterranean Sea. 
The greater part of the expense was borne by Dr. Dohrn himself, but the 
German government contributed 100,000 marks to the building-fund be- 
sides a large annual subsidy since 1880, and the naturalists of Great Bri- 
tain presented the institution with a sum of 1000 I. Great Britain , Ger- 
many, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria- Hungary, Russia, 
Spain, and the United States all pay stipends for the privilege of sending 
naturalists to make use of the advantages of the institution. The new 
buildings which have been erected, with assistance from the Italian go- 
vernment, will permit of an extension of the activity of the institution. 

The resident staff of the establishment consists of Dr. Dohrn himself, 
eight or ten permanent naturalists, and upwards of twenty assistants of 
various kinds. A small steam-yacht, a steam-launch, and a flotilla of sailing 
and rowing-boats are maintained for dredging, and the other equipments are 
also on a scale of great completeness. About 600 foreign naturalists have 
already prosecuted their investigations here. The institution publishes 
extensive periodical proceedings, sends microscopic and other preparations 
to all the leading museums and laboratories in Europe, and in various 
ways has fairly asserted itself as the central point for the study of marine 
biology. Similar stations have been founded in all parts of the world, but 
none can compare in size or importance with the original institution at 
Naples. There are now zoological stations at Plymouth, Liverpool, Edin- 
burgh, Sebastopol, Trieste, Villafranca, Cette, Marseilles, Banyuls, Arca- 
chon, Roscoff, Heligoland, on the Dutch coast, in Sweden, Norway, Syd- 
ney, two in North America, and one in Japan. 

At the W. end of the Villa is the Piazza Vmberto (Pl.B, 7), 
in which the handsome Orand Hotel (p. 19) is conspicuous. Farther 
on is the Mergellina (p. 86). 

The Villa is rarely deserted by promenadeTS at any hour ; but 
the busiest and gayest scenes occur when the daily concerts (gratis) 
take place: viz. in the colder season 2-4, in summer 9-11. The 
Via Caracciolo is then the corso of the fashionable world. The 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. 3 

34 Route 3. NAPLES. /. Side of the City 

crowd reaches its height towards evening on Sundays and holidays, 
when the roads are thronged with carriages and the gardens alive 
with foot-passengers. 

To the E. of the Villa extends the Largo della Vittokia (PI. 
D, 7), whence the Via Calabritto runs N. to the Piazza de' Martiri 
(see p. 40). The Via Partenope (PI. E, 7), a handsome quay, ex- 
tends hence towards the E. along the coast, parallel to the Strada 
Chiatamone, which runs round the base of the Fizzofalcone, a spur 
of the hill of S. Elmo, entirely covered with buildings and walls. 

From the S. end of the Pizzofalcone run out an embankment 
and bridge, connecting it with a small rocky island, the Megaris 
of Pliny. On this island rises the Castello dell' Ovo , which in its 
present form dates from the time of the viceroy Don Pedro de To- 
ledo (1532-53). The name is due to its oval shape. 

William I. began to erect the fort in 1154, but the completion of his 
design fell to Frederick II., who used the edifice as a place of safety for 
his treasures. Charles I. enlarged the castle and frequently resided there. 
Robert the Wise (1309) caused the chapel to be adorned with frescoes by 
Giotto, and superintended the work in person, but of these no trace is 
left. Here Charles III. of Durazzo (1381) kept Queen Johanna I. prisoner, 
and was himself besieged. In 1495 Charles VIII. of France captured the 
castle, and under Ferdinand II. it was dismantled. It is now chiefly used 
as a prison. Visitors are usually admitted without challenge by the sen- 
tries, but the interior is of little interest. The new buildings on the N.E, 
side were erected to accommodate the fishermen and sailors whose pre- 
vious dwellings were demolished to make room for the new quays. 

The landing-place of th3 steamer to Capri (p. 152) is at the Castel 
delF Ovo. 

Farther on we reach the Strada di S. Ltjcia (PI. E, F, 7), once 
a dirty street, but since 1846 enlarged and converted into a broad 
and pleasant quay, now being much widened towards the sea. 
Scenes of Neapolitan life may be witnessed here in perfection. The 
female members of the community are seen working in the open 
air, going through their toilette, and performing various unpleasing 
acts of attention to their children , regardless of the public gaze. 
The children often run about quite naked. On the side next the sea 
the oyster-stalls are established , where sea-urchins , crabs , and 
other delicacies , so expressively called frutti di mare by the Nea- 
politans, are also sold (comp. Introd., p. xxvii). The terrace below, 
which is reached by a flight of steps, is adorned with a fountain 
with figures by Domenico d'Auria and Giovanni da Nola. On sum- 
mer-evenings, especially on Sundays, this spot is densely crowded, 
and presents a highly characteristic picture of Neapolitan life. There 
is also a favourite sulphureous spring here (p. 28). 

At the N. end of S. Lucia is a fountain, whence we ascend to 
the left by the Strada del Gigantk , a street named after an 
ancient colossal statue of Jupiter once placed here. To the right, 
farther on , we look down on the coal-magazines of the arsenal 
(p. 38). In a straight' direction we observe Fort 8. Elmo rising 
above the town, and we soon reach the — 

next the sea. NAPLES. 3. Route. 35 

Piazza del Plbbiscito (PI. E, 6), which is embellished with 
a large fountain. A band sometimes plays here in summer , in 
the evening. On the right is the Royal Palace, opposite to us is 
the Prefettura di Napoli, with shops in part of the ground-floor; 
on the "W. side, which forms a semicircle, is the church of S. Fran- 
cesco with its dome and arcades ; on the fourth side is the Com- 
mandant's Residence, formerly the palace of the prince of Salerno. 
— In front of the church of S. Francesco are two Equestrian Sta- 
tues of Neapolitan kings, both in Roman attire : on the right 
Charles III., on the left Ferdinand I. of Bourbon; the two horses 
and the statue of Charles are by Canova, that of Ferdinand, by Call. 

The handsome church of S. Francesco di Paola, an imitation of 
the Pantheon at Rome, was constructed by Ferdinand I. from de- 
signs by P. Bianchi in 1817-31. The Ionic vestibule is supported 
by six columns and two buttresses. 

The Interior (open till about noon) contains thirty Corinthian columns 
of marble from Mondragone , which support the dome. The high -altar, 
transferred hither from the church of the Apostles, is entirely inlaid with 
jasper and lapis lazuli ; the two pillars at the sides are of rare Egyptian 
breccia from S. Severino. The gallery above is for the use of the royal family. 
The statues and pictures are by modern masters. To the left of the entrance : 
St. Athanasius by Angelo Salaro; Death of Joseph, Camillo Ouerra of Naples; 
St. Augustine, a statue by Tommaso Arnaud of Naples ; Madonna della Con- 
cezione, Casparo Landi; St. Mark, a statue by Fabris of Venice; St. Nicho- 
las, Natale Carta of Sicily ; St. John, a statue by Tenerani. In the choir : 
St. Francis di Paola resuscitating a youth, Camuccini ; St. Matthew, a statue 
by Finelli; Last Communion of St. Ferdinand of Castile, Pietro Benvenuti of 
Florence; St. Luke, a statue by Antonio Call of Sicily; St. Ambrose, by Tito 
Angelini of Naples; Death of St. Andrea da Avellino , Tommaso de Vivo; 
St. Chrysostom, a statue by Gennaro Call. 

The Palazzo Reale (PL E, F, 6), or royal palace, designed by 
the Roman Domenico Fontana, was begun in 1600 under the 
viceroy Count de Lemos , burned down in 1837, and restored 
between that year and 1841. The facade, 185yds. ft. in length, 
exhibits in its three stories the Doric and Ionic styles combined ; 
most of the arches of the basement, however, are built up for the 
sake of increasing the strength of the building. The eight marble 
statues in the niches on the facade (executed 1885-88) represent 
the Neapolitan dynasties of the last eight hundred years : from left 
to right, beginning at the Piazza S. Ferdinando , Roger of Nor- 
mandy, Frederick II. of Hohenstaufen , Charles I. of Anjou, Al- 
phonso I., Charles V.. Charles III. (Bourbon), Joachim Murat, and 
Victor Emmanuel. 

Interior (open on Snn. and Thurs.). Visitors apply to the porter (50 a), 
who conducts them to the office of the Intendant in the palace (daily 10-12). 
Here they receive a permesso for six persons, which is available also for the 
palaces of Capodimonte, Caserta, and the park of Astroni, and must be shown 
at each place to the porter. Attendant's fee 1 fr. 

The visitor is first conducted to the "Garden Terrace, which affords 
a fine view of the harbour and the arsenal immediately below. In the 
centre is a handsome marble table. — The magnificent "Grand Staircase, 
constructed entirely of white marble , and adorned with reliefs and sta- 
tues, dates from 1651. — On the side towards the piazza are situated a 


36 Route 3. NAPLES. I. Side of the City 

small Theatre and a superb Dining Room. — Beyond these is the "Throne 
Room, gorgeously furnished with crimson velvet embroidered with gold, 
the embroidery having been executed at the extensive poor-house in 1818. 
Above are gilded figures in relief, representing the different provinces of 
the kingdom. — The rooms also contain large porcelain vases from Sevres 
and Meissen (Dresden china) ; an antique bust of Bacchus and a small bust 
of Hercules, both found at Herculaneum; a bust of Marcus Aurelius; 
tapestry; and lastly a number of pictures. Among the last are: Titian, 
Pier Luigi Farnese (1547); Schidone, Carita; Lod. Carracci, John the Bap- 
tist; Ouercino, St. Joseph; M. Caravaggio , Christ in the Temple, Be- 
trothal of St. Catharine, Orpheus ; L. Giordano, The archangel Gabriel. 
There are also several works by Netherlandish masters : Quintin Massys (?), 
Usurer; Van Dyck, Portrait; Vervloet, Cathedral at Palermo, Market in 
Venice; two good portraits, by unknown masters, etc. The Adoration of 
the Magi, sometimes ascribed to Jan van Eyck and sometimes to Donzelli, 
a supposed pupil of Zingaro, was once considered a very important work, 
but has been treated slightingly by modern criticism. The pictures by 
modern Italian masters are of no great merit. 

On the N. side of the palace, which is connected here by a wing 
with the Theatre of S. Carlo , is a small garden enclosed by a 
railing, containing a Statue of Italia, erected in 1864 in commem- 
oration of the plebiscite of 21st Oct., 1860, which added the 
kingdom of Naples to the dominions of Victor Emmanuel. 

The small piazza which adjoins the Piazza del Plebiscito here 
is named Ptazza S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6), after the opposite 
church. This is the starting-point of several of the chief tramway 
and omnibus lines (p. 22), and there is also a large cab-stand here. 
To the left diverge the Strada di Chiaja and the Toledo, the prin- 
cipal street in Naples (comp. p. 40). 

We now turn to the right into the Stbada S. Cabxo, in which, 
to the left is the S. entrance to the new G-alleria Umberto I., and 
to the right the principal facade of the Teatro San Carlo. 

The *Galleria TJmberto I. (PI. E, F, 6) was built in 1887-90 
after the plans of Di Mauro of Rome, and is said to have cost 22 
million francs. Its exterior is inferior to the Galleria Vittoiio 
Emanuele at Milan, as two churches and several private houses 
have been incorporated in it, but in other respects it rivals the Mi- 
lan gallery. The shorter nave , to which the main portal in the 
Strada S. Carlo, adorned with statues and a relief representing the 
Olympic deities, gives acoess, is 133 yds. long; the longer nave, 
stretching from the Toledo to the Municipio, is 160 yds. long. Each 
is 16 yds. wide and 125 ft. high; and at their intersection is an 
octagon, 40 yds. in diameter, above which rises a dome in glass and 
iron to the height of 185 ft. Below the dome are angels in copper. 
The interior is gaily adorned with stucco and gilding, and is lighted 
at night by electricity. At No. 8 in the gallery (1st floor; left) an ela- 
borate Presepe (p. 83) has been erected, under the directions of the anti- 
quarian Cr. Varolii ; it is said to have once belonged to king Charles 
III. In the octagon is a large Cafe. 

The Teatro San Carlo (PI. E, F, 6) was founded by Charles 
III. in 1737, and erected by the Neapolitan architect Anyelo Ca- 

next the sea. NAPLES. 3. Route. 37 

rasale from designs by the Sicilian Giovanni Medrano. The in- 
terior -was destroyed by Are in 1816, but has been restored in 
harmony with the original plan. It is one of the largest opera- 
houses in Italy, and many of the celebrated compositions of Ros- 
sini, Bellini, and Donizetti were performed here for the first time. 
The chief facade, resting on an arcade, and surmounted by a series 
of columns , and the side next the Piazza S. Ferdinando are decorated 
with reliefs. The spaces under the arches are occupied by public 
writers, ready at a moment's notice to commit to paper the pleading 
of the lover or the expostulation of the creditor. 

Adjoining the theatre is the small garden belonging to the 
palace, and farther to the right are two Horse-tamers by Baron Olodt 
of St. Petersburg, presented by the Emp. Nicholas of Russia. Far- 
ther on, to the right, are the stalls of dealers in coral, etc. 

"We next reach the long Piazza del Municipio (PI. F , 6), 
in which a statue of Victor Emmanuel is about to be erected. To 
the left is situated the handsome Municipio, or town hall, the Pa- 
lazzo de' Ministeri under the Bourbons, erected in 1819-25 from 
designs by Luigi and Stefano Oasse. On the principal entrance are 
inscribed the names of the Neapolitans who were executed for 
sedition under the Bourbon regime. In the gateway are the statues 
of the kings Roger and Frederick II. — From this point a passage 
leads to the Toledo ; within it, to the right, is the entrance to the 

Immediately adjoining the Municipio, rises the church of S. Gia- 
como degli Spagnuoli, erected in 1540 by Don Pedro de Toledo. 

Interior. We enter by a door adjacent to the gate of the Municipio 
and ascend the stairs. To the right of the entrance: "Andrea del Sarto, 
Holy Family. 3rd Chapel on the left: Gian Bernardo Lama, Descent 
from the Cross; also pictures by Bernardino Siciliano, Marco da Siena, 
and others. At the back of the high -altar is the sumptuous Tomb of 
Don Pedro de Toledo (d. 1553), by Giovanni da Nola, adorned with statues 
of the cardinal virtues, reliefs of the achievements of the viceroy, and his 
statue in a kneeling posture, with that of his wife. 

The wide Strada Medina begins on the N. side of the Piazza del 
Municipio. The corner-house , on the left, the Palazzo Sirignano, 
is usually described as Goethe's residence while at Naples in 1787. 
Farther on is the Incoronata church (see p. 42). 

On the S.E. side of the square rises the Castel Nuovo (PI. F, 6), 
the outer walls and bastions of which have been removed. This 
castle was begun in 1283 by Charles I. of Anjou from a design 
attributed to Giov. da Pisa, and was enlarged by Alphonso I. (1442), 
Don Pedro de Toledo (1546), and Charles III. (1735). The kings of 
the houses of Anjou and Arragon, and the Spanish viceroys succes- 
sively resided here. 

The Entrance (free) is on the N. side. Passing the sentry, we turn 
to the right, then to the left, and reach after a few hundred paces the 
lofty 'Triumphal Arch by which the castle is entered. It was erected in 
1470 to commemorate the entry of Alphonso I. of Aragon (2nd June, 1442), 
by Pietro di Martina, a Milanese architect (or, according to Vasari, by 

38 Route 3. NAPLES. I. Side of the City 

Giuliano da Maiano of Florence). This is the finest monument at Naples. 
It consists of an archway with Corinthian columns on each side, now 
partly built into the wall, a frieze, and a cornice, above which is an 
attic with well-executed sculpture representing the entry of Alphonso, by 
Isaia da Pisa, Paolo Romano, and Silvestro dell' Aquila. Above are statnes 
of St. Michael, St. Antonius Abbas, and St. Sebastian (half destroyed), 
below which are the four cardinal virtues in niches. The bronze doors 
(restored in 1889) are adorned with representations of the victories of 
Ferdinand I. , by Ouglielmo Monaco. A cannon-ball imbedded in the 
masonry of the left wing is a reminiscence of the wars of the time of 
Gonsalvo da Cordova. 

In the inner yard (usually closed tu visitors) is the entrance to the 
church of S. Barbara, or S. Sebastiano, with a Corinthian facade by Oiu- 
llano da Maiano, and a beautiful Madonna in relief above the door. 

On the N. side of the Piazza del Municipio, beside the Teatro 
del Fondo (PI. F, 6 ; p. 26) is the beginning of a broad new street 
which runs to the railway-station, and will be finished in 1893. 

The piazza is continued to the E. by the Molo Anyioino, a pier 
14 yds. in width, originally constructed by Charles of Anjou in 
1302. Adjoining are the extensive Harbours (PI. F, G, 6, 5), 
The Porto Militarb, or government harbour , to the right, shut 
off by a railing, was begun by Francis I. in 1826 and has recently 
been enlarged. At its S.W. angle are the Darsena, or old naval 
harbour, and the Arsenate di Marina, erected in 1577 by the vice- 
roy Mendoza, with a dockyard, arsenal, etc. 

At the angle formed by the Molo rises the Lighthouse {Lanterna; 
PI. G, 6), originally erected in the 15th cent., but rebuilt in 
1843. The ascent is strongly recommended, as it enables the vis- 
itor to form an accurate idea of the topography of the town 
(fee 1 fr.). An easy marble staircase of 142 steps ascends to the 
gallery. — The magazines at the end of the Molo are used as 
bonded warehouses (Porto franco). The terminus of the goods- 
railway between the station and the harbour is also here. — The 
mercantile harbour, or Porto Grande, was constructed in 1302 by 
Charles II. of Anjou at the same time as the Molo, and enlarged by 
Charles III. in 1740. 

The Strada del Piliero, along which runs the railway just 
mentioned, skirts the mercantile harbour. At its end, to the left, is 
the new Dogana; to the right, on the Molo Piccolo, is situated the 
Immacolatella with the offices of the custom-house and the Depu- 
tazione di Salute (PI. G, 5). Adjoining the Immacolatella is the 
quay at which travellers arriving at Naples by sea disembark. This 
is also the starting-point of some of the Capri and Ischia steamers 
(see pp. 152, 104). — The Porto Piccolo (PL G, 5), which is ac- 
cessible to small boats only, once formed part of the most ancient 
harbour of Neapolis. 

The first side-street to the left leads straight to the church of S. 
Pietro Murtire (PI. G, S), which contains a few monuments and pictures 
(Legend of St. Vincent, a good work in the Flemish-Neapolitan style). 

The last street but one to the left before S. Pietro is reached leads 
into the Slrada di Porto, a scene of the most motley bustle and confusion, 
especially towards evening (comp. p. 27), As this, moreover, is the dirtiest 

next the sea. NAPLES. 3. Route. 39 

quarter of the town, the fumes which arise are intensely 'ancient and 

"We continue to follow the broad quay, farther on called the 
Strada Nuova(P1. G, H, 5), which is always full of life and hustle. 
At the end is the new Strada delDuomo (p. 53), and to the right 
the Villa del Popolo (PI. H, 5), a new public garden on the sea. 
Here in the afternoon after 4 p.m., public readers may often be 
seen, declaiming passages from Tasso, Ariosto, or other poets, to 
an audience of workmen, rag-pickers, and other humble folk, who 
each pay 2 c. for the privilege of listening. Similar scenes occur 
also outside the Porta Capuana. The garden contains a marble 
nymphseum, formerly in the Immacolatella (see p. 38). 

Opposite rises the Castel del Carmine (PI. H, 4), a vast struc- 
ture erected by Ferdinand I. in 1484. In 1647 during the rebellion 
of Masaniello (see below) it was occupied by the populace, and is 
now used as barracks and a military prison. 

The Porta del Carmine, on the W. side of the Castel, leads to a 
piazza, in which, on the right, is situated the church of S. Maria 
del Carmine (PI. H, 4) with its lofty tower. The edifice (open 
early in the morning, and after 4.30 p.m.), which is of early ori- 
gin, but was modernised in 1769, contains a celebrated miraculous 
picture of the Virgin ('La Bruna' ; festival on July 16-17th), and 
a statue of Conradin, the last of the Hohenstaufen, erected in 1847 
by Maximilian II. of Bavaria and. executed by Schopf from a design 
by Thorvaldsen. The original tomb was behind the high-altar, to 
the right, where its position is marked by the inscription 'R. C. C 
(Regis Conradini corpus). 

We now turn to the left to the Piazza del Mercato (PL H, 4), 
where the traffic is busiest on Mondays and Fridays. The fish- 
market is interesting. On the N. side of the piazza, which forms a 
semicircle, is the church of S. Croce al Mercato. On the S. side 
are two fountains. On 29th Oct. 1268, Conradin (see above), then 
in his 17th year, and his relative Frederick of Baden, were executed 
here by order of Charles I. of Anjou. The sacristy of the church 
of S. Croce contains a column of porphyry which formerly marked 
the spot where the young prince was beheaded. In 1647 this piazza 
was also one of the scenes of the insurrection of Masaniello (Tom- 
maso Aniello, born in the neighbouring Yico Rotto in 1622). 

Returning to the church del Carmine, and following the street 
to the left, we may reach the Porta Capuana (p. 49) in 8 min. ; or 
we may pass the church and proceed in a straight direction to the 
small Piazza Garibaldi , and turn to the left into the broad , new 
Corso Garibaldi, which begins near the coast, passes (5 min.) the 
Porta Nolana, the railway-station, and (5 min.) the Porta Capuana, 
and terminates in the Strada Foria (see p. 41). 

40 Route 3. NAPLES. //. Toledo. 

II. The Toledo as far as the Museum. 

Starting from the Largo della Vittoria (p. 34; PI. D, 7), the 
broad Via Calabritto, with its handsome shops, leads us to- 
wards the N. to the triangular Piazza db' Martiri, where the Co- 
lonna de' Martiri (PI. D, E, 7), a lofty column of marble decorated 
with trophies, and crowned with a Victory in bronze, was erected 
in 1864 to the memory of the patriots who have perished during the 
different Neapolitan revolutions. The four lions at the base, in 
different postures, represent the four principal revolutions at Naples 
during the Bourbon dynasty (1799, 1820, 1848, 1860). The mon- 
ument was designed by Alvino, the Victory executed by Caggiani. 
— On the N.W. side of the Piazza is the Palazzo Partanna, 
on the S. the Palazzo Calabritto, and farther on, with a garden in 
front, the Palazzo Nunziante. 

Proceeding towards the N. by the Strada S. Caterina, from 
which the new Via dei Mille diverges to the left, we next enter the 
busy Strada di Chiaja (PI. E, 6). Where this street begins to 
ascend, it is crossed by the Ponte di Chiaja, a viaduct built in 
1634, by which the Strada Monte di Dio leads from the quarter 
of Pizzofalcone to the higher ground below S. Elmo. (The flight of 
steps on the right, between the buttresses of the bridge, ascends < 
from the Strada di Chiaja to the Strada M. di Dio.) The Str. di 
Chiaja, which contains nothing noteworthy, leads into the Piazza 
S. Ferdinando (p. 36), at the foot of the Toledo. 

The *Toledo (PI. E, 6-4), a street begun by the viceroy Don 
Pedro de Toledo in 1540, but since the autumn of 1870 officially 
known as the Via Roma, gia Toledo, is the main artery of the traffic 
of Naples, and presents a busy scene at all hours. It intersects 
the city from S. to N. nearly in a straight line, ascending gradually 
from the sea. It extends from the Piazza del Plebiscito (p. 35) 
to the Museo Nazionale, beyond which its prolongation is formed 
by the Strada Nuova di Capodimonte , and is nearly l'/2 M. in 
length, but contains no building worthy of note. On both sides 
extends a network of streets and lanes, many of which ascend to 
the left by means of steps to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the 
Castel S. Elmo, while those to the right extend to the railway- 
station and the harbour, forming the centres of mercantile traffic. 

Ascending the Toledo from the Piazza S. Ferdinando, we 
come in about 10 min. to the small Largo della Carita 
(PI. E, 5), where in 1877 was erected a Monument to Carlo 
Poerio (d. 1867), the dauntless Italian patriot whose unjust con- 
demnation and imprisonment in 1850 did so much to inflame the 
hate of the people for the Bourbon dynasty. — Holding hence 
to the left we may reach Monte Santo, the terminus of the cable- 
railway to the Vomero (p. 23), and the station of the Cumae Rail- 
way (p. 91). — To the right diverges a street to the Piazza Mont- 
oliveto (p. 43 ; post-office, see p. 24). 

•//. Toledo. NAPLES. 3. Route. 41 

Farther on, to the right, at the corner of the Strada S. Trinith 
Maggiore (p. 44), the only important side-street by which the To- 
ledo is crossed, rises the Palazzo Maddaloni (PI. E, F,4, 5; entrance 
in the Str. Maddaloni), now let to the Banco, Nazionale, a massive 
structure with a gateway and staircase from designs by Fansaga. 
The interior contains a hall of fine proportions. Adjacent, separated 
by a cross-street, at the corner of the Toledo and the Strada S. Anna 
de 1 Lombardi, is the Palazzo d'Angri, erected about 1773 by Luigi 
Vanvitelli, and occupied by Garibaldi when dictator in 1860. 

In 2-3 min. more we reach the Piazza Dante (PI. E, F, 4), 
formerly the Largo del Mercatello, where a Monument of Dante in 
marble, by T. Angelini and Solari, was erected in 1872. The crescent- 
shaped edifice, beyond the statue, which was converted into a Liceo 
Oinnasiale Vittorio Emanuele in 1861 , surmounted by a balustrade 
with twenty-six statues, was erected by the city of Naples in honour 
of Charles III. in 1757, the statues being emblems of the virtues of 
that monarch. • — ■ Adjacent, to the left, is the Porta Alba, erected 
in 1632, embellished with a bronze statue of S. Gaetano , whence 
the Via de' Tribunali may be entered (see pp. 51-55). 

Leaving the Piazza Dante , and passing a row of houses re- 
cently erected, we ascend gradually in 5 min. by the Salita del 
Museo to the Museo Nazionale (PI. E, F, 3; p. 55), a large red 
building, the entrance to which is in the broad side-street diverg- 
ing on the right to the Piazza Cavour. — By the Toledo hence to 
Capodimonte, see pp. 80, 81. 

Opposite the entrance of the Museum is the Oalleria Principe 
di Napoli, a covered bazaar (PI. F, 3) designed by Alvino, not much 

The long PiAzza Cavoub. (PI. F, 3) , which extends on the E. 
side of the Museum, is embellished with gardens. To the N.E.the 
piazza contracts into the Strada Foria (PI. F, G, 3, 2). The first 
street diverging from it to the right is the Strada del Duomo, lead- 
ing to the cathedral (4 min. ; p. 51); the Strada Oarbonara next di- 
verges on the same side to S. Giovanni a Carbonara (p. 50) and 
the Porta Capuana ; and the Corso Garibaldi farther on also leads 
to the right to the same gate (10 min. ; p. 49). 

On the left side of the Strada Foria we next reach the Botanic 
Garden, which was founded in 1809 and extended in 1818. It is 
open to the public daily, except from 12 to 2, and contains a fine 
collection of tropical plants. — Adjacent is the extensive poor- 
house, the Albergo de' Poveri, or Reclusorio (PI. G, H, 1, 2), begun 
by Charles III. in 1751 from a design by Fuga, and intended to 
contain four courts, still nearly half uncompleted. One side is ap- 
propriated to men, the other to women. In this establishment and 
its dependencies about 2000 persons are maintained. The city 
contains numerous other charitable institutions , about sixty in all, 
most of which are amply endowed. 

42 Route 3. NAPLES. III. The Old Town. 

III. The Old Town. E. Quarters between the Toledo and the 


Naples contains about three hundred Chdkches, most of which are 
devoid of interest. The older of them have been disfigured by restora- 
tion in the degraded style of the 17th and 18th centuries, which appears 
to have attained its height here. But , as they contain numerous mon- 
uments, important in the history of sculpture, and are rich in historical 
and political associations, some of them are well deserving of a visit. 
The most important are described in the following pages. They are gen- 
erally closed about noon, and not re-opened till evening. 

We begin our walk in the Strada Medina (PI. F, 5; p. 37). 
To the left, adjoining No. 49, is a railing enclosing a flight of steps 
which descend to the church of the — 

Incoronata (open in the morning), erected in 1352 by Queen 
Johanna I. to commemorate her coronation and marriage with 
her cousin Louis of Taranto, and made to include the old chapel of 
the Palais de Justice in which the marriage had been solemnised. 

This chapel contains fine Frescoes, formerly attributed to Giotto, but 
probably by one of his pupils (much darkened and injured; best seen 
from a platform to the left near the entrance to the church; keys at 
the sacristy, 5-6 soldi). They represent the 'Seven Sacraments and the 
Church'. In the arch over the right window, on the right is the 'Triumph 
of the Church', with portraits of King Robert and his son Charles, attired 
in purple , on the left the Extreme Unction. The next arch to the right 
comprises: (1.) Baptism, (r.) Confirmation; then (1.) the Eucharist, and 
(r.) Confession; and on the other side, (1.) Ordination, (r.) Matrimony. 
The last refers to the marriage above mentioned , which did not take 
place till 1347, eleven years after Giotto's death. Two halffigures in 
'Baptism', one of which is crowned with laurel, are said to represent 
Petrarch and Laura, and in 'Matrimony' Dante's features are said to be re- 
cognisable. The Chapel of the Crucifix, at the end of the left aisle, also 
contains frescoes in Giotto's style , ascribed to Gennaro di Cola , a 
pupil of Maestro Simone : to the left are represented the Coronation of 
Johanna I., her nuptials, and other events in her life; to the right St. 
Martin, St. George, battles, etc., all much damaged. Fine wood-carving on 
the organ screen. 

Opposite the church is situated the Palazzo Fondi, designed 
by Luigi Vanvitelli. — Farther on in the Strada Medina is a statue 
of Fr. Sav. Mercadante (d. 1870), the composer of several operas. 

At the end of the Strada Medina we enter the busy Strada 
S. Giuseppe to the left. After a few minutes' walk, a broad street 
to the right leads to the church of S. Maria la Nuova (PI. F, 5), 
the entrance of which is approached by a flight of steps. It was 
erected in 1268 by Giovanni da Pisa, and restored in 1525 by 
Agnolo Franco. 

Interior. The ceiling is adorned with frescoes by Santafede and 
Simone Papa the younger, and the dome with others by Corenzio (the four 
Franciscan teachers S. Bonaventura, Duns Scotus, Nicolaus de Lira, and 
Alexander ab Alexandro). The fine marble pavement is in poor preservation. 

In the 1st Chap, to the right, the 'Archangel Michael', formerly ascribed 
to Michael Angelo. 3rd Chap. : Crucifixion, by Marco da Siena. In the Chap, 
del Crocefisso frescoes by Corenzio. — The right transept contains the monu- 
ment of Galeazzo Sanseverino (d. 1467), with sculptures. In the opposite 
chapel is a beautiful crucifix in wood by Giovanni da Nola. — At the 
high-altar is a Madonna in wood by Tommaso de' Slefani, with saints by 
A. Borghetli. — The large Chapel of S, Giacomo della Maeoa, to the 

E. Quarters. NAPLES. 3. Route. 43 

left of the entrance to the church, was erected in 1604 by Gonsalvo da 
Cordova, l il gran capitano', whose nephew Ferdinand placed on each side 
of the altar the monuments of his two most distinguished enemies : Pietro 
Navarro (who strangled himself when a prisoner in the Castello Nuovo) 
and Lautrec , a Frenchman , the general of Francis I. (who died of the 
plague in 1528, while besieging Naples-). The monuments are attributed to 
Qiov. da Nolo, or his pupils. The inscriptions, composed by Paolo Giovio, 
testify to the chivalrous sentiments of that period. 

The adjoining Monastery possesses two sets of Cloisters, with tomb- 
stones, aud a Refectory adorned with a Bearing of the Cross and other 
frescoes by unknown masters. 

We now return and pursue our route along the Str. Giuseppe, 
of which the Strada Montoliyeto forms the continuation. Where 
the latter expands into a square, on the right stands the Palazzo 
Gravina , now the General Post and Telegraph Office (PL F, 5), 
erected about 1500 by Ferdinando Orsini, Duca di Gravina, from 
designs by Qdbriele d'Agnolo, but disfigured by modern improvements. 

Ascending from this point to the left , past a Fountain with 
a bronze statue of Charles II. (1663), we reach the Piazza di 
Montoliyeto, where the side-street (p. 40) to the Toledo begins. 
Here is the church of *Monte Oliveto (PL F, 5), usually called S. 
Anna dei Lombardi, begun in 1411 by Guerello Origlia, the favour- 
ite of King Ladislaus, and continued in the Early Renaissance style 
by Andrea Ciccione. The church is a flat-roofed basilica without 
aisles, and contains valuable sculptures; the chapels are kept shut 
(sacristan '/ 2 fr-)- 

Interior. Cappella Piccolomini (1st on the left) : "Altar by Ant. Ro- 
selliao of Florence (about 1475) : in the centre the Nativity, in the niches 
at the sides and in the medallions the four Evangelists, above, Dancing 
angels and four Putti. The ''Monument of Maria of Aragon (d. 1470), 
natural daughter of Ferdinand I., wife of Antonio Piccolomini, Duke of 
Amalfi, by Rossellino, (probably completed by Benedetto da Maiano), is a 
copy of the monument of the Cardinal of Portugal in S. Miniato's at Flo- 
rence. Crucifixion, by Oiulio Mazzoni of Piacenza. The Ascension, a picture 
by Silvestro de" Buoni (ascribed by Sig. Frizzoni to the school of Pintur- 
icchio). — Opposite the sacristy is the Coko dei Fkati, containing fine 
intarsia work by Giovanni da Verona (d. 1525), restored in 1840 by Min- 
chiotti. — The Choir contains frescoes by Simone Papa the Younger. The 
Sacristy , behind the choir, is adorned with frescoes by Vasari. The 
monuments of Alphonso II. and Guerello Origlia are by Giovanni da Sola. 
— Cappella Mastkogiudici (1st on the right). Marble "Altar, with the 
Annunciation and six small reliefs from the life of Christ, below, by Be- 
nedetto da Maiano (1489). Several monuments, including that of 'Marinus 
Curialis Surrentinus Terrenovse comes', 1490, who founded this chapel. — 5th 
Chapel on the left : John the Baptist, by Giovanni da Sola. — The Chapel 
of the Madonna (adjoining the right transept) contains the tombs of 
Cardinal Pompeo Colonna , viceroy of Naples (d. 1532), and of Charles de 
Lannoy (d. 1527), general of Charles V. — The adjacent Chapel of the 
Holt Sepulchre contains a coarsely realistic *Grroup in terracotta com- 
pleted in 1492 by Guido Mazzoni, surnamed Modanino (of Modena ; d. 1518), 
representing Christ in the Sepulchre, surrounded by six lifesize figures in 
a kneeling posture , all portraits of contemporaries of the artist : Sanna- 
zaro as Joseph of Arimathsea, Pontanus as Nicodemus, Alphonso II. as 
John, beside him his son Ferdinand. 

The adjacent building, now occupied by public offices , was 
formerly a Benedictine Monastery , where the poet Tasso was 

44 Route 3. NAPLES. III. The Old Town. 

kindly received when ill and in distress in 1558. The old chapter- 
house (shown to -visitors by the sacristan) , in the early-Gothic 
style with disfigurements of later date , is remarkable for its fine 
effects of light and shade. The beautiful intarsia work on the 
choir-stalls is by Angelo da Verona. 

Returning to the fountain mentioned on p. 43, we follow the 
Calata S. Trinita Maggiore to the Largo S. Trinita Maggiore 
(PI. F, 4), where a lofty Madonna Column was erected in 1748 in 
the style of the period. In this piazza is situated the church of 
Gesu Nuovo, or S. Trinita Maggiore, in the form of a Greek cross, 
built in 1584, containing frescoes by Solimena (History of Heliodorus, 
over the portal), Stanzioni, Spagnoletto, and Corenzio, and overladen 
with marble and decorations. — The office of the 'Corriere di Na- 
poli' opposite the church, Piazza S. Trinita Maggiore 12, contains 
the old refectory of the former monastery of 8. Chiara, where a dam- 
aged fresco by one of Oiolto's pupils, representing the Miracle of 
the Loaves, is still preserved (not always accessible). 

Beyond the church of Gesu we reach the Strada S. Trinita 
Maggiore, one of the busiest streets crossing the Toledo (p. 40), 
and turning immediately to the right we pass through a gate to 
*Santa Chiara (PI. F, 4), originally erected by Robert the Wise 
in 1310, but almost entirely rebuilt in 1318, and richly but tas- 
telessly restored in 1752. At the same time Oiotto's frescoes were 
whitewashed. The church contains handsome Gothic monuments 
of the Angevin dynasty, and other sculptures. 

The "Interior, 92 yds. long and 35 yds. wide, is lofty and handsome, 
resembling a magnificent hall. To the left of the principal entrance is 
the monument of Onofrio di Penna, secretary of King Ladislaus (d. 1322), 
with a relief of the Madonna and hermits by Bdboccio , converted into an 
altar. Above are a Madonna enthroned and the Trinity, by Francesco, 
son of Maestro Simone (about 1300). — In front of the organ, above, are 
tasteful reliefs from the life of St. Catharine , 14th cent. , executed on a 
dark ground and resembling cameos. — Of the principal paintings on the 
ceiling, the first, the Queen of Sheba, and the second, David playing on 
the harp, are by Seb. Conca; the third, David sacrificing, by Bonito; the 
fourth, S. Clara putting the Saracens to flight, by Francesco di Sura. 
The last-named master also painted the high -altar-piece (the Sacrament) 
and the picture over the principal entrance (King Robert inspecting the 
church when building). 

The second chapel on the left contains two sarcophagi: on the right 
is the tomb of Gabriel Adorno (d. 1572), an admiral under the Emperor 
Charles V. ; on the left a tomb of the 14th century. — By the 3rd pillar 
to the left is the altar of the Madonna delle Grazie, with a fresco almost 
concealed by frippery, attributed to Giotto. 

Near the side-door which leads out of the church on the left side is 
the small but graceful monument, by Oiov. da Sola, of Antonia Gaudino, 
who died in 1530 at the age of 14, on the day appointed for her marriage, 
with a beautiful epitaph by the poet Antonius Epicurus (d. 1555). The next 
chapel contains two tombstones of the 14th century. — The Capfella 
Sanfelice, adjoining the pulpit, which is borne by lions and adorned with 
reliefs of the 13th cent., contains a Crucifixion by Lanfranco, and an an- 
cient sarcophagus with figures of Protesilaus and Laodamia which forms 
the tomb of Cesare Sanfelice, Duca di Rodi (d. 1632). — The following 
Cappella Longobardi de la Cruz Ahedo contains on the left side a mon- 
ument of 1529, and on the right a similar one of 1853. 

E. Quarters. NAPLES. 3. Route. 45 

At the back of the high-altar is the magnificent "Monument of Robert 
the Wise (d. 1343), 42 ft. in height, executed by the brothers Baccio and 
Giovanni of Florence (not Masuccio the Younger). The king is represented 
in a recumbent posture , in the garb of a Franciscan, on a sarcophagus 
embellished with reliefs and supported by saints. In a niche above 
he appears again, seated on his throne. At the top is the Madonna 
between SS. Francis and Clara. The inscription, 'Cernite Robertum 
regem virtute refertum' is ascribed to Petrarch. — ■ In the adjacent N. 
Transept is the monument of his second daughter Mary, sister of 
Johanna I. , empress of Constantinople and Duchess of Durazzo, attired 
in her imperial robes. By the wall to the left, the tomb of Agnese and 
Clementia, the two daughters of the empress, the former having also 
been the consort of a titular emperor of Constantinople , Giacomo del 
Balzo, Prince of Taranto. In the left lateral wall , the tomb of Mary, 
infant daughter of Charles the Illustrious, who died in 1344. Here also is 
the fine tomb of Paolina Eanieri, the faithful friend of Giacomo Leopardi, 
with a lifesize figure of the deceased, by Car. Solari (1878). — In the S. 
Transept, adjoining the monument of Robert the Wise , is that of his 
eldest son Charles, Duke of Calabria, who died in 1328, before his father, 
by Tino da Camaino of Siena (1338). Farther on, to the right, is the 
monument of Mary of Valois, his queen, erroneously said to be that of her 
daughter Johanna I. — The Chapel adjoining the S. transept on the right 
is the burial-chapel of the Bourbons, in which six children of Charles III. 
are interred. 

The handsome Campanile (clock -tower) of S. Chiara was 
formerly attributed to Masuccio the Younger or to his pupil Giacomo 
de Sanctis (14th cent.), and hence was long considered to prove 
that Naples was one of the heralds of the Renaissance. In reality 
it was not built till after 1600. 

Farther on in the Str. S. Trinita Maggiore, we soon reach, on the 
left, the Largo S. Dombnico (PI. F, 4), containing the palaces 
of (to the right) Casacalenda, Corigliano, and (to the left, beyond 
the square) S. Severo, and Caviati, and adorned with a Obelisk, 
surmounted by a bronze statue of the saint, executed by Vaccaro 
in 1737 from a design by Fansaga. The stairs to the left lead to a 
side-entranoe of the church of S. Domenico, the principal entrance 
of which in the court of the Pretura, Vico S. Domenico, is generally 

*S. Domenico Maggiore (open 7-11 a.m. only), erected by 
Charles II. in 1289 in the Gothic style is one of the finest churches 
in Naples, notwithstanding the subsequent alterations it has under- 
gone (the last in 1850-53). The church is 83 yds. long, 36 yds. 
wide, and 84 ft. high. It contains twenty-seven chapels and twelve 
altars, and presents an imposing appearance with its handsome 
columns and rich gilding, but the cassetted ceiling, added in the 
17th cent., does not harmonise well with the rest of the edifice. 
The most distinguishedsfamilies of Naples have for several centuries 
possessed chapels here, with numerous monuments, which are as 
important examples of early Renaissance sculpture as those in S. 
Chiara are of Gothic art. 

The 1st Chapel to the right (wall of the entrance), that of the Sa- 
luzzo , formerly of the Carafa family, contains an altar - piece (Madonna 
with SS. Martin and Dominicus and several of the Carafas) by Andrea 

46 Route 3. NAPLES. III. The Old Town. 

da Salerno, freely repainted ; also the rococo monument of General Filippo 
Saluzzo (d. 1852), and the chaste and simple monument of Galeotto Carafa 
(d. 1513) with medallion. — 2nd Chap.: Altar-piece by Agnolo Franco; 
monument of Bishop Bartolommeo Brancaccio (d. 1341). 

The "Cappella del Ceocefisso (the 7th) contains handsome monu- 
ments of the 15th century. The altar is covered with Florentine mosaic 
designed by Cosimo Fansaga. On the lower part of the altar is a relief of the 
Miracle of the Crucifix by Tommaso de" Slefani, which according to tradition, 
thus addressed Thomas Aquinas : 'Bene scripsisti de me, Thoma : quam ergo 
mercedem recipies? 1 To which the saint replied : 'Non aliam nisi te.' Pictures 
on each side of the altar: on the right Bearing of the Cross, on the left 
Descent from the Cross by an imitator of the Flemish style. To the left of 
the altar the "Monument of Francesco Carafa (d. 1470) by Agnello del Fiore; 
on the opposite side another by the same master, completed by Giovanni 
da Nola. The small side-chapel contains the tomb of Ettore Carafa, 
Conte di Ruvo (d. 1511), with martial emblems and arabesques. The 
next chapel on the left contains the Madonna della Rosa, ascribed to 
Maestro Simone. On the opposite side is the beautiful "Monument of 
Mariano d'Alagni, Count Bucchianico, and his wife Catarinella TJrsino fd. 
1447), by Agnello del Fiore. Adjacent to it is the monument of Niccolo di 
Sangro, Principe di Fondi, by Domenico d^Anria. — At the entrance to the 
sacristy, monuments of various members of the family of Thomas Aquinas. 

The "Sacristy has a ceiling-painting by Solimena , and at the altar 
an Annunciation , attributed to Andrea da Salerno. Around the walls, 
above, are forty-five large wooden sarcophagi with velvet covers, ten of 
which contain the remains of princes of the house of Aragon. Among these 
are Ferdinand I. (d. 1494) ; Ferdinand II. (d. 1496) ; his aunt , Queen 
Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand I. (d. 1518); Isabella (d. 1524), daughter 
of AlphonsoII. and wife of the Duke of Milan, etc. Also the coffin of Fernando 
Francesco d'Avalos, Marchese di Pescara, the hero of Ravenna and Pavia, 
who died of his wounds at Milan in 1525. The inscription is by Ariosto. 
Above the tomb are suspended his portrait, a banner, and a sword. His 
wife was the celebrated Vittoria Colonna, who after his death sang his 
praises in the island of Ischia (p. 106). 

In the S. Transept is the Monument of Galeazzo Pandone (d. 1514), 
by Giovanni da Nola. 

From the S. transept a door leads into a portion of the older church, 
which also contains some interesting monuments, particularly that of the 
Rota family, by Giovanni da Nola. Here also is the side-entrance men- 
tioned at p. 45. 

The High Altar, adorned with Florentine mosaic, is by Fansaga, 1652. 

In the rJ. Transept, above the chapel of the Pignatelli, are the monu- 
ments of Giovanni di Durazzo (d. 1323) and Filippo di Taranto (d. 1335), 
sons of Charles II., with a long inscription in leonine verse. 

N. Aisle. The 8th Chapel (S. Maria della Neve; contains above the altar a 
beautiful "Haut-relief with a statue of the Virgin, attended by St. Matthew 
and St. John, the best work of Giovanni da Nola, executed in 1536. Here, to 
the right, is also the monument of the poet Giambattista Marini of Naples 
(d. 1625), well known for his bombastic style, with a bust by Bartolommeo 
Viscontini. — 7th Chapel, of the Ruffo Bagnara family: Martyrdom of 
St. Catharine, by Leonardo da Pistoja; tombs of Leonardo Tomacelli (d. 1529) 
and of Cardinal Fabricio Ruffo (d. 1829) who acted a prominent part in 
the events of 1799. — 6th Chapel: tombs of the Carafa. — 5th Chapel: of 
the Andrea. — 4th Chapel : tombs of the Rota family, with a "Statue of 
John the Baptist by Giovanni da Nola, as a monument to the poet Bernar- 
dino Rota (d. 1575), with figures of the Arno and the Tiber by Bomenico 
d'Auria (1600). — 3rd Chapel, to the left: Martyrdom of St. John by 
Scipione Gaelano; tomb of Antonio Carafa, surnamed Malizia (d. 1438). — 
2nd Chapel, in the bad taste of the 17th cent. : the miracle-working Ma- 
donna di S. Andrea. — 1st Chapel, to the left, by the entrance (S. Stefano): 
Christ crowning Joseph, by Luca Giordano : on the lateral walls an Adora- 
tion of the Magi, by a Flemish master; Holy Family, ascribed to Andrea 
da Salerno. 

E. Quarters. NAPLES. 3. Route. 47 

In the adjacent monastery the celebrated Thomas Aquinas lived in 1272 
as professor of philosophy at the university which was then founded, 
and his lectures were attended by men of the highest rank, and even the 
king himself. His cell , now a chapel , and his lecture-room still exist. 
The monastery is now occupied by various public offices. The Accademiu 
Pontaniana, founded in 1471 by the learned Giovanni Pontano, also 
meets here. 

Ascending the Via Mezzocannone (p. 28), which leads to the S. 
from S. Domenico, and then following the third cross-street to the 
right, we reach the Piazza di S. Giovanni Maggiore, in which rises 
the church of S. Giovanni Maggiore (PL F, 5), recently entire- 
ly rebuilt in consequence of a collapse. The adjacent chapel of 
8. Giovanni de' Pappacoda possesses a handsome Gothic portal 
dating from 1415. — The small church of S. Maria della Pieth de' 
Sangri , commonly called La Cappella Sansevero (PL F, 4), is now 
closed and difficult of access, owing to the demolition of the Palazzo 
Sansevero, to which it belonged as the burial-place of the Sangro 
di Sansevero family. The marble worts in this chapel — Dead 
Christ enveloped in a winding-sheet, Cecilia Gaetani, wife of 
Antonio di Sangro, as Pudicitia, and the 'Man in the Net', by 
Giuseppe Sammartino, Ant. Conradini, and Fran. Queirolo, — ex- 
hibit all the bad taste of 18th cent, art, its tricky effects with trans- 
parent garments, its artificiality, etc., combined at the same time 
with a high degree of technical finish. 

We now return to the Largo S. Domenico (p. 45), and proceed 
to the N. E. by the Strada Nilo and by the Strada S. Biagio de' Librai 
(p. 48) farther on. Immediately to the right is S. Angelo a Nilo 
(PL F, 4), erected in 1385; to the right of the high-altar is the 
♦Monument of the founder Cardinal Brancacci (d. 1428), by Dona- 
tello and Michelozzo , who have here blended the Gothic mon- 
umental character with the new style of the Renaissance. 

The VrA dell' Universita (the second street from the Piazza 
S. Domenico to the right) descends hence to the right to the not 
far distant — 

TJniversity (PL F, 4 ; Regia Universita degli Studj), founded in 
1224 by the Emp. Frederick II., reconstituted in 1780 and removed 
to the Jesuits' College. It is one of the most ancient in Europe, 
and possesses five faculties, about 100 professorial chairs, a library, 
and natural history collections of which the mineralogical is the 
most valuable. It is attended by upwards of 4000 students. The 
library, on the upper floor, to the right, is open from 9 to 3 daily 
(librarian Coram,. Minervini). The Court contains a few busts and 
the statues of Pietro della Vigna, chancellor of Frederick II., Tho- 
mas Aquinas, G. B. Vico, and Giordano Bruno, erected in 1863. An 
extensive new University Building in the new quarter near the Re- 
clusorio (p. 41) is planned. 

Leaving the university and proceeding in a straight direction, 
we reach the richly decorated church of SS. Severino e Sosio (PL G, 
4), in the Piazza S. Marcellino, built by Mormandi in 1490. 

48 Route 3. NAPLES. HI. The Old Town. 

The roof is adorned with frescoes by Corenzio, who is interred here, 
by the entrance to the sacristy. The choir-stalls, dating from the end oi 
the 15th cent., are beautifully carved. Adjoining the choir to the right is 
the chapel of the Sanseverini, containing three monuments pf three bro- 
thers, who were poisoned by their uncle in 1516, works of Giovanni da 
Nola. In a chapel near the choir, to the right, is the tomb of the 
historian Carlo Troya (d. 1858). In the N. transept are the monuments oi 
Admiral Vincenzo Carafa (d. 1611) and the Duca Francesco de Marmilis 
(d. 1649). The 2nd chapel in the N. aisle contains an altar-piece by An- 
drea da Salerno, in six sections, representing the Madonna with St. Jus- 
tina and John theBaplist. By the entrance to the sacristy, in the chapel 
to the right, the 'Tomb of a child, Andrea Bonifacio, ascribed to Giov. da 
Nola; opposite to it is that of Giambattista Cicara, by the same master, both 
with inscriptions by Sannazaro. 

The monastery connected with this church has since 1818 been 
the depository of the Archives of the kingdom, which are among 
the most valuable in the world. Frescoes and paintings by Corenzio 
adorn the interior. The 40,000 parchment MSS. (the oldest of 
which are in Greek) date from 703 onwards , and include the 
Norman, Hohenstaufen, Angevin, Aragonese, and Spanish periods. 
The documents of the Angevin period, 380,000 in number, form no 
fewer than 378 volumes. (Permission to inspect them must be 
obtained from the director of the Archives, the historian Comm. 
Bart. Capasso.) — The entrance to the cloisters is by a gateway 
to the right in the street ascending to the left of the church. We 
then traverse the arcades of the first two courts, and in the next 
we shall find the custodian between 10 and 3 o'clock (}/i-l ft.). 
The walls of the cloisters are adorned with nineteen *Fb,escobs, 
unfortunately much damaged and of late badly restored, represent- 
ing scenes from the life of St. Benedict. They are generally ascribed 
to Lo Zingaro and his supposed pupils, the Donzelli and Simone Papa, 
but Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle assign them to a painter of 
Umbro-Florentine origin. The best of the series is that in grisaille 
representing the youthful saint on his way to Rome with his father 
and nurse. The others were probably carried out by assistants. 
(Best light in the forenoon.) In the open space in the centre is a 
fine plane-tree which is said to have been planted by St. Benedict, 
and on which a fig-tree is grafted. 

Returning to the principal street (p. 47), the continuation of 
which is called the Stbada S. Biagio de' Libkai (PI. F, G, 4), we 
pass the Monte di Pieta, or public loan-establishment, on the right, 
and several churches and palaces of little importance. After about 
y 4 M. our street is crossed by the broad Via del Duomo (p. 53), the 
left branch of which runs N. to the Strada de' Tribunali, which 
leads straight to the Castel Capuano mentioned below. 

We continue to follow the Str. S. Biagio, which after 5 mill, 
divides : to the right the Str. S. Egiziaca a Forcella leads to the Porta 
Nolana (p. 39); to the left is the Str. dell' Annunziata with the 
Church of the Annunziata (PI. H, 4), erected in 1757-82 by L. Van- 
vitelli on the site of an earlier church dating from Robert the Wise 

E. Quarters. NAPLES. 3. Route. 49 

(frescoes by Corenzio ; tomb of the notorious Queen Johanna II., 

d. 1435). — Adjoining is the large Casa dei Trovatelli, or Found- 
lings' Home, shown by special permission only. To the left of the 
entrance is the niche (now built up) in which formerly worked the 
'ruota' or wheel on which the foundlings were placed. Now the 
children are received inside the institution and the names of the 
parents ascertained. Boys Temain in the home until 7 years old; 
girls, if unmarried, frequently spend their entire life here, working 
as sempstresses, servants, etc. (their embroidery is noted). The 
income of the home, which is admirably managed, is about 
400,000 francs. It is the popular custom to visit this home on 
April 24th and 25th. — The Str. dell' Annunziata is continued 
by the Str. Maddalena, which leads us to the piazza immediately 
within the Porta Capuana. On our right here is the gate (see 
below) ; opposite us is the church of S. Caterina a Formello, with 
a dome constructed in 1523; and on our left is the — 

Castel Capuano (PI. Gr, 3), usually called La Vicaria, found- 
ed by William I. and completed by Frederick II. in 1231 from a 
design by Fuccio, once the principal residence of the Hohenstaufen 
kings, and occasionally that of the Anjous. In 1540 Don Pedro de 
Toledo (p. 31) transferred the different courts of justice to this pal- 
ace, where they remain to this day. A visit to some of these courts 
affords the traveller a good opportunity of becoming acquainted with 
the Neapolitan national character. A prison of evil repute was 
formerly situated below the criminal court. The chief entrance is 
on the other side, opposite the Via de' Tribunali (p. 51). 

The *Porta Capuana (PL H, 3), built by Ferdinand I. of Aragon 
about 1484, was designed by the Florentine Giuliano da Maiano, 
and is one of the finest Renaissance gateways in existence. On the 
entry of Charles V. in 1535 it was restored and decorated with 
sculptures on the outside by Giovanni da Nola. Like most of the 
other gateways at Naples, it is flanked by two handsome round towers. 

Past the outside of this gate runs the Corso Garibaldi (PI. H, 3, 4), 
which extends from the sea to the Strada Foria (see p. 41). Near 
the gate is the station of the branch-line to Nola-Baiano (PI. H, 3 ; 
p. 173), close beside which is the station for the Aversa and Cai- 
vano line (see p. 23). 

Outside the Porta Capuana stretch the verdant and fertile Paduli (i. 

e. paludi or marshes), a district about 20 sq. M. in area, the kitchen- 
garden of Naples, in which crops succeed each other in continuous rotation 
all the year round. About 3 /t M. beyond the gate the tramway (p. 23) ends, 
opposite the extensive Slaughter Bouse, at the — 

"Campo Santo Nuovo, laid out in 1836, adjoining the hill called Poggio 
Reale. trom the lower entrance the principal avenue leads to a rectan- 
gular space, containing the tombs of the chief Neapolitan families. The 
path diverging here to the left leads to a good point of view. Farther 
up the principal avenue is the Church, in which a solemn service is held 
on All Souls' Day (Nov. 2nd; 'Giorno dei Morti'J. Through the open 
doorway on the left we enter the colonnaded Atrium of the cemetery, 
in the centre of which is a colossal Statue of Religion, by Angelini. The 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. 4 

50 Route 3. NAPLES. III. The Old Town. 

cemetery contains numerous chapels erected by guilds and societies, many 
of them in the shape of temples. These consist of two apartments, in the 
lower of which the bodies are buried for about 18 months , until they 
are completely parched (not decayed) through the action of the tufa soil. 
They are then removed to the upper apartment and placed in niches covered 
with marble slabs. 

Leaving the cemetery by the principal gate we reach the road from 
the Eeclusorio (p. 41). In this road, a few yards farther on, to the left, 
is the Cimitero della Pield, or burial-ground of the poor, opened in 18S8. 
This cemetery, which is laid out in terraces, resembles a huge amphi- 
theatre. In the centre stands a Pietd in marble, and at the top of the hill 
is a chapel. 

The well-kept Protestant Cemetery {Cimitero Protestante ; PI. H, 2) 
lies on the road to the Campo Santo Vecchio, about >/4 M. from the 
Porta Capuana. (Visitors ring at the gate, 'fa fr.). A very large pro- 
portion of the names observed here are English, German, and American 
(among others that of Mrs. Somerville, the mathematician, d. 1872). 

Starting from the piazza within the Porta Capuana, and pass- 
ing in front of the church of S. Caterina (p. 49), we now follow 
the Strada Carbonara (PI. Gr, 3), which leads in 8 min. to the 
Strada Foria(p. 41). On the right, at the point where the street 
narrows, a broad flight of 45 steps ascends to the church of — 

*S. Giovanni a Carbonara (PI. G, 3), erected in 1344, and 
enlarged by King Ladislaus. Entrance by a side-door. 

The "'Monument of King Ladislaus (d. 1414), considered the master- 
piece of Andrea Ciccione, erected by Johanna II., the king's sister, stands at 
the back of the high-altar, and is of very imposing general effect, as well 
as carefully executed in the details. Above is the equestrian statue of 
Ladislaus ; in a recess below, a sarcophagus with the king in a recumbent 
posture, receiving the benediction of a bishop (in reference to the removal 
of the excommunication under which the king lay at his death); under- 
neath , Ladislaus and Johanna ; and the whole is supported by statues 
which represent the virtues of the deceased. The altar was restored in 1746. 

The Cappella del Sole, behind this monument, contains the "Tomb 
of the Grand Seneschal Sergianni Caracciolo, the favourite of Johanna II., 
murdered in 1432 , also by Ciccione. It was erected by his son Trojano, 
and reveals traces of the dawn of the Renaissance. Inscription by Lorenzo 
Valla. The frescoes, scenes from the life of Mary, are by Leonardo di 
Bisuccio of Milan (about 1450), one of the last pupils of Giotto. — The 
Chapel of the Caracciolo Rosso, to the left of the high-altar, a circular 
temple erected and ornamented in 1516-57 from the designs of Girolarno 
Santacroce, contains statues by Qiov. da Nola, Girol. Santacroce, and 
Pietro della Plata (altar-reliefs), and the monuments of Galeazzo to the left, 
and Colantonio Caracciolo opposite, by Scilla and Dom. d'Auria respectively. 

— The Sacristy contains fifteen scenes from the history of Christ by 
Vasari, 1546 (much injured). — Adjoining the entrance to the sacristy from 
the church is a Madonna delle Grazie, a handsome statue executed in 
1571. — On the same side, farther on, is ;a large altar in the form of a 
chapel, called the 'Chapel of St. John the Evangelist, with good 
Renaissance sculptures of the 15th cent., renewed in 1619 by Al. Mirdbollo. 

— The above list by no means exhausts the interesting monuments in the 

The Congregazione di S. Monica, with a separate entrance at the top 
of the flight of steps leading to the church , contains the monument of 
Prince Ferdinando di Sanseverino by Andreas de Plorentia. 

Near S. Giovanni a Carbonara was once the arena for gladiator- 
combats, of which, in the time of Johanna I. and King Andreas, 
Petrarch was a horror-stricken spectator. 

We now return to the Castel Capuano (p. 49). 

E. Quarters. NAPLES. 3. Route. 51 

From the Piazza de' Tribunali, opposite the principal entrance 
to the Castel Capuano, the busy Stkada de' Tkibunali (PI. F, G, 
3, 4) leads in a nearly "W". direction towards the Toledo. Follow- 
ing this street, we pass (on the left) the Gothic entrance of the 
Ospedale delta Pace, and soon reach the small piazza of <S. Gennaro 
on the right, the column in which was erected after the appalling 
eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 (p. 114) to commemorate the suc- 
cour rendered by St. Januarius. On the summit is the bronze 
figure of the saint by Finelli. 

We next ascend the stairs to the cathedral (principal entrance 
in the new Via del Duomo, see p. 53). 

The *Cathedral (PI. G, 3), which is dedicated to St. Januarius 
(S. Gennaro), was "begun in 1272 by Charles I. of Anjou on the 
site of a temple of Neptune, continued by Charles II. after 1294, 
and completed by Robert, grandson of the founder, in 1314. It is 
in the French-Gothic style, with lofty towers and pointed arches. 
The freely modernized principal facade of 1299, the portal of which 
dates from 1407, is at present undergoing restoration, and is being 
provided with towers. In 1456 the church was nearly destroyed by 
an earthquake, but was afterwards rebuilt by Alphonso I. During 
the 17th and 18th centuries it underwent frequent alterations and 
restorations, but it still retains many of its original characteristics. 
The edifice is a basilica, the aisles of which have a Gothic vaulting. 

Interior. The ceiling-paintings of the Nave are by Santa/ede (the square 
ones) and Vincenzo da Forti (oval) ; the frescoes on the upper part of the 
lateral walls are by Luca Giordano and his pupils, St. Cyril and St. Chryso- 
stom are by Solimena. Over the principal entrance are the tombs of (1.) 
Charles I. of Anjou and (r.) Charles Martel, King of Hungary, eldest son of 
Charles II. and his wife Clementia, a daughter of Rudolph of Hapsburg, 
restored by the viceroy Olivarez in 1599. Above the side-doors are paint- 
ings by Vasari (1546), representing David playing the harp, and the 
patron-saints of Naples; the heads are portraits of Pope Paul III. and other 
members of the Farnese family. 

In the S. Aisle is the "Chapel of St. Januarius (the 3rd), commonly 
known as the Cappella del Tesoro , adorned with a marble facade and 
magnificent large brazen doors. On the right and left are two lofty 
columns of greenish marble, and above is the inscription: 'Divo Janua- 
rio, e fame bello, peste, ac Vesuvi igne miri ope sanguinis erepta Nea- 
polis, civi patrono vindici.' The chapel was erected in consequence of a 
vow made during the plague in 1527. The work was begun in 1608 and com- 
pleted in 1637 at a cost of a million ducats (about 225,0002.). The best 
time to see it is shortly before 12, the hour when the church closes. 

The interior of the chapel, which is in the form of a Greek cross, is 
richly decorated with gold and marble, and contains eight altars, forty-two 
columns of broccatello, magnificent doors , five oil-paintings on copper Dy 
Domenichino, and several frescoes from the life of St. Januarius. nrst 
four representations, however, alone (tomb of the saint ; his martyrdom ; re- 
suscitation of a youth; sick persons healed by oil from a lamp whicli Iiaa 
hung before the tomb of the saint) are entirely by Domemchmo who a ong 
with Guido Reni and Lanfranco, intimidated by the threats of their jealous 
Neapolitan rivals, Spagnoletto and Corenzio , abandoned the task oi paint- 
ing the dome. - The Sacristy of the Tesoro contains pictures by Stan- 
zioni and Luca Giordano; a Mostly collection of ecclesiastical vestments 
and sacred vessels- the silver bust of St. Januarius, executed for Charles II. 
k ,1306 ^.t'ote busts in silver of the patron - saints of the city 

52 Route 3. NAPLES. III. The Old Town. 

and other valuable relics. — In the tabernacle of the high-altar, which is 
adorned with a carefully covered relief in silver representing the arrival 
of the saint's remains, are preserved two vessels containing the Blood 
of St. Januarius, Bishop of Benevento , who suffered martyrdom under 
Diocletian in 305 (comp. p. 95). The liquefaction of the blood, which 
according to the legend took place for the first time when the body was 
brought to Naples by Bishop St. Severus in the time of Constantine, is 
the occasion of the greatest festival of Naples and takes place three times 
annually during several successive days (1st Saturday in May, in the 
evening, 19th Sept., and 16th Dec, between 9 and 10 a. m.). According 
as the liquefaction is rapid or slow it is considered a good or evil omen 
for the ensuing year. Travellers by applying to the Sagrestano may often 
secure a good place near the altar during the solemnity. 

In the S. aisle, farther on, is the Cappella Bkancia (the 5th), which 
contains the handsome tomb of Cardinal Carbone (d. 1405) by Ant. Ba- 
boccio. — In the S. Trahsept is the chapel of the Caraccioli, with the 
monument of Cardinal Bernardino Caraccioli (d. 1268). 

At the back of the transept, to the right, is the entrance to the 
"Cappella Minotoli (open 6-8 a.m. only), in the Gothic style, the upper 
part adorned with paintings by Tommaso degli Stefani in the 13th cent, 
(frequently retouched), the lower part by an unknown master; over the 
principal altar, monument of Card. Arrigo Minutoli (d. 1412), with a 
relief of the Virgin andApostles; other tombs of the 14th and 15th cent.; 
triptych of the Trinity on the altar to the left, a good early Sienese work. 
— The adjoining Cappella Toooa contains the tomb of St. Asprenas, one 
of the first bishops of Naples. 

Beneath the high-altar (staircase to the right, with brazen doors) is 
the richly decorated "Confessio , or crypt , with ancient columns and 
beautiful marble covering , containing the tomb of St. Januarius. The 
tasteful ornamentation , by Tomaso Malvito of Como (1504) , should he 
remarked. Facing the shrine, to the left, is the kneeling figure of Car- 
dinal Oliviero Carafa , who erected the chapel in 1492-1506, probably also 
by Malvito. — Fresco on the ceiling of the choir by Domenichino, the 
Adoration of the Angels. 

The Gothic chapel of the Capece Galeota, to the left of the high-altar, 
contains a painting of Christ between St. Januarius and St. Athanasius, 
15th century. 

In the N. Transept, by the door of the sacristy, are the tombs of (r.) : 
Innocent IV. (d. 1254 at Naples), erected by the Archbishop Umberto di 
Montorio in 1318 , restored in the 16th cent. ; Andreas, King of Hungary, 
who was murdered by his queen Johanna I. at Aversa, as the inscription 
records : 'Andrese Caroli TJberti Pannoniee regis f. Neapolitanorum regi 
Joannse uxoris dolo laqueo necato Ursi Minutili pietate hie recondite' ; (1.) : 
Pope Innocent XII. (Pignatelli of Naples ; d. 1696). 

In the N. Aisle, near the transept, is the Cappella de' Seripandi, 
adorned with an Assumption of the Virgin, by Pietro Perugino (?; 1460). — 
We next reach the entrance to Santa Restituta (see below). — In the 2nd 
chapel : Entombment, a relief by Giovanni da Nola ; above it, Unbelief of 
Thomas, a painting by Marco da Siena. — In the vicinity (in the nave) is 
the Font, an ancient basin of green basalt, with Bacchanalian thyrsi and masks. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the left, and entered from it by a door 
in the left aisle (when closed, fee 1/2 fir.), 1S the church of "Santa Resti- 
tuta, a basilica with pointed arcbes, occupying the site of a temple_ of 
Apollo, to which it is probably indebted for the ancient Corinthian 
columns in the nave. This was the cathedral of Naples prior to the 
erection of the larger church. The foundation, erroneously attributed to 
Constantine the Great, dates from the 7th century. When the cathedral 
was built this church was shortened, and in the 17th cent, it was restored. 
In the Chapel S. Maria del Principio, at the end of the left aisle, is a "Mo- 
saic of the Virgin with St. Januarius and Sta. Restituta, restored in 1322, 
and considered the earliest in Naples ; whence the name 'del Principio'. On 
the lateral walls two remarkable bas-reliefs from an altar-screen, supposed 
to date from the 8th cent., each in fifteen compartments ; to the left the his- 

E. Quarters. NAPLES. .3. Route. 53 

tory of Joseph ; to the right above, St. Januarius, then Samson ; beneath 
St. George. — At the back of the high-altar the 'Virgin with St. Michael 
and Sta. Bestituta, by Silvestro Buono (?), a good work of a mixed Urn- 

brian and Neapolitan style (forged inscription; painted after 1500). 

The snjall dome of the chapel S. Giovanni in Fonte (closed) to the right, 
said to have been erected by Constantine in 333, formerly the baptistery 
of the church, is adorned with old, but frequently restored mosaics 
(7th cent.) of Christ, the Virgin, etc. 

The principal facade of the cathedral (portal, see p. 51), which 
is approached by a flight of steps, looks towards the new and broad 
Via del Duomo (PI. F, G, 3, 4), a street diverging from the Strada 
Foria (p. 41) and running nearly parallel with the Toledo. Many 
of the densely packed houses of the old town were demolished to 
make way for this street, which extends down to the sea. — Adjoining 
the cathedral, on the right as we leave the church, is the extensive 
Archiepiscopal Palace (PI. G, 3), erected in the 13th cent., and en- 
tirely restored by Cardinal Filomarino in 1647. The principal facade 
looks to the Piazza Donna Regina. 

In the Str. Anticaglia (PL F, G, 3) are the remains of an ancient 
Theatre, in which the emperor Nero appeared as an actor, once 
apparently of considerable extent, of which two arches still exist. 

On the right in the Via del Duomo is the Falazzo Cuomo (PL 
G, 4), an imposing early-Renaissance building of the end of the 15th 
cent., erected for Ang. Como, probably by Florentine artists. The 
original site being in the line of the Strada del Duomo, the palace 
was taken down, the stones being marked, and was carefully re-erect- 
ed here in 1882-86, and opened as the Museo Civico Filangieri, 
presented to the town by Prince Gaetano Filangieri. Adm. daily 10.30- 
2,'/2-l fr., Tues. & Sat. free. The detailed catalogue also contains 
a historical sketch of the palace and museum. 

The large vestibule on the Ground Floor, adorned by mosaics by 
Salviati in the style of the 14th cent., contains antiques and weapons, 
including an Aragonese breech-loading field-piece of the 15th century. — 
A winding staircase ascends to the First Floor, which forms a tasteful 
exhibition-hall, with a gallery lighted from above. Here are artistic 
weapons of the 16-18th cent., two Italian chests of the 16th cent., gems, 
enamels (in Case xxv., Nos. 1023, 1025 are by Jean III. Penicaud. the chief 
Limoges master), and about 60 paintings. Among the last are: :, 1489. 
Bern. Luini, Madonna with the donor, a lady of the Bentivoglio family; 
1466. Bern. Lanini (?), Madonna; Pordeno'ne, Descent from the Cross; 
Spagnolelto, 1440. St. Mary of Egypt, 1455. Head of John the Baptist; San- 
dro Botticelli, Portrait (wrongly attributed to Dom. Ghirlandaj o) ; 14C9. 
J. van Eyck (?), Madonna; 1446. Tan Dyck, Crucifixion; and other Nether- 
landish works. — In the gallery are some fine Italian majolicas, porce- 
lain from Capodimonte, etc. ; silver vessels. 

We now return to the Strada db' Tkibunali. After a few paces, 
we observe the small Piazza Qerolomini on the right, with the church 
of S. Filippo Neri (PI. G, 3), or de' Qerolomini, erected in 1592- 
1619, and overladen with ornament, now somewhat dilapidated. 

Over the principal entrance: Christ and the money-changers, a large 
fresco by Luca Giordano; high-altar-piece by Giovanni Bernardino Siciliano; 
lateral paintings by Corenzio. The sumptuous chapel of S. Filippo Neri, 

54 Route 3. NAPLES. ///. The Old Town. 

to the left of the high-altar, contains a ceiling-fresco by Solimena ; and that 
of St. Francis of Assisi (4th chap, to the left) a painting by Guido Reni. 
Near the latter, at the base of a pillar in the nave, is the tombstone of 
the learned Giambattista Vico, b. at Naples 1670, d. 1744. The sacristy 
(entrance to the left) contains paintings by Andrea da Salerno, Corrado, 
Domenichino, Salimbeni, Guido Reni, and others. 

To the right, farther on, is situated S. Paolo Maggiore (PI. F, 4), 
approached by a lofty flight of steps, and built in 1590 by the 
Theatine Orimaldi on the site of an ancient temple of Castor and 
Pollux. The beautiful portico of the temple remained in situ till 
it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1688, and two Corinthian 
columns with part of the architrave are still to be seen. The 
church contains numerous decorations in marble, and paintings by 
Corenzio, Stanzioni, Marco da Siena, and Solimena. The Cloisters 
are borne by twenty-four ancient granite columns. During the Ro- 
man period this was the central point of the city. 

In the small piazza in front of S. Paolo, on the other side of 
the Strada de' Tribunali, to the left, stands the church of *S. Lorenzo 
(PL G, 4), begun in the Gothic style by Charles I. of Anjou in 
1266, to commemorate his victory over King Manfred at Benevento 
(p. 205), and completed by Robert I. in 1324. The site is that of 
the ancient Basilica Augustalis. The portal and the choir only are 
of the Gothic period, the nave having been almost entirely rebuilt 
in the 16th century. The choir, with its ambulatory and gaTland 
of chapels in the northern style, was probably designed by a 
French architect. The belfry beside the church dates from 1487. 

Interior. The large picture over the chief entrance, Jesus and St. 
Francis, is by Tincenzo Corso. — The Coronation of King Robert by St. 
Louis of Toulouse, with a predella (signed), in the 7th chapel to the right 
is by Simone di Martino of Siena. The same chapel contains the relics of 
some frescoes in the Sienese style. — St. Anthony of Padua, in the chapel 
of that saint in the N. transept, on a gold ground, and St. Francis as the 
founder ot his Order (ascribed to Zingaro), in the chapel of St. Francis in 
the S. transept, both show traces of Flemish influence. The three statues 
of St. Francis, St. Lawrence, and St. Anthony, and the 'Reliefs on the high- 
altar are by Giovanni da Nola (1478). — In the retro-choir behind the 
high-altar, entering to the right, are the monuments of: (1) Catherine of 
Austria , first wife of Charles, Duke of Calabria (d. 1323) , with a pyra- 
midal canopy and adorned with mosaics ; (2) Johanna di Durazzo, daughter 
of Charles of Durazzo, and her husband Robert of Artois, both of whom 
died of poison on the same day, 20th July, 1387; below are three Virtues, 
above them two angels drawing aside the curtain. Then, in a closed space: 
(3) Mary, the young daughter of Charles of Durazzo, killed at Aversa in 1347. 
By the entrance of the church, on the right, is the tombstone of the naturalist 
Giambattista della Porta (1550-1616). 

The monastery connected with the church, now used as barracks, 
was once the seat of the municipal authorities, a fact recalled by the 
coloured arms of the different Sedili, or quarters of the town, which are 
still above the entrance from the street. The Cloisters, which we reach 
by turning to the left in the entrance-passage , contain the tomb of Lu- 
dovico Aldemoresco, by Baboccio (1414). In 1343 Petrarch resided in this 
monastery; and Boccaccio, when in the church of S. Lorenzo, beheld the 
beautiful princess whose praises he has sung under the name of Fiam- 

In the direction of the Toledo, to the left, is situated S. Pietro 

IV. Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 55 

a Maiella (PL F, 4), in the Gothic style, erected by Giovanni Pi- 
pino di Barletta, the favourite of Charles II. (d. 1316; his tomb 
is in the left transept), but afterwards altered. In the adjacent 
monastery is established the Conservatorium of Music (R. Collegio di 
Musica), founded in 1537, which has sent forth a number of cele- 
brated composers (e.g. Bellini), and was long presided overby Mer- 
cadante. A number of valuable MSS. of Paesiello, Jomelli, Pergo- 
lese, and other eminent masters are preserved here. The adjoining 
Piazza di S. Maria di Costantinopoli is embellished with a Statue 
of Bellini. — Through the Porta Alba we reach the Piazza Dante 
on the Toledo (see p. 40). 

IV. The Museum. 
In the upper part of the town , in the prolongation of the 
Toledo , at the point where a street leading to the Piazza Cavour 
diverges to the right (comp. p. 41 ; l 4 /4 M. from the Piazza del Ple- 
hiscito ; omnibus and tramway thence, see pp. 22, 23 , steam-tram- 
way from the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, see p. 23), rises the — 

**Museo Nazionale (PL E, F, 3). It was erected in 1586 by the 
viceroy Duke of Ossuna as a cavalry-barrack, and in 1615 ceded by 
Count Lemos to the university, which was established there until 
1780, when it was transferred to the Gesu Vecchio. Since 1790 it 
has been fitted up for the reception of the royal collection of antiquities 
and pictures , to which in 1816 Ferdinand I. gave the name of 
Museo Reale Borbonico. Here are united the collections belonging 
to the crown, the Farnese collection from Rome and Parma, those 
of the palaces of Portici and Capodimonte, and the excavated treas- 
ures of Herculaneum, Pompeii, Stabiae, and Cumse. These united 
collections now form one of the finest in the world; the Pompeian 
antiquities and objects of art in particular, as well as the bronzes 
from Herculaneum, are unrivalled. + 

The present director is Oiulio de Petra, t<j whose predecessor 
Giuseppe Fiorelli is due the general arrangement of the museum 
as it now stands. Unimportant alterations are , however, still 
occasionally made, so that it is impossible to give here an ab- 
solutely accurate enumeration of the contents. No Catalogue has 
yet been published except for the coins, the weapons, and the in- 
scriptions; but we may mention the ' Guide General du Musee 
National' which has been published by Dom. Monaco, the con- 
servator of the museum, and which will be found useful in several 
respects (sold at the book-shops, price 5 fr.). 

The Entrance is in the street leading from the Toledo to the 
Piazza Cavour, opposite the Galleria Principe di Napoli (p. 41). 

t The following letters indicate the origin of the different objects; 
B. Borgia collection, C. Capua, G. A. Amphitheatre of Capua, Cu. Cumse, 
F. Farnese collection, H. Herculaneum, L. Lucera, M. Minturnse, N. Naples, 
P. Pompeii, Pz. Pozzuoli, S. Stabise. 

56 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

The Museum is open daily, except on national holidays (see p. xxii), 
May to Oct. 9-3, Nov. to April 10-4 o'clock ; on Sundays (10-1) 
gratis, on other days admission 1 ft. ; gratuities forbidden. Sticks 
and umbrellas must be given up at the Oarderobe, to the left in the 
gateway. Tickets are obtained on the right; pass-out checks are 
supplied to visitors temporarily leaving the Museum for lunch, etc. 
The officials, most of whom speak French, readily give information. 

Permission to copy or study , which is always accorded to artists and 
archaeologists, is obtained by strangers on showing their passports at the 
Segreteria (entered by the second door, on the third floor; public en- 
trance to the library on the first floor, p. 74), where a similar permission 
may be procured for Pompeii and Psestnm. Free tickets for Pompeii 
(p. 119) are also to be had here. 

The following is a sketch of the general arrangements : — 

A. Gkoond Floor (comp. Plan, p. 70). 
Right Side : Ancient Frescoes (see below) ; beyond them, Inscriptions and several 
large sculptures (p. 5J); then the Canova Room; Chinese 
Collection (p. 61); Egyptian Antiquities (p. 61). 
Left Side : Ancient Marble Staines (p. 61); beyond them, the Large Bronzes 
(P- 67). 

B. Entresol. 

Right Side: Ancient Frescoes (p. 69); Ancient Terracottas (p. 69). 
Left Side: Cumaean Antiquities (p. 70); Renaissance Objects (p. 70); En- 
gravings (p. 70). 

C. TJppek Flook (comp. Plan, p. 71). 
Right Side: Copies of Pompeian Pictures (p. 70), Articles of Food from 
Pompeii (p. 71); Papyri (p. 71); Pictures (p. 71; 1st section). 
Immediately opposite: Library (p. 74). 

Left Side: Ancient Glass (p. 74); Coins (p. 74) ; Pictures (p. 74; Neapolitan 

and foreign); Museum Santangelo (p. 76) and Vases (p. 76); 

Small Bronzes (p. 78); Qold and Silver Ornaments and Gems 

(p. 79). 

The following description begins with the right or E. side of each floor. 

A. Ground Floor. 

Leaving the entrance-gateway, we pass through a glass-door, 
where tickets are given up, into a large Vestibule with sev- 
eral ancient statues from the Farnese collection. At the end of 
the vestibule are the stairs ascending to the upper floors (pp. 70 
et seq.). — The following are the most interesting statues in the 
vestibule : On the right, by the entrance, Alexander Severus ; left, 
a Melpomene from the theatre of Pompey at Rome, erroneously 
restored as Urania. By the staircase, right, Flora ; left, Genius of 
the city of Rome. At each of the two doors leading to the court are 
four figures with the toga; by the staircase two river-gods. 

The ** Collection of Ancient Frescoes (Affreschi Pompeiani) 
from Herculaneum , Pompeii, Stabiffi, etc., which we first visit, 
occupies the right half of the ground-floor. These paintings oc- 
cupy seven rooms and a corridor , being grouped in accordance 
with their subjects, and each group is furnished with a" Roman 
numeral. These works (along with those found at Rome) are, with 

Ground Floor, E. NAPLES. 3. Route. 57 

the exception of painted vases and mosaics, almost the only spe- 
cimens of ancient painting which have come down to us, and are 
therefore of extreme value. They are our sole informants with regard 
to the ancient style, colouring, and treatment of light and shade. 
Many of them are beautifully conceived, and executed with an easy, 
masterly touch, and they include landscapes , historical and mytho- 
logical subjects , genrepaintings, architectural drawings, and animal 
and fruit-pieces. Although mere decorative paintings of a small 
provincial Roman town, they suffice to show how thoroughly the 
profession was imbued with artistic principles . Some of the represen- 
tations may be copies from celebrated or favourite pictures, but the 
style is such as entirely to preclude the idea that they were mechanic- 
ally copied or stencilled. The rapid, easy execution and absence 
of minute detail prove that they were intended for effect, and not 
for close inspection. Their state of preservation of course varies 
greatly (comp. Introd., pp. xli-xlv). 

I. Room (immediately to the right of the place where tickets are 
given up ; 1st door), a long corridor : Architectural mural decorations. 
Those on the left side, the farther end, and the farther part of the 
right wall are nearly all from the Temple of Isis at Pompeii. 

II. Room : Animals, fruit, still-life, attributes of gods, etc. — 
We now return through the 1st Room to the principal collection. 

The following rooms contain the mythological and genre re- 
presentations. Their enumeration is in the order denoted by the 
Roman numerals above on the walls. 

III. Room : xv. *Girl gathering flowers. Two heads of Medusa, 
xvi-xviii. Sea-gods. In the corner a *Nereid on a sea-panther. By 
the window-wall Rape of Hylas by the nymphs ; Phryxus and Helle ; 
the Three Divisions of the Globe. Two glazed tables exhibit a 
well-arranged collection of colours found at Pompeii, xx. Sacrifice 
to the Lares : in the centre the genius of the family sacrificing, 
while a servant brings the swine destined as the offering ; on the 
right and left, two Lares; the two serpents on the altar symbolize 
the Lares (comp. p. 122). — Beneath, Bacchanalian scenes. — xxi, 
xxii. Sacrifice to Isis and scenes in the Egyptian style, from the 
Temple of Isis at Pompeii. — In the passage to the following room : 
xxiv. Ulysses carrying off the Palladium from Troy ; under it, Scipio 
and the dying Sophonisbe. — In the second passage: xxvi. *Medea 
brooding over the murder of her children ; below , Medea with 
her children and their tutor. Opposite: xxvii. Meleagerand Atalante. 

IV. Room : (1.) xxviii. *Hercules supported by Priapus and 
Omphale. xxviii, xxix. Perseus releasing Andromeda, xxx. (be- 
low) Hercules, Dejanira, and the Centaur Nessus. xxxi. *Hercules 
finding his infant son Telephus suckled by the hind ; the dignified 
figure on the rock represents Arcadia in the guise of a local deity 
(from Herculaneum). Wounded ./Eneas. — In the passage to the 
room of the mosaics : xxxii. The infant Hercules strangling the 

58 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

snakes sent by Juno, xxxiii. *Four important scenes from Hercula- 
neum : Triumphant actor, with his mask exhibited as a votive offer- 
ing; Achilles and Antilochus (or Patroclus); Concert; Attiring of a 
bride. Also genre-scenes from Pompeii (woman painting, etc.). — 
xxxiv. Admetus and Alcestis receiving the answer of the oracle. — 
In the passage : xxxv. Comedy scenes, xxxvi. Chastisement of Dirce 
(same subject as the Farnese Bull, p. 60). Phsedra and Hippolytus. 
Cimon nourished from the breast of his daughter Pero (a favourite 
subject with modern artists, known as 'Caritas Romana'). — xxxvii. 
Theseus after the slaughter of the Minotaur, xxxviii. Scenes from 
the forum of Pompeii : in the centre, School (chastisement of a 
pupil); Baker's Shop; Small caricature of iEneas, Anchises, and 
Ascanius, represented with dogs' heads ; pensive maiden. Several 
admirable busts of youthful subjects, two of which (to the left), 
representing a Pompeian baker and his wife, recur more than once, 
xxxix. *Abduction of Briseis from the tent of Achilles. *Achilles 
being taught the lyre by Chiron. Ulysses unrecognised by Penelope. 
Achilles recognised at Scyros. — xl. Sacrifice of Iphigenia, who 
raises her hands supplicating assistance from Artemis, visible among 
the clouds. *Orestes and Pylades in presence of Iphigenia at 
Tauris. — Adjacent to this room is the — 

V. Room. * Mosaics. In the centre, on the floor : Fettered lion 
amid Cupids and Bacchanalian figures , from the House of the 
Centaur at Pompeii (p. 138). — On the entrance-wall, by the 
pillar : Theseus with the slain Minotaur, three copies. Farther on, 
towards the window: in the centre, actor trained by a poet; 
above, skull, and other symbols, found on a table in a triclinium 
at Pompeii ; on the left and right comedy scenes (by Dioscurides of 
Samos, according to the inscription) ; a partridge ; two cocks after 
the fight. — Under the window : Animals of Egypt (which served 
as a threshold in front of the mosaic of the Battle of Alexander). 
Above, two doves (recently found in Pompeii) ; lion and tiger. 
— Farther on, opposite the entrance: *Acratus (companion of 
Bacchus) riding on a lion ; below, *Garland with masks ; on the 
left, parrots ; on the right, a wild cat with a partridge, and fish, all 
excellent mosaics from the house of the Faun (p. 135); in the 
niches, four mosaic-pillars from Pompeii (p. 141). - — Farther on, a 
chained dog with the warning 'Cave Canem' (from the threshold of 
the 'House of the Tragic Poet', p. 136). — Right wall : a large niche, 
probably intended for a fountain; above it, Phryxus and Helle; 
on the left, the Graces, the marriage of Neptune and Amphitrite; 
on the right, quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon. ■ — We now re- 
trace our steps, and follow the arrangement of the pictures, which 
is continued through the passages from the 3rd Room to the 6th, 
which adjoins it on the other side. 

VI. Room: In the two passages, beginning next the window: 
xli-xliv. Rope-dancing Satyrs, *Hovering Centaurs, *Dancing Sa- 

Ground Floor, E. NAPLES. 3. Route. 59 

tyrs and Bacchantes, etc. ■ — Farther on; xlv. *Representations 
of Cupid ('Cupids for sale !'). xlvi. Marriage of Zephyrus and 
Chloris(Lat. Flora), xlvii. The Graces, xlviii. Diana and Endymion 
(repeated several times) ; Diana with a how, in a pensive attitude 
(pendant to the 'Girl gathering flowers' in Room III). — By the 
window to the left : xlix. Venus and Mars, several representations. 
Venus and Cupids, lii. Triumphal procession of Bacchus. Bacchus 
and Ariadne. — *liii. Dancers. 

VII. Room : lviii-lix. More ancient paintings from the tomhs of 
Ruvo, Gnatia, Paestum, Capua : lviii. Mercury as conductor of the 
dead. Funeral dance. Iix. Samnite warriors in full armour, from 
Paestum (p. 168). Gorgon head with Messapian inscription. — lx. 
Narcissus in different attitudes, lxi-lxiii and lxv-lxvii. Land- 
scapes from Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabife. lxviii. *Vulcan 
showing Thetis the arms of Achilles (twice), lxx. Jupiter crown- 
ed by Victoria, lxxi. Io's arrival in Egypt (Egypt being re- 
presented by Isis). *Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida. Io watched 
by Argus. Mercury giving the Syrinx to Argus, lxxii. Five *Draiv- 
ings on Marble (monochromic) from Herculaneum : Achilles (?) 
in a quadriga ; (Edipus with Antigone and Ismene (?) ; Latona 
with Niobe and other women of Cadmus playing at dice (pur- 
porting to be by Alexandros of Athens); Scene from a tragedy. 
Theseus rescuing the bride of Pirithous from a Centaur ?). Similar 
drawing from Pompeii : Fragment of a representation of the fate 
of Niobe and her children. 

To the above collection belongs a corridor (entered from the 
vestibule of the Galleria Lapidaria, or by the 3rd door in the great 
vestibule) containing * Ornamental Paintings (Affreschi Orna- 
mental!) from Pompeii and Herculaneum, being mural decorations, 
some of them with raised stucco designs and reliefs. They are 
executed with taste and precision and deserve careful inspection. 
In the semicircular space, lxxxii. Valuable collection of decorative 
masks. Pillar with paintings from the 'Fullonica' at Pompeii (p. 
137), showing the different processes of the handicraft. The owl 
is the symbol of Minerva the tutelary goddess of fullers, lxxxiv. 
*Fragments of a wall from Herculaneum. 

The two large central glass-doors of the vestibule on the right and 
left lead into Courts, filled with reliefs, statues, and architectural frag- 
ments, many of which deserve the notice of connoisseurs. 

The two parallel long rooms in the E. wing, entered from the 
collection of ornamental paintings, contain the * Gallery of 
Inscriptions (Oalleria Lapidaria). The collection comprises up- 
wards of 2000 Latin inscriptions, others in Oscan and other dia- 
lects, on stone andbronze tablets, and engraved (graffiti) and painted 
(dipinti) mural inscriptions from Pompeii. The collection is ar- 
ranged in accordance with the geographical situation of the different 
localities of discovery, and consists chiefly of epitaphs, but also 
includes laudatory and other inscriptions. — To the left of the 

60 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

passage from the front to the back (principal) room, is a statue of 
Tiberius , to the right Atreus with the Son of Thyestes (?, comp. 
Introd., p. xxxvi). 

The principal room contains among other antiquities, immediately 
to the right, inscriptions in Oscan and other Italian dialects, of which 
No. 113,398 is that mentioned at p. 125 as found in the temple of 
Apollo at Pompeii. Among the bronze tables are, at the end of the 
room to the right, near the Hercules, the celebrated Tables of 
Heracleafo. 214; No. 2480), bearing on one side regulations as to 
temple-lands in the ancient Greek language, and on the other (in- 
scribed at a later date) the Italian municipal laws promulgated 
by Caesar in B. 0. 46. — At the window opposite the entrance and 
at the left end of the room, to the left of the Farnese Bull, are 
two marble tables , with oval hollows serving as the Municipal 
Standards of Measurement for grain and vegetables; the former from 
Minturnae, the latter from the Forum at Pompeii (p. 126). — 
Several leaden pipes from aqueducts, etc., with inscriptions. 

At the ends of this room are placed the Famese Hercules and 
the Farnese Bull, two celebrated works of antiquity, formerly in 
the possession of the Farnese family. 

The so-called * Farnese Hercules, was found in 1540 in the 
Thermae of Caracalla at Rome. The legs were at first wanting, but 
were restored by Delia Porta ; twenty years later the missing por- 
tions were discovered and were restored to the statue. The end of 
the nose, the left hand, and part of the left arm are new. 

The hero holds in his right hand the golden apples of the Hesperides, 
the sign of his successful accomplishment of the eleventh of the labours 
imposed on him by King Eurystheus, and leans, faint and weary, on his 
club. The conception differs wholly from the triumphant victor of the 
early legend, and would alone stamp the work as one of a comparatively 
recent period. This conclusion is strengthened by the mannerism appa- 
rent in the over-strained effort to express great muscular strength. Ac- 
cording to the inscription, it is the work of the Athenian Glycon, and 
was probably executed under the early emperors , possibly on the model 
of a statue by Lysippus. 

The celebrated group of the **Farnese Bull, a work of the Rho- 
dian sculptors Apollonius and Tauriscus , once in possession of 
Asinius Pollio, was also found in 1546 in the Thermae of Caracalla 
in a sadly mutilated condition. The restoration of the group was 
superintended by Michael Angelo. The two sons of Antiope, Am- 
phion and Zethus, avenge the wrongs of their mother by binding 
Dirce, who had treated her with the greatest cruelty for many 
years, to the horns of a wild bull. Antiope in the background 
exhorts them to forgiveness. The boldness and life of the group, 
originally hewn out of a single block of marble , is unrivalled in 
any other work of the same character (comp. Introd., pp. xxxiv- 
xxxvi). The new parts are the head of the bull, the Antiope, with 
the exception of the feet, the upper parts of Dirce and considerable 
portions of Amphion and Zethus. 

Ground Floor, W. NAPLES. 3. Route. 61 

We return to the front room of inscriptions, at the end of which 
is a space with a staircase descending to the floor below. To the 
left opens the Canova Room, so called from three colossal statues 
by Canova, of Napoleon I, his mother Laetitia, and Ferdinand IV. 
It also contains three busts of Pope Paul III. Farnese (10 517. un- 
finished, and 10514. attributed to Michael Angelo; 10521. by Gugl. 
delta Porta?), a St. Francis of Assisi and a statue of Modesty, by 
J. Sammartino, a Head of the Medusa, after Canova, and some 
antique busts of the Eoman imperial epoch. 

We descend the staircase mentioned above to the Lower Floor. Room I. 
Casts from hieroglyphic? (*t the window, relief of asses' heads). Room II. 
eontains antique inscriptions and the Chinese Collections, including a magni- 
ficent vessel in carved ivory. Passing next through an empty room (III) 
and Room IV. containing Christian Inscriptions, from the catacombs of 
Rome and Naples (built into the walls), we reach the — 

Egyptian Antiquities. — Room V. In the centre, Serapis, found in the 
vestibule of the Serapeum at Pozzuoli. Isis, a marble statuette from the 
temple of Isis at Pompeii, holding a sistrum and key of the Nile, with 
interesting traces of gilding and painting. Coffin-lids. On the short wall, 
Horus with a dog's head. The cabinets contain a valuable collection of small 
statuettes. — Room VI. In the centre: by the window, a granite tombstone with 
twenty two figures in relief and hieroglyphics. Egyptian priest, a so-called 
Pastophorus 1 , in black basalt. By the walls six glass cabinets with various 
kinds of trinkets, etc. To the right of the entrance, the second immured tablet 
is the so-called 'Table of Isis 1 , from the temple of Isis at Pompeii. By the 
windowwall a papyrus with Greek writing, dating from the 2nd or 3rd cent., 
which with forty others was found at Memphis in a chest of sycamore wood, 
and contains names of the canal - labourers on the Nile. Opposite the 
entrance a number of mummies of men, women, and children , some of 
them divested of their cerements and admirably preserved (the skull of 
a female mummy still retains the hair). Also the mummy of a crocodile. 
Marble bust of Ptolemy V. 

The left (W.) half of the ground-floor contains the valuable col- 
lection of marble sculptures and the bronzes. 

The ** Collection of Marble Sculptures occupies the great 
corridor with three branches, and the rooms situated beyond the 
second branch. The new arrangement in accordance with the local 
and historical position of the works is practically complete. It is 
best to begin with the N. corridor (third door on the left from the 
vestibule), the — 

Corridor of the Masterpieces (Portico dei Capolavori), which 
contains the finest works in the collection , affording a review of 
the development of the ancient plastic art from the 5th cent. B.C. 
down to the reign of Hadrian and his successors. This part of 
the collection in particular supplies the visitor with an admirable 
illustration of the history of ancient art, and includes moreover 
several works of the highest merit. 

On the right : — * Orestes and Electra, a group which has given 
rise to much discussion, probably belonging to the revived archaic 
style introduced by Pasiteles towards the end of the republic (In- 
trod., p. xxxvi). — Pallas, archaic style, from Herculaneum. — 
Artemis, an archaistic statuette found at Pompeii, with numerous 
traces of painting (gold on the rosettes of the headdress, red on the 

62 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

edges of the robe, the quiver-hand, and the sandals). — * Venus of 
Capua, found at Capua in the middle of the 18th century. 

It is uncertain how this statue, which greatly resembles the Venus 
of Milo in the Louvre, ought to be restored. The arms, the nose, and 
part of the mantle are modern. On Corinthian coins Venus, the tutelary 
goddess of the city, is represented in a similar attitude, in the act of 
using a shield as a mirror, but it is possible that the Capuan statue had 
a figure of Mars standing beside her, from whom she was taking his sword. 
The statue is held to be a work of the Koman period (as the representation oi 
the pupil of the eye indicates), but was probably a copy of a Greek original. 

Adonis, freely restored. — Athlete, from the palaestra of Pompeii, 
the left hand missing, as in other examples of the same statue ; it 
is supposed to be a replica of the Doryphorus of Polycleius; comp. 
Introd., p. xxxiv. 

*Homer, a beautiful bust, the finest of all the ideal repre- 
sentations of the poet. 

'I must own that nothing has ever given me a higher idea of Grecian 
sculpture, than the fact that it has been able to conceive and represent these 
features. A blind poet and minstrel — nothing more — was given. And 
starting with this simple theme the artist has made the aged brow and 
cheek instinct with supernatural mental effort and prophetic inspiration, 
combined with that perfect serenity which ever characterises the blind. Each 
stroke of the chisel is full of genius and marvellous vitality'. — Burckhardt. 

Ill the middle : — *Harmodius and Aristogeiton (head of Aristo- 
geiton ancient, but originally belonging to some other statue). 

After the expulsion of Hippias in 510 B. C. the Athenians erected in 
the Agora statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, the slayers of the tyrant 
Hipparchus. This group, the work of Anterior, was carried away by 
Xerxes in 480 and replaced in 478 by another executed by Critias and 
JVesiotes. The original statues were afterwards restored to Athens by 
Alexander the Great or one of his successors, and the two groups stood 
side by side in the market-place, where they were seen by Pausanias the 
historian (2nd cent, of our era). The statues in the museum are a copy 
of one or other of these groups, both of which were in bronze and pro- 
bably alike in all essential details. — Comp. Introd., p. xxxiii. 

Dying Amazon, Dead Persian, Dead Oiant (or Gaul?), and 
Wounded Gaul, of the Pergamenian school. 

King Attalus I. of Pergamus, having in 239 B. C. gained a decisive 
victory over the Gauls who had invaded Mysia, erected on the Acropolis 
at Athens four groups of marble statues as a votive offering for his deliver- 
ance. These represented the triumph of civilisation and culture over brute 
force, as typified in the contests of the Gods and the Giants, the Athenians 
and the Amazons, the Athenians and Persians at Marathon, and lastly of 
Attalus himself and the Celts. They have been described by Pausanias 
(see above). The statues in this museum are undoubtedly parts of the 
original monument, and there are other figures from it at Eome and Venice. 
The time when they were brought to Italy is unknown, but cannot have 
been sooner than the capture of Athens by the Crusaders in 1205. (The 
exquisite reliefs recently discovered at Pergamus and now at Berlin were 
erected by Attalus in his own capital in commemoration of the same victory. 

Venus Callipygus , so called from that part of her body towards 
which she is looking, found in the imperial palaces at Rome; the 
head, breast, right leg, right hand, and left arm are modern. — 
*Satyr, carrying the child Bacchus on his shoulder. 

On the left, a Pugilist (from Sorrento) and four busts: Anto- 
ninus Pius. — *Hera (Farnese Juno), a grand head in the early style, 

Ground Floor, W. NAPLES. 3. Route. 63 

austere in expression (Introd., p. xxxii); it is a replica of a bronze 
original, in -which the eyes were of some other material, and was 
intended to be joined to a statue. — Caracalla, Faustina. 

The adjacent room to the right contains at the entrance , to 
the right, Brutus and Pompey, two busts found in a house in Pom- 
peii in 1869 ; a large basin in porphyry, torsi, dogs, leopards, boar 
sacrifices, and fragment of a gigantic figure resembling the Per- 
gamenian sculptures at Berlin. 

Farther on to the Tight in the principal room: Head of a Woman. 
— *Aeschines, the Athenian orator (389-314 B. C.) and champion 
of Philip of Macedon against Demosthenes , a statue found in 
the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. 

Though the drapery is inferior to that of the admirable statue of 
Sophocles in the Lateran Collection at Rome, there is little doubt that 
this is a copy of an old Greek original. It was once erroneously called 
Aristides, but its resemblance to the herma of iEschines with his name 
attached at the Vatican proves its identity. 

Pallas, archaistic, from Velletri. — Juno. — *Torso of Bacchus, 
a genuine Greek work. — * Psyche of Capua, sadly mutilated ; she 
was probably represented with her hands bound behind her, being 
tormented by Cupid, but the state in which the figure now is 
makes certainty on this point impossible. — * Torso of Venus, 
another genuine Greek work, probably not much more recent than 
the "Venus of Cnidus by Praxiteles (4th cent. B.C.). 

In the middle : — Nereid, on a sea-monster. — Sitting portrait- 
figure of a Roman lady (not Agrippina). 
Antinous. the favourite of Hadrian. 

The Cokbiboe. op Portrait Statues and Busts, which we 
next enter, is also called the Portico dei Balbi, from the honorary 
statues of the family of that name, the most distinguished at Hercu- 
laneum, erected in the theatres by the Municipal council. 

Near the ends of the corridor: 6211 (N. end), 6104 (S. end), 
Equestrian Statues of M. Nonius Balbus and his Son (of the same 
name) 'praetor and proconsul', found in the Basilica of Hercula- 
neum. — The following description begins with the N. end. On 
the end-wall,, several Dacians from the forum of Trajan at Rome; 
to the right and left: Genre figures of children ; Sacrificing swine. — 
On the left (E.) wall, Portrait statues from Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, arranged in groups of five. In the first group : 6234. Orator 
from Pompeii ; 6232. Statue of the Priestess Eumachia of Pompeii, 
erected in her honour by the fullers. In the second group: 6231. 
Orator from Pompeii; *6167. M. Nonius Balbus, the father; 
*6168. Viciria Archais, the wife of Balbus, a stately matron. 
Farther on (6242-6249), her son and four daughters, on the same 
pedestal (a fifth daughter of the group is in the Dresden Museum). 
— On the right (W.) wall, again beginning at the N. end, Roman 
Portrait-busts, in two sections. In the first section, loweT row : 
6190. Agrippina the Younger, mother of Nero; second section, lower 

64 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

row: 6185-87. Three examples of a so-called Seneca (perhaps Cal- 
limachus?); 111,386. Drusus the Younger. Most of the other busts 
are either unknown or erroneously named. — The Hall of Flora, 
containing the Battle of Alexander, here opens to the right (see p. 
65), on the entrance to which : Two barbarians as supporters, in 
pavonazzetto, the heads and hands in basalt ; in the entrance, to 
the left: 6414. Euripides, and 6415. Socrates, a henna with a 
Greek inscription ; to the right, 6412. Head of an athlete (Dory- 
phoros), and 6413. Homer. — Opposite the entrance to the Flora 
room, in the middle of the corridor of the Balbi: 6236. Double 
herma of an unknown Greek and Roman, and 6239. Double henna 
of Herodotus and Thucydides. Between these , two sitting sta- 
tuettes, one of them representing the poet Moschion. — Farther 
on, by the right wall of the corridor, are Greek Busts, in two sec- 
tions. In the first section, above: 6158. Ptolemy Soter(f), 6149. 
Demetrius Poliorcetes (Y), 6150. Pyrrhus, 6156. Archidamus; below: 
6166. Demosthenes, 6161, 6160, 6135. Euripides, 6139. Periander, 
6188. Vestal Virgin (V) ; in the second section, above : 6146. Hero- 
dotus, 6130. Lysias, 6133. Sophocles, 6142. Poseidon, 6131. Car- 
neades, 6129. Socrates, 6128. Zeno, 6117. Aratus , the astrono- 
mer; below : 6143. Solon. — At the S. end, in the middle, a hunter; 
several portrait-statues : 6233. Statue of Marcus Holconius Bufus, 
a Roman military tribune, and five times mayor of Pompeii. 

We now pass by the statue of the younger Balbus into the — 

Corked ob. of the Roman Emperors (Portico degli Jmperatori), 
the arrangement of which begins at the farther end, by the en- 
trance from the large vestibule. It contains statues and busts in 
chronological order, of a more or less ideal character. Most of the 
heads are modern plaster casts, attached to the ancient torsos in 
a very haphazard manner , so that the names affixed have little 
authority. No. 6038, a colosssal *Bust of Caesar, is genuine, 
but there is no authentic Augustus. 6041. Livia (a misnomer), 
and 6044. Marcellus, nephew of Augustus, both from the Macellum 
at Pompeii. 16,045. Livia. Opposite: 6055. 109,516. Drusus, son 
of Tiberius. 6058. Nero, wrongly so called. 6060. Claudius, not 
Galba. 6073. Not Trajan. 

The Seven Rooms beyond the Portico dei Balbi also have 
their contents arranged according to subjects. Among much that 
is mediocre there are a few works of great excellence. The ar- 
rangement begins with the gods, in the room opposite the en- 
trance to the collection of bronzes (p. 67). 

I. Room : Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Ceres. In the centre, 
6281. Apollo, in a sitting posture, in porphyry, the head and hands 
in marble ; a work of the decline of art during the imperial period, 
when a taste prevailed for rare kinds of stone which were difficult 
to work. Right: 6278. Diana of Ephesus, in yellow alabaster, the 
head, hands, and feet in bronze ; her symbols indicate the fecundity 

Ground Floor, W. NAPLES. 3. Route. 65 

of the goddess of nature. Left: 6262. Apollo, in basalt. Posterior 
wall: *6266. Jupiter, a bust from the temple of Pompeii (p. 126); 
6267. Jupiter, colossal half-statue from Cumae ; 6268. Juno ; on the 
right, 6274. Bust of the ram-horned Jupiter Amnion. 

II. Room : Venus, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Bacchus. Among 
the numerous Statues of Venus (eight of them from Pompeii, in- 
cluding 109,608* and 111,387, interesting from being painted, and 
6294, a statue from the Temple of Apollo mentioned at p. 125) 
are several with portrait-heads. 6302. Mercury ; to the left, *Aphro- 
dite, after Alcamenes. In the centre, 6323. Mars, sitting. 

III. Room : Satyrs, Ganymede, Cupid, Cybele, etc. — Left : Satyr 
with a bunch of grapes; *6329. Pan teaching Daphnis the flute. — 
6351, 6355. Ganymede with the eagle; 6352. Hermaphrodite, from 
Pompeii; *6353. Winged Cupid, supposed to be a replica of an 
original by Praxiteles. In the centre : 6375. Cupid encircled by a 
dolphin, fountain-figure; 6374. Atlas, with the globe. — 6358. 
Paris; *6360. JUsculapius, from Rome. — On the short wall : Masks 
of rivergods, once used as water-spouts. 6365. Nymph at the bath. 
Three Priestesses of Isis. 6369,6371. Cybele, themotherof the gods. 

IV. Room : Statues of Muses from Herculaneum and Rome ; 
several figures of Hercules. By the window, 6390. Head of Ajax. 
In the centre, 6405. Amazon, falling from her horse ; 6407. Eques- 
trian Figure, the opponent of the last; *6406. Hercules and Omphale, 
with each other's attributes, a group in the genre style. 

V. Hall of the Flora. By the principal wall : *6409. The 
Farnese Flora, found in the Baths of Caracalla at Rome, at the 
same time as the Hercules and the Bull (p. 60). It is probably a 
work of the early Roman empire, when the dubious taste for repro- 
ducing smaller Greek originals on a colossal scale had already 
manifested itself. The figure, however, is charming in spite of its 
huge proportions. As the head, arms, and feet were missing when 
the statue was found, and were restored by Giacomo della Porta, 
and afterwards by Albaccini and Taglioni, it is not improbable that 
the figure once represented a Venus instead of a Flora. It has also 
been suggested that it may be a 'Hora', a 'Dancing Muse', or a 
'Hebe'. — In the floor in front of it is the **Mosaic of the Battle of 
Alexander, found in 1831 in the house of the Faun at Pompeii. This 
work, which is almost the only ancient historical composition in exist- 
ence, represents the battle at the moment when Alexander, whose 
helmet has fallen from his head, charges Darius with his cavalry, 
and transfixes the general of the Persians who has fallen from his 
wounded horse. The chariot of the Persian monarch is prepared 
for retreat, whilst in the foreground a Persian of rank, in order to 
ensure the more speedy escape of the king, who is absorbed in 
thought at the sight of his expiring general, offers him his horse 
(Introd. p. xliv). — Also four statues of gladiators. 

VI. Room : Reliefs. In the centre, *6673. a beautiful Marble 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. 5 

66 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

Vase -with a relief : Mercury, followed by dancing Bacchanalia] 
figures, gives the young Bacchus to a nymph to he brought up 
According to the inscription it is the work of a certain Salpion o 
Athens ; it was found at Formia , and was long used at the har 
hour there as a post for fastening boat-ropes to (of which traces an 
still distinct), then as a font in the cathedral of Gaeta (comp. In 
trod., p. xxxvi). The traditions of a more archaic style have beei 
applied here with great adroitness. — To the left of the entrance 
also on a pedestal, 6670. a fountain-enclosure with seven gods 
Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, iEsculapius, Bacchus, Hercules, and Mer- 
cury. There are also three other fountain-enclosures in the centre 
— By the wall, to the left of the entrance, 6556. an early Attii 
Stele, of the middle of the 5th century. Then 6672, a beautifu 
Trapezophorus (pedestal of a table), with Centaur and Scylla. — 
By the walls : Sarcophagi, Fountain Masks, and numerous Oscilla 
or reversible marble discs and masks, which used to be hung up h] 
way of ornament between the columns of peristyles. The glass- 
case to the right contains Fountain Figures, Hernial Heads, anc 
other small figures. 

VII. Room : Reliefs. Left : *6682. Aphrodite, seconded by Peithc 
(persuasion), endeavouring to induce Helen to follow Paris (Alexan- 
dres), who with Cupid stands before her, a Greek work; 6684 
Bacchanal ; *6688. Youth with three maidens, usually termed Apolli 
with the Graces (or Alcibiades with three hetserae) ; 6693. Sarcopha- 
gus : Bacchanalian procession. — On the pillar between the win- 
dows : 6704. Gladiator contests from Pompeii; 6705. Sarco- 
phagus with Prometheus and man as yet uninspired with life, 
surrounded by beneficent gods. — Third wall : 6715. Foot of i 
table (?), framed with Caryatides ; to the right, fragment of ar 
Old "Woman in a crouching attitude. Above: *6713. BanchetU 
d'Icario, i. e. Dionysus, or the elder, bearded Indian Bacchus 
feasting with the Attic prince Icarius , the legendary founder o 
the Satyric drama ('Drama Satyrikon'); the train of the god includes 
the muse Melpomene, Silenus, and several Satyrs. Above: Cupids 
in the circus. — 6724. Nymph defending herself against a satyr, 
6725. The Graces, Euphrosyne, Aglaia, and Thalia, and four othei 
figures, named Ismene, Cycais, Eranno, and Telonnesus. Below: 
*6726. Bacchanalian procession. *6727. Orpheus and Eurydice, wit! 
Hermes, in the infernal regions (see Introd., p. xxxiii). — Fourtl 
wall : Sarcophagi. 6753, 6757, 6763. Three representations of Asiatic 
provinces. — In the centre : 6780. Honorary Pedestal from Poz- 
zuoli , with figures representing fourteen towns of Asia Minoi 
which the Emp. Tiberius rebuilt after an earthquake, each figure 
being furnished with its name. In the middle, two large Cande- 
labra, with herons, and two Bacchic * Vases. 

In the adjoining Passage are handsome ornamental works in 
marble : *Tables with basins for fountains ; candelabra , among 

Ground Floor, W. NAPLES. 3. Route. 67 

which is a *Stooping Sphinx from Pompeii ; feet of tables ; tables. — 
From this passage we again enter the Portico dei Balbi (see p. 63). 
At the S. end of the Portico dei Balbi is the entrance to the 
**Collection of Bronzes, most of which are from Herculaneum, and 
a few only from Pompeii. Their respective origins are distinguished 
by their different colours, due to different methods of treatment. 
The bronzes of Herculaneum are of a dark, black-green hue, 
while those of Pompeii are oxydised and of a light, bluish-green 
colour. This collection is unrivalled, and deserves careful and re- 
peated inspection. The number and magnitude of the works, the 
delicate treatment adapted to the material, and the skilful mastery 
of every kind of difficulty in casting and chiselling afford an ex- 
cellent insight into the high development of this branch of art 
in ancient times. 

I. Room : Animals. In the middle : *4904. Horse from Hercu- 
laneum, belonging to a quadriga , and reconstructed from minute 
fragments. — By the back wall : *4887. Colossal Horse's Head, found 
at Naples , formerly in the Palazzo Santangelo. It belonged to a 
horse which is said to have stood in the vestibule of the temple 
of Neptune (S. Gennaro), and to have been converted into a bell 
by the archbishop on account of the superstitious veneration with, 
which it was regarded. 4886,4888. Two Deer. 4899-4901. Boar, 
attacked by two dogs. Several animals once used as fountain- 
figures. — At the entrance, on the right, 4896. So-called Sappho ; 
opposite, 4895. Diana Shooting, a half-figure from the Temple of 
Apollo at Pompeii. Opposite the entrance , 4892. Mercury, in a 
sitting posture. — To the left of the right entrance to the following 
room: 110,663. Herma of L, Caecilius Jucundus , a Pompeian 
banker (see p. 71), erected by his freedman Felix. — Beside the 
other entrance, through which we pass, Bust of a lady, perhaps a 
member of the family of the emperor Claudius. 

II. Room: Statuettes. In the centre: 4995. Bacchus with a Satyr 
(eyes inserted). 5000. Boy with goose. — Behind the last: 111701. 
Winged boy with a dolphin. — Infront: **5003. So-called Narcissus 
perhaps a Pan listening to Echo, one of the most charming antique 
statues extant, both in conception and execution, found in an un- 
pretending private house at Pompeii in 1862. *1 11,495. Satyr with 
a wine-skin, a fountain-figure found at Pompeii in 1879. *5002. 
Dancing Faun, marking the time by snapping his fingers found at 
Pompeii (p. 135). *5001. Silenus, used as the bearer of a vase (with 
handle very unsuitably made in imitation of the body of a serpent) 
found at Pompeii in 1864 ; the air of exertion is admirably lifelike. 
— In the corners of the room : by the entrance, to the left, and by 
the opposite exit, two Oreek Hermae , perhaps intended for a pa- 
laestra, the projecting props being for the support of wreaths. The 
first passes for an Amazon, the second (Head of aDoryphoros) bears 
the name of the sculptor, Apollonius, son of Archias of Athens. 


68 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

The -window-cabinet contains, above, a number of Boys with wine- 
skins, vessels, and masks, once used as fountain-figures. Silenus 
■with a panther. Below : 4997. Flying Victory, on a globe ; 4993. 
Boy with lamp; *4998. Venus arranging her hair, originally with a 
mirror in her left hand. In the middle, 110,127. bust of Galba, in 
silver; 5009. Youthful Bacchus; two equestrian statuettes : 4999. 
Amazon, 4996. Alexander the Great; 4994. Angler, a fountain- 
figure. — In the cabinet to the right beyond the window are Fancy 
Figures, chiefly gladiators. Small Busts: Demosthenes, Epicurus, 
Zeno, Augustus. Hands with quaint emblems, used as amulets 
to avert the danger of the 'evil eye'. Above these, Lares (household 
gods), youths adorned with wreaths and bearing drinking-horns 
and vases, and Genius Familiaris. — Opposite the window: Stat- 
uettes of Gods: Hercules, Victoria, Fortuna, Bacchus, Mercury, 
Minerva, Jupiter, etc. — Wall of the entrance : Etruscan Mirrors, 
the backs adorned with engraved scenes. 

III. Principal Room. In the centre: *5628. Drunken Faun. On 
each side(Nos. 5627, 5626), Two statues of Wrestlers about to engage. 
Beyond these, to the right : *5630. Apollo playing the lyre, from 
Pompeii, a work of the archaistic school of Pasiteles, about the begin- 
ning of the Empire (p. xxxvi) ; to the left, 5629. Apollo Shooting, 
from the Temple of Apollo at Pompeii (a companionpiece to 
No. 4895, p. 67). Before the last, to the right : **5625. Mercury 
Reposing, a beautiful picture of elastic youth at a moment of 
relaxation ; the wings attached to the feet and the remains of the 
caduceus in the hand identify the messenger of the gods. To the 
left : *5624. Sleeping Satyr. — Along the walls, beginning at the 
door on the left: Herma of C. Norbanus Sorex. from the temple of 
Isis at Pompeii. Then a series of fine Greek *Portrait-heads : 5588. 
Unknown. The following heads , as far as the opposite door, are 
believed to be portraits of the Ptolemies : 5590. Seleucus Nicator; 
5592. So-called Berenice, admirably modelled (eyes and lips lined 
with silver when discovered) ; 5598. Female Head with hairrestored 
(erroneously called Ptolemy Apion) ; 5600 (by the door), Ptolemy 
SoterQi). The intervening statues are of little merit : 5593. Claudius; 
5595. Augustus ; the others have not been identified. — Farther 
on, by the wall facing the entrance, to the right of the door: 5602. 
Heraclitus (?), the philosopher; above, 5601. Portrait of a Roman. 
*5603-5605. Three Dancing Women, from Herculaneum; 5607. So- 
called Archytas of Tarentum, with a fillet round his head; *5608. 
Archaistic Head of Apollo ; 5609. Livia (a misnomer); 5610. Head 
of a Greek Athlete ; *5611. Sacrificing Boy (camillus); 5612. Female 
Portrait Statue; 5613. Statuette of Apollo ; 5614. Head of a Greek 
Athlete. — Entrance Wall : 5615. Statue of Augustus^), sacrificing; 
*5616. So-called Head of Seneca (perhaps Callimachus).*5618..ffead 
of Dionysus, probably the finest embodiment of the ideal of 
the bearded, or Indian Bacchus (comp. the relief, 'Banchetto 

Entresol. NAPLES. 3. Route. 

d'Icario', p. 66), as already accepted in the 6th cent. B.C. ; 
head was formerly called Plato, until the discovery of a genu 
bust of that philosopher. Aboveit: *5617. Young Tiberius. 5619- 
Three Dancing Women from Herculaneum (see p. 68). *5623. 
mocritus(f). Above, 5622. Lepidus (?). 

IV. Room: "Weapons. In the centre, *5635. Equestrian Statu 
Caligula, found at Pompeii (p. 137). Adjoining the door on 
left : 5631. Roman Portrait Head ; opposite, 5632. Bust of a mem 
of the Claudian imperial house (Tiberius?). — By the door on 
right: 5634. Bust of Scipio Africanus ; opposite, 5633. IdeaU 
Oreek Head. — The glass cabinets contain a choice Collectioi 
Weapons (detailed descriptions hung up at the entrance). Entra 
Wall : Italian weapons ; among them a cock, a Samnite bounc 
figure from Pietrabbondante (Bovianum), and gladiators' horns f 
Pompeii. — Left "Wall : Helmets of gladiators and richly decor? 
armour from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Among these, 283. I 
met with the Taking of Troy ; Shield with head of the Medusa, 
Opposite the entrance : Greek armour, helmets, and weapons, fo 
at Psestum, Ruvo, and Canosa. — "Window "Wall : Leaden pro, 
tiles for slings, etc. 

B. Entresol. 
The Entresol (Ital. Mezzanino) contains on the right 
rooms with the latest frescoes from Pompeii, and the ancient te 
cottas ; on the left are the Cumaean collection , the Renaisss 
objects, and the Engravings. 

The most interesting of the Pompeian Frescoes are the foil 
ing: Room I., on the entrance-wall, to the left, Europa and 
bull ; Laocoon ; Tavern scene with inscriptions ; a curious c 
cature of an incident resembling the Judgment of Solomon. 
Left Wall : Pyramus and Thisbe ; above, Ulysses and Ci 
Bellerophon ; Iphigenia and Orestes in Tauris ; Jason before Pel 
Ulysses escaping from Polyphemus; above, Paris and He 
Phaedra; Medea. — Window "Wall: Destruction of Niobe and 
children. — Right "Wall: Conflict between the Pompeians 
Nucerines in the amphitheatre of Pompeii (see p. 142) ; Mars 
Venus ; Pygmies fighting with crocodiles and a hippopotan 
exhausted Bacchante. — Entrancewall, to the right : Hercules 
Nessus; Pan and nymphs playing upon musical instrume 
Above, Theseus abandoning Ariadne ; Cimon and Pera ; Here 
and Auge. In the centre, lamps and other clay articles, chiefly i 
Aretinum. — Room II., to the left: Expiation scene; Achilles 
Troilus(?); Judgment of Paris ; Leda; Banquet-scenes, with 
scriptions; Trojan horse. 

Adjoining are four rooms containing the Collection of Anc 
Terracottas. — I. & II. Rooms: Common earthenware articles 
household use, from Pompeii. In Room II., *Statuette in a sit 
posture of a bearded man with a tragic aspect , from Pompeii 

70 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

the passage to the third room, on the left Artemis, right Medusa. 
— III. Room. Several Etruscan sarcophagi with recumbent figures 
on the lids. Numerous lamps. In the cabinets figures of small 
animals : horses, pigs, birds, also hands and other votive-offerings, 
such as are still to be seen in Roman Catholic churches : infant 
in swaddling-clothes, legs, right half of a human figure. Opposite 
the -window, to the right, a colossal Juno ; left, Jupiter from the 
small temple of ^Esculapius at Pompeii (p. 130). Opposite the 
door of egress, above three terracotta statutes, the fragments of 
the celebrated Volscian relief from Velletri, in the ancient Ita- 
lian style, with traces of colouring : warriors on horseback and 
in chariots. — IV. Room, on the entrance- wall, to the right: 
AntefixcB and gargoyles; to the left, reliefs. Under a glass- 
shade by the window: small figure of a woman, with painted gar- 
ments. On the window wall, to the left, drinking-vessels ; below, 
two archaic antefixae ; to the right, below, Etruscan cists ; above, 
heads with figures upon them. Opposite the entrance: small sta- 
tuettes and busts, many of great excellence. Opposite the window, 
to the left, glazed clay vessels, lamps, and candelabra; to the right, 
vessels ornamented in relief, heads and figures. Above the cases, 
vessels embellished with figures. 

The central story contains , on the left , the Cumsean Col- 
lection, which was purchased by the Prince of Carignano from 
the heirs of the Count of Syracuse and presented to the Museum. 
It consists chiefly of vases, terracottas, and bronzes found at Oumae 
(see p. 103). By the window of the First Room an elegant jewel- 
casket in wood, with several gold ornaments. In the Second Room 
tables with small objects in bronze, gold, and crystal ; an interest- 
ing head in wax from a Roman tomb. Among the vases at the 
window is a fine specimen of the later Attic style, under glass, 
representing a battle between Amazons and Greeks. 

The following room is devoted to the Collection of Engra- 
vings, consisting of 19,300 examples in 2'27 portfolios, which are 
exhibited by the custodian on application. This room also contains 
copies of Pompeian frescoes on the walls. 

The Collection of Renaissance Works (Raccolta degli Oggetti 
del Cinquecento) is arranged in the last room. *10,516. Bronze 
bust of Dante, said to be modelled from his death-mask; 10,527. 
Bust in bronze of Ferdinand of Arragon , by Guido Mazzoni (?). 
An altar with reliefs in marble of the German school, representing 
the Passion in seven sections. 

C. Upper Floor. 

From the top of the stairs we first turn to the left to the E. 
wing. To the left of the passage which we enter is a room con- 
taining Copies of Pompeian Pictures, Remains of Food, and other 
objects from Pompeii. 







Upper Floor, E. NAPLES. 3. Route. 71 

The copies of Pompeian pictures merit careful inspection, as they 
serve to convey an idea of the brilliant colouring of these ancient walls 
when they were first discovered. — Several glass cabinets contain "Ar- 
ticles of Food and Objects in Common Use at Pompeii. In the centre a hand- 
some bottle with oil. In the round glass cabinet by the window : below 
a double pan with meat; in the centre a glass vessel with barley; above' 
glass tubes with olives. In the glass-cases to the right, beyond the 
window: net-work and netting-needles, straw sandals, purse containing 
three coins (found in the Villa of Diomedes), shells, etc. By the entrance- 
wall are several round loaves , one of which bears the baker's name, 
Celer, slave of Q. Granius Verus, stamped upon it. In the glass-cases 
by the left wall: grain, nuts figs, pears, honeycomb, onions, etc. Some 
ivory carvings are also placed here. 

Next, on the right, is the Library of the Papyri. This col- 
lection was discovered in a villa near Herculaneum in 1752. 

The rolls were completely encrusted with carbonaceous matter, and 
it was only by slow degrees that the real value of the discovery was 
appreciated. About 3000 were discovered, of which 1800 only have been 
preserved. The thin layers of the bark (libri) of the papyrus plant, each 
of the breadth of one column of writing, are pasted together and rolled 
on rods, and the difficulties encountered in disengaging them may be 
imagined. The task was long attempted in vain , until the Padre Piaggi 
in the end of the 18th cent, invented an ingenious machine by which the 
difficulty was removed. Several of these machines may be seen at work 
in the second room. About six hundred of these libri have been by degrees 
unrolled , and whatever of their contents has escaped obliteration has been 
published in the Volumina Heracleensia. The library belonged to a follower 
of the Epicurean school, and the MSS. consist chiefly of treatises in Greek 
by the Epicurean Philodemus, a contemporary of Cicero, on nature, music, 
rhetoric, etc. There are also, however, considerable fragments of Epicurus 
himself, including a letter to a young girl. — Here are also preserved the 
triptychs (about 300) found in a carbonised box at Pompeii in June, 1875, 
containing receipts for money advanced by L. Csecilius Jucundus, a Pom- 
peian banker. 

In the room opposite copies of paintings are kept for sale. 

Following the passage in a straight direction, we next enter 
the *First Section of the Picture Gallery, containing paintings 
of the Italian schools (the Neapolitan excepted), and including 
several of the finest works in the collection. Catalogues at the en- 
trance of each room. 

I. Room (Roman School). *5. Claude, Quay at sunset (dam- 
aged); 12. Unknown Artist] (not School of Raphael), Female por- 
trait ; 27. Sassoferrato, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 28. School of 
Raphael, Madonna delle Grazie; 47. Pannini, Charles III. en- 
tering St. Peter's at Rome; 51. R. Mengs, Ferdinand IV. at the 
age of twelve; 53. Pannini, Charles III. visiting Benedict XIV. 

II. Room (Schools of Parma and Genoa). 2. Bernardo Strozzi, 
Portrait of a Capuchin; 10. Parmigianino , Holy Family; 11. 
School of Correggio (?), Study of a head ; 12. Parmigianino, Ma- 
donna and Child; 15, 20, 35, 37. Other examples of Parmigianino. 

III. Room (Schools of Lombardy and Parma). School of Leo- 
nardo, 11. John the Baptist, 15. Madonna with two donors of the 
picture ; 16. Parmigianino, St. Clara; 17. da Sesto, Adoration 
of the Magi, one of the master's chief works (from Messina); *18. 
Leonardo's School (not Boltraffio), The young Christ and John kiss- 

72 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

ing each other; 19. Same School, Madonna (perhaps an early copy 
of the Madonna delle Roccie ascribed to Leonardo). 

IV. Room (Venetian School). 1. Alvise Vivarini, Madonna 
with two saints (1485) ; *5. Bartol. Vivarini, Madonna enthroned 
with saints (1469) ; 7. Unknown Artist (not Giorgione), Portrait of 
a Prince Antonello of Salerno (?); 10, 13, 17, 25. Bern. Belotto 
(Canaletto), Architectural pieces; 11. Jac. Bassano , Venetian 
lady; *15. Sebastiano del Piombo, Pope Clement VII., sketch on 
slate; 19. After Titian, Pope Paul III. (Farnese), possibly an ori- 
ginal, hut much damaged; *20. Titian, Pope Paul III. -with 
Cardinal Alessandro and Ottavio Farnese, full of life, although 
somewhat sketchily handled; 23. Titian, Portrait of Alessandro 
Farnese, damaged; *32. Moretto, Christ scourged, a fine and 
carefully modelled little picture; 39. Qarofalo, St. Sehastian; 
40. School of Mantegna, Suffering of Christ; *46. Mantegna, St. 
Euphemia, ruined; 45, 47, 51, 55, 59, 62. Bern. Belotto, Archi- 
tectural pieces ; 56. Lor. Lotto , Madonna with St. Peter Martyr, 
an early work. — Proceeding hence in a straight direction we reach 
the 6th, and, turning to the right, the 5th room. 

V. Room. 1. Salvator Rosa, Christ and the Doctors in the 
Temple; *2. Seb. del Piombo, Holy Family, executed under the in- 
fluence of Michael Angelo and Raphael (unfinished); *3. Correggio, 
Madonna, named la Zingarella (gipsy, from the head-gear) or del 
Coniglio (rabbit), a charming idyllic composition, painted about 
1520 (much darkened); 4. Ant. van Dyck{J), Portrait; *5. Titian, 
Danae, painted at Rome in 1545, a voluptuous work, showing the 
master — at sixty-eight — still triumphing over every difficulty of 
art and possessed of all his youthful vigour; 6. Correggio(T), The 
Child Christ asleep. 

*7. Correggio, Betrothal of St. Catharine with the Infant Christ. 

This work, painted in 1517-18, is known as 'II piccolo Sposalizio' in 
contra-distinction to the picture at the Louvre. The religious meaning 
of the legend has sunk entirely into the background; the idea of the 
ecstatic vision of the Virgin saint, in which the betrothal symbolises the 
renunciation of the present and consecration for eternity, is lost in a 
cheerful scene of natural life. 

*8. Titian, Pope Paul III., painted in 1543, and in excellent 

'The pontiffs likeness is that of a strong man , gaunt and dry from 
age .... A forehead high and endless, a nose both long and slender, 
expanding to a flat drooping bulb with flabby nostrils overhanging the 
mouth, an eye peculiarly small and bleary, a large and thin-lipped 
mouth, display the character of Paul Farnese as that of a fox whose 
wariness could seldom be at fault. The height of his frame, its size 
and sinew, still give him an imposing air, to which Titian has added 
by drapery admirable in its account of the under forms, splendid in 
the contrasts of its reds in velvet chair and silken stole and rochet, 
and subtle in the delicacy of its lawn whites.... The quality of life 
and pulsation so often conveyed in Titian's pictures is here in its highest 

development Both face and hands are models of execution, models 

of balance of light and shade and harmonious broken tones'. — l Titian', 
by Crowe & Cavalcaselle. 

Upper Floor, E. NAPLES. 3. Route. 73 

Ascribed to Correggio (erroneously), 9. Sketch of a Descent 
from the Cross, 10. Madonna and Child. 

*11. Titian, Philip II., probably painted in 1552-3 from a 
sketch made at Augsburg in 1550 by order of Charles V. 

The first painting from this sketch was sent in 1553 to England to 
assist Philip in his suit for the hand of Mary Tudor, returned after the 
marriage in 1554, and is now at Madrid ; the Naples picture is the second 
version, and is hardly inferior to the first. 

Ribera, 12. St. Sebastian, 13. St. Jerome listening to the 
trumpet of judgment, 14. St. Jerome; 15. Ouercino, Magdalene; 
16. Rubens, Monk. 

VI. Room. To the right: 1. Ann. Carracci, Pieta (copy); 2. 
Schidone, St. Sebastian; 3. Jac. Bassano, Raising of Lazarus ; 
5. Oiulio Romano, Holy Family, called Madonna del Gatto ; 6. 
Parmigianino, Madonna ('a tempera'); *7. Oiov. Bellini, Trans- 
figuration, with beautiful landscape ; 8. Roman School, Portrait; 
10. Marcello Venusti, Copy of Michael Angelo's Last Judgment, be- 
fore its disfigurement; *11. Perugino, Madonna; 12. Andrea del 
Sarto (1), Pope Clement VII.; 15. Luini, Madonna; *16. Oiov. Bel- 
lini, (?more probably Antonello da Messina), Portrait; *17. Un- 
known Artist (not Raphael), Portrait of the Cavaliere Tibaldeo (?). 

*19. Andrea del Sarto, Copy of Raphael's portrait of Leo X., 
with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Rossi (1524). 

This admirable copy was sent by Clement VII. to the Marchese 
Federigo Gonzaga of Mantua instead of the original he had promised (now 
in the Pitti at Florence), and afterwards came to Naples. Even Giulio 
Eomano was deceived, till his attention was directed to a sign made on 
the copy by Andrea del Sarto to distinguish the two works. Messrs. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle miss in this work 'the perfect keeping, ease, 
grandeur, modelling, and relief of form', which characterise the original. 

*21. Raphael (?), Portrait of Cardinal Passerini; *22. Raphael, 
Holy Family (Madonna col divino amore), of the master's Roman 
period, probably executed by Oiulio Romano ; 24. Pietro Novelli, 
surnamed Monrealese, Trinity; 26. Garofalo, Descent from the 
Cross ; *28. Palma Vecchio , Madonna with St. Jerome , John the 
Baptist , St. Catharine , and donors , the most successful of the 
master's 'holy conversations', a noble composition sparkling 
with light in the dresses and landscape (C. & C); 30. Domeni- 
chino, Guardian angel; 31. Bronzino, Holy Family; *32. Claude, 
Landscape, with accessories by Lauri; 34. Pinturicchio, Assump- 
tion ; *36. Titian, Repentant Magdalene ; 40. Leandro Bassano, 
Portrait of a Farnese ; 41. Parmigianino, Portrait; 43. Ouercino, 
St. Francis of Assisi ; 44. Andrea da Salerno, St. Benedict enthroned 
between SS. Placidus and Maurus, below the four great Church 
Fathers ; 47. Quido Reni, Race between Atalanta and Hippomenes ; 
49. Bourguignon, Battle; 51. Jac. Bassano, Raising of Lazarus; 
53. School of Andrea del Sarto, Architect (Bramante?) showing a 
design to a nobleman ; 55. Salv. Rosa, Battle ; *57. Seb. delPiombo, 
Portrait of Pope Hadrian VI. of Utrecht (1522-23) ; 58. Tintoretto, 

74 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

Don John of Austria; 59. Ribera, Silenus and satyrs ; 61. Fra Bar- 
tolommeo, Assumption (1516). 

Returning to the exit, we may obtain, to the left, in passing, 
a glimpse through the central staircase at the principal hall of the 

The collection embraces about 200,000 printed volumes and 4000 MSS. 
Catalogues for the use of visitors. Besides numerous ancient Italian works 
there are several valuable Greek and Latin MSS. (Greek, Lycophron's 
Alexandra, Quintus Smyrneeus, date 1311, etc.; Latin, Charisius, Ars gram- 
matica, the half-burned MS. of Festus, a mass-book with beautiful minia- 
tures of fruit and flowers, called la Flora, etc.). In the principal hall the 
custodian awakens a remarkably fine echo. Books are not lent out, but 
within the library three may be used at a time (9-3 o'clock). Readers 
enter from the street (not through the museum) by the last door in the 
building, and ascend by the staircase to the right. 

The W. half of the Upper Floor, reached from the Grand Stair- 
case by ascending to the right, contains the glass, coins, half of the 
pictures, vases, small bronzes, and precious relics. 

Immediately on the right of the corridor, which we now enter, 
is a room containing the Collection of Ancient Crystal (Vetri), 
the most extensive of the kind in existence , showing the nu- 
merous ways in which it was used by the ancients. Several panes 
of glass from the villa of Diomedes should be inspected ; also a 
beautifully-cut glass *Vase with white Cupids and foliage on a 
blue ground, discovered in 1837 in a tomb in the Street of the 
Tombs at Pompeii, when it was filled with ashes. 

The next door to the right leads to the Reserved Cabinet (Rac- 
colta Pornografica), to which men only are admitted ; it contains 
mural and other paintings not adapted for public exhibition, and 
numerous bronzes, some of them of considerable artistic merit. 

Opposite this collection , on the left side of the passage , is 
the Collection of Coins (Medagliere), which is of almost unrivalled 
value and extent. 

The First Room contains the Greek, the Second Roman, the Thied 
Roman and Byzantine, the Fourth and Fifth mediaeval and modern 
coins, and the Sixth the dies of the Neapolitan mint, together with 
a numismatic library. Catalogues are placed over the glass-cases for 
the use of visitors. In the corners: Busts of distinguished numismatists. 
— The Museo Santangelo (p. 76) adjoins the 6th room, but is not acces- 
sible thence. 

"We next proceed in a straight direction from the above-named 
passage to the comparatively uninteresting Second Section of the 
Picture Gallery, containing works of the Neapolitan, later Italian, 
and foreign schools. 

Room I. (Bolognese School). 1. Lavinia Fontana, Christ and 
the Samaritan woman ; 3. Ann. Carracci, Madonna and Child with 
St. Francis, painted on Oriental agate ; 9. Ouido Rent, Ulysses 
and Nausicaa; 15. Lionello Spada, Cain and Abel; 38. Francesco 
Romanelli, Sibyl ; 43. Ann. Carracci, Caricature of Caravaggio as 
a savage with a parrot and a dwarf, in the corner Carracci himself' 
47. Ouercino, Peter weeping; 55. Ann. Carracci, Rinaldo and Ar- 

Upper Floor, W. NAPLES. 3. Route. 75 

mida; 69. M. Caravaggio, Judith and Holophernes ; 71. Ann. Car- 
racci, Landscape with St. Eustachius. 

Boom II. (Tuscan School). 5. Sodorna, Resurrection of Christ; 
25. Gentile da Fabriano, Madonna and angels ; 27. Lor. di Credi, 
Nativity; 30. Dom. Ohirlandajo, Madonna and saints; 31. Matteo 
da Siena, Massacre of the Innocents (dated 1482); 32. Sandro 
Botticelli, Madonna enthroned; 37. Filippino Lippi, Annunciation 
and two saints ; Ang. Bronzino, 42. Young nohleman, 55. Female 
portrait; 48. Dom. Ohirlandajo, Madonna and John the Baptist. 
In the centre of the room is a large bronze tabernacle with the 
story of the Passion, executed by Jacopo Siciliano from a design 
said to have been made by Michael Angelo. 

Room III. (Neapolitan School of the 14th, 15th, and 16th cent- 
uries). Pietro delDonzello, 1. Christ crucified between the two male- 
factors, 3. St. Martin; 7. Ant. Rimpacta from Bologna (not Lo Zin- 
garo), Madonna and Child under a canopy, surrounded by eight 
saints; 21, 25, 32. Simone Papa, Crucifixion and Saints ;24. Andrea 
(Sabbatini) da Salerno, Miracles of St. Nicholas of Bari, sadly dam- 
aged ; *34. Andrea da Salerno, Adoration of the Magi, marked by 
all the freshness and grace of the S. Italian school, but also by the 
characteristically slight attention paid by it to correct handling. — 
Adjoining the third room are two rooms containing Byzantine and 
early Tuscan works, most of them badly preserved and freely 
restored, and Neapolitan paintings of the 13th and 14th centuries. 

Room IV. (Neapolitan School of the 16-18th centuries). 1. Do- 
menico Oargiulo, surnamed Micco Spadaro, Revolt of Masaniello 
in the Piazza del Mercato at Naples in 1647; 5. Oian Filippo 
Criscuolo, Adoration of the Magi ; 22, 27, 28, 30. Works by Luca 
Oiordano ; 37. Massimo Stanzioni, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 
56. Traversa, Girl with doves; 63. Pacecco di Rosa, Madonna 
delle Grazie ; 64. Jose Ribera, surnamed Spagnoletto, St. Bruno 
adoring the Holy Child, on copper; 66. Pietro Novelli, surnamed 
Monrealese, Judith and Holophernes; 72. Dom. Oargiulo, The 
smoker; 75. Oiordano, Pope Alexander II. consecrating the 
church of Monte Cassino ; 76. Oiordano, Christ shown to the people 
(after Diirer). — The large walnut cabinet in the centre of the 
room, adorned with carved reliefs from the life of St. Augustine, 
dates from the 16th cent, and was formerly in the sacristy of the 
monastery of S. Agostino degli Scalzi. It contains media val and 
Renaissance ivory carvings, engraved rock-crystals, miniatures, 
and the like, most of which were once in possession of the Farnese 
family. A cabinet by the wall of the exit, from the same church, 
contains majolicas from Urbino and elsewhere. By the window : 
the *Cassetta Farnese in gilded silver, executed by Oiovanni 
Bernardi da Castelbolognese, a goldsmith of Bologna (d. 1555), 
with six large and beautifully cut stones representing Meleager and 
Atalanta, Procession of the Indian Bacchus, Circus games, Battle 

76 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

of Amazons , Battle of the Centaurs and Lapithse , Battle of 
Salamis. — By the other window: Small Diana on the stag, in 
gilded silver, with clock-work, probably the toy of some juvenile 

Room V. (German and Flemish Schools). 3. Lower German 
Master (not Lucas van Leyden), Adoration of the Magi; 28. J. 
Kornelissen of Amsterdam (not Diirer), Adoration of the Shepherds 
(1512; comp. p. 266); 34. Alb. Diirer (?) , Nativity; 40. School of 
Lucas Cranach, Christ and the adulteress ; 42. Amberger (?), Por- 
trait ; *44. Jan van Eyck (?), St. Jerome extracting a thorn from 
the paw of a lion , one of the finest early-Flemish paintings in 
Italy; 51. Unknown Artist (not Holbein), A cardinal; *53. Lower 
German Master, Crucifixion ; *54. Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Parable 
of the seven blind men. 

Boom VI. (Netherlands Schools). 1. Style of Rembrandt, Por- 
trait ; 12. Ascribed to Van Dyck, Portrait of a nobleman ; 17. School 
of Rembrandt, Portrait; 19. Frans Snyders , Hunting scene ; 36. 
School of Van Dyck , Crucifixion; 61. Collection of 21 miniatures 
of the House of Farnese ; 73. Mich. Mierevelt, Portrait; 78. Ferd. 
Bol, Portrait ; 83. Ascribed to Van Dyck , Portrait of a Princess 
Egmont ; 89. Villa Medici at Rome in 1615. — Entrance hence 
into the collection of bronzes, see p. 78. 

From the 5th Room of the paintings we enter a circular room, 
the first of the collection of vases (see below), and pass thence 
to the left into the Museo Santaugelo, which occupies three 
rooms. This museum was formerly in the Pal. Santangelo, but 
was purchased by the city of Naples in 1865 and placed under the 
care of the Museo Nazionale. For admission apply to the custodian. 

1st Room : Vases. In the cabinet in the centre, a vase with Baccha- 
nalian scene. In the middle of the cabinet on the left, Bacchanalian feast 
with an armed dancing-woman. To the right by the window a "Cabinet 
with drinking-horns (rhyta). 

2nd Room : Terracottas and Small Bronzes. On the left, in the corner, 
a vase from Nola, with the return of Hephaestus to Olympus. 

3rd Room: Collection of Coins. On the second table in the middle of 
the room an interesting selection of 'aes grave* and other Italian coins. 
Also several large vases: to the left of the entrance a vase with Pelops and 
CEnomaus. In the centre a vase with Orpheus in the infernal regions. 
Opposite the entrance, to the right, -Mercury and Spes, relief -mosaics 
from Metapontum, unique of their kind. Cock-light. 

We now return to the ** Collection of Vases, which begins 
with the circular room mentioned above, and occupies seven rooms. . 
It is very extensive and valuable, and is particularly rich in spe- 
cimens of the handsome vases of Lower Italy. The finest speci- 
mens are placed by themselves on short columns. The collection 
is arranged in chronological order after the second room, in which 
from the left of the entrance to the middle of the right wall are 
arranged the vases with black figures; then follow Greek vases 
with red figures, succeeded by vases of Italian origin. — As 
Greek vase-painting was adopted by the Etruscans and modified 

Upper Floor, W. NAPLES. 3. Route. 77 

according to the national taste, so this branch of art was strongly influ- 
enced in Lower Italy, and especially in Apulia , by the peculiar 
character of its inhabitants. The vases here are of large and imposing 
dimensions, and the artists, not satisfied with the decoration of paint- 
ing alone, have frequently superadded reliefs to adorn the necks 
and handles. Their aim appears to have been to cover, if pos- 
sible , the entire surface of the vase with the colours. The 
different series of representations, one above another, which they 
bear, are often without connection ; or the centre is occupied by 
an architectural design and surrounded irregularly with groups. 
The figures are generally of a somewhat effeminate mould, and 
great care appears to have been bestowed on the delineation of 
rich but scantily folded garments. The representations are for 
the most part borrowed from the ancient Greek tragedy, but in 
some cases scenes of a more Italian character are observed. The 
period of their manufacture is believed to have been shortly after 
the reign of Alexander the Great. 

The floors of the room are paved with ancient, hut freely restored Mosaics. 
1st Room. The vases in the 1st and 2nd cabinets (to the left, count- 
ing from the entrance from the picture-gallery), and the three placed on 
columns in front of them are specimens of the earliest stage of this art. 
They are of a yellowish colour, ornamented with two rows of plants or 
animals of brownish or black colour, and are round or oval in form. 
The 3rd and 4th cabinets contain Etruscan and Calene (p. 7), the others 
Greek vases, some of them beautifully shaped, but nearly all black and 

2nd Boom. Pavement from the house of Diomedes at Pompeii. 
Opposite the entrance : Condemnation of Marsyas. By the window : Two 
large vases, one with the Death of Archemorus, the other with the Fun- 
eral sacrifice of Patroclus. Between these, under a glass shade. Lecythus 
(vase for ointment) with reliefs of Marsyas and Apollo. In a cabinet 
opposite the window, Lecythi, remarkable for the painting on white 
ground; and prize vases of the Panathenean festivals. 

3rd Eoom. Opposite the entrance : "Vase with lid, Bacchanalian 
sacrifice. Farther on, in the centre, Actors with masks; "Battle of 
Amazons; "Destruction of Troy. By the window: Large vase, from Ruvo, 
the largest vase yet discovered, with a Battle of the Amazons and 
Orpheus in Hades. 

4th Room. In the centre, Medea fleeing after the murder of her 
children. Lycurgus, blinded by Bacchus, slaying his wife. By the window, 
the celebrated large Vase of Darius from Canosa : Darius planning the 
conquest of Greece; above is Hellas, at whose side Athene and Zeus are 
standing; beneath are the Persian provinces on which subsidies are levied 
for the war, with accompanying names. 

5th Room. In the centre, Orestes seeking refuge from the Furies at 
the statue of Artemis; Perseus releasing Andromeda ; Tereus on horseback 
pursuing Procne and Philomela. Opposite the window, to the left, 
Hercules carrying off the tripod. Farther on, to the right, Lycurgus kill- 
ing his son; Rape of the golden fleece; Orestes and Electra mourning at 
the grave of Agamemnon. 

6th Room- By the window two models of tombs, which illustrate 
the manner in which the vases were discovered. As the ornaments, 
weapons, etc., ot the deceased were deposited with his remains in the 
tomb, so also were these vases which had adorned his home; in some 
cases, however, the nature of the subjects leads to the conclusion that 
they were manufactured for this express purpose. In the centre, drinking 
horns and Lecythi. — The rest of the vases here and in the 7th Room 

78 Route 3. NAPLES. IV. Museum. 

are unimportant. — The entrance hence to the small bronzes is closed. 
We therefore proceed to the principal entrance in the 6th room of the 
picture-gallery (p. 76). 

The collection of the ** Small Bronzes is the finest of its kind 
in existence and is arranged in a masterly fashion. It consists 
chiefly of household utensils, lamps, candelabra, tools of all kinds, 
musical and surgical instruments, weapons, etc., most of them found 
at Pompeii, and is admirably adapted to convey an idea of the life 
and habits of the ancient Italians. The use of most of the objects 
is too obvious to require explanation. 

1st Room : The most valuable objects are in the centre, grouped 
around three large Money- Chests , such as usually stood in the 
Atria of Pompeian houses. To the left of the corner : Dish-warmer, 
in the form of a fortress. Farther to the right: large Divan or 
chair. Cooking Stove. Table Support, with Victoria bearing a tro- 
phy. Farther on, parallel with the window-wall and by the 
windows : Bisellia (seats of honour) decorated with heads of horses 
and swans, and a large shallow Dish with inlaid silver ornaments. 
In a glass-case, a *Tripod for sacrifices, richly decorated, from the 
temple of Isis at Pompeii. Then iron Stocks from the gladiators' 
barracks at Pompeii, near which three skeletons were found. Far- 
ther back, also under glass : * Candelabrum from the Villa of Dio- 
medes, consisting of a square slab which bears a small Bacchus 
riding on a panther besides a small altar and a pilaster adorned with 
a mask and bucranium (skull of an ox) ; the lamps hang from four 
branches; those at present placed there are not the original. Then, 
Baths. Large Brazier from the Thermae at Pompeii (p. 136), 
ornamented with a cow's head, the armorial bearings of the foun- 
der M. Nigidius Vacca. — The Cabinets along the wall are number- 
ed from right to left, beginning at the left entrance, i-xiv. Bronze 
Vessels, xv, xvi. Water-taps and Gargoyles, xvn. Implements of 
the Palmstra, including numerous Scrapers for removing the oil and 
dust from the body after gymnastic exercise ; garniture of a ring, 
xvm-xx. Door-plates, Locks, and Keys, with fine inlaid work, 
xxi-xxnr. Iron Utensils, xxiv-xxvn. Lamps, xxvm-xxx. Mount- 
ings, Handles, Table Supports, etc. ■ — Among the cabinets stand 
several Candelabra. 

2nd Room : A "'Model of Pompeii , representing the ruins as 
they were in 1871 (comp. Plan, p. 120) on a scale of 1 : 100. — 
Along the walls are ancient disk-shaped Bells, and numerous bronze 
vessels and candelabra. Cabinets xxxii-xliii, 1-lv, lviii-lx. con- 
tain Utensils of various kinds and shapes, xliv, xlv. Ladles and 
Funnels; elaborate Cooking Apparatus, xlvi. Tripods; small Bra- 
ziers, xlvii-li. Scales and Weights, lvi. Mirrors and Ink-holders ; 
below, objects in Bone and Ivory, lvii. Bells, Harness, Ornaments, 
Buckles (fibula?). — In the glass-cases : lxi. Compasses , Angling 
Hooks , Anchors , Steering Apparatus, lxii. Musical Instruments, 

Upper Floor, W. NAPLES. 3. Route. 79 

including the 'sistrum' used in the worship of Isis. lxiii. Astragali 
Dice, Tesserae (tickets of bone, ivory, etc., including some theatre- 
tickets), lxiii b. Trinkets and Toilette Articles in bronze and 
ivory, lxiv. Sieve. Ixv, lxvi. Surgical Instruments, lxvii, lxviii. 
Ivory and Bone Carvings. — To the left, near the model of Pom- 
peii : Leaden Vessels of cylindrical form. — At the back is a Tri- 
clinium , or three dining-sofas , each for three persons (the table 
was placed in the middle). By the window, under a glass shade, 
the impression in hardened ashes of the breast of a girl and her 
skull, from the Villa of Diomedes at Pompeii (p. 142). 

The last room contains the Collection of Precious Belies (Og- 
getti Preziosi), antique cut gems, and gold and silver objects. 

By thb Window, the celebrated *Tazza Farnese, a vessel of 
onyx with beautiful reliefs, the largest of its kind. On the out- 
side a large Medusa's head in relief; in the inside a group of seven 
persons, referred by some to the occasion of an inundation of the 
Nile, by others to a festival in spring, instituted by Alexander at 
the foundation of Alexandria. 

Tablbs in thb Centhb. The first near the window contains 
the * Cameos, or stones cut in relief, many of which are very inter- 
esting : in front of the case to the left, *16. Zeus in conflict with 
the Titans, by Anthemion ; 32. Head of Medusa; 44. A fine head 
of Augustus; 65. Part of the group of the Farnese bull, said to 
have been used as a model at its restoration ; below it, 1857. Head 
of a Vestal. — Adjacent are the Intagli, or stones on which the 
designs recede(so placed that the designs are seen through the stone): 
209. Ajax and Cassandra; 213. Apollo and Marsyas; *392. 
Bacchante. The table in the middle contains cut gems of the 
mediaeval and Renaissance epochs. 

The Cabinets by the entrance-wall and the window-wall and 
at the front part of the left wall contain well-executed Objects in 
Silver: Vases, goblets, tablets, spoons, buckles; also objects in 
ivory, medallion reliefs, etc. The most noteworthy objects are the 
following: Six fine large vases; Six goblets with foliage; Small 
sun-dial; Vase in the shape of a mortar, with the apotheosis 
of Homer; Three tripods; Rings from Greek tombs at Armento 
in the Basilicata; Silver Plate from the house of Meleager at 
Pompeii, including two handsome goblets with centaurs. 

The Objects in Gold begin at the farther end , to the right, 
with the Greek ornaments , which include a diadem from Venosa, 
and *Ornaments found in a tomb at Taranto; large gold lamp from 
Pompeii, admirably executed and well preserved. Then, opposite 
the entrance, ornaments from Herculaneum and Pompeii, some set 
with pearls and precious stones : Nos . 1 -4. Chain, bracelet, and a pair 
of earrings which were found with a female skeleton in the house 
of Diomedes at Pompeii ; then, 186, 187. Two cloak-clasps; two 
massive armlets in the form of serpents; handsome necklaces, etc. 

80 Route 3. NAPLES. V. The Higher 

— There is also an interesting collection of ancient Rings, includ 
ing a gold ring with a portrait, possibly of Brutus, with the artist' 
name Anaxilas. 

V. The Higher Quarters : Capodimonte, Corso Vittorio Emanuel* 
Castel S. Elmo, S. Martino. 

The continuation of the Toledo beyond the Museum is forme 
by the Strada S. Teresa degli Scalzi (PI. E, 3, 2), which grad 
ually ascends. From the beginning of this street , opposite th 
N.W. corner of the Museum, the Strada Salvator Rosa (p. 82 
diverges to the left. We follow the Strada di S. Teresa , and i 
about 10 min. cross the Ponte delta Sanith, a viaduct constructe 
in 1809 across the quarter della Sanita which lies below. 

Descending to the left immediately beyond the bridge, and from th 
lower end of the street entering the winding Strada S. Gennaro de' Povei 
to the right, we soon reach the large hospice or poor-house of that nami 
At the back of the building is the church of S. Gennaro (St. Januariui 
founded in the 8th cent, on the site of a chapel where St. Januarius we 
interred , but now completely modernised. The vestibule of the inm 
court is embellished with Frescoes from the history of the saint by At 
drea da Salerno (?) , unfortunately in bad preservation. At the back c 
the church is the entrance to the extensive Catacombs (PL D, 1) of Naple: 
admission to which is obtained by applying to the porter of the hospic 
(1 fr. for each person, and trifling fee to the attendant). 

The Catacombs of S. Grennaro consist of four main galleries, c 
which, however, two only are now connected by staircases and accessibl 
to visitors, together with a long series of lateral passages and buri; 
chambers (cubicitla). Along the walls are excavated niches of three di 
ferent forms, ranged in rows one above another. A few of the chambei 
lie below the level of the galleries. The oldest part of the catacomt 
dates from the first century of our era. In point of architecture they fa 
surpass the Roman, though inferior in every other respect. The two larg 
ante-chambers were used for the religious services customary at an intermen 

Information as to the history and decorations of these early Christia 
burial-places will be found in the Handbook for Central Italy. The ii 
scriptions found here have been placed in the Museum. Among th 
paintings may be mentioned the pleasing decorations of the two ant( 
rooms, which recall the Pompeian style, a figure of the Good Shepher 
in the first gallery, the portraits on the tomb of Theotecnus (beginnin 
of the 4th cent.) in the second gallery, and a figure of Christ of the 5t 
or 6th cent, (but frequently retouched) in the so-called Basilica di S. Get 
naro. The bones which fill many of the chambers and corridors at 
generally those of victims of the plagues which ravaged Naples in th 
16th century. The Priapus column with the Hebrew inscription is 
mediteval hoax. 

There is another (but unimportant) series of catacombs, of the 4th an 
5th cent., beneath the church of S. Maria della Sanita, below the bridg 
of that name. 

The Strada Nuova di Capodimonte, as the street ascendin 
beyond the Ponte della Sanita is called, leads in a few minutes t 
a circular space called the Tondo di Capodimonte (PI. E 1 ; ordi 
nary cab-fares thus far). The road now describes a lon°- curve t 
the left and then divides, the N. branch leading to Secondiglianc 
and the S. branch to the entrance of the park of Capodimonte 
Walkers ascend the steps , and at the top follow the road to th 

Quarters. NAPLES. 3. Route. 81 

right. From the Tondo cli Capodimonte to the palace is a walk of 
7 minutes. — A short distance before the park-gates is the large 
main reservoir of the new waterworks (Acqua di Serino ; PI. F, 1 ; 
p. 32), with five basins hewn in the rock, and a capacity of 80,000 
cubic meters. Permission to inspect the works is obtained at the 
office of the Naples Waterworks Co., Str. Ohiatamone 5 bis. 

The royal Palazzo di Capodimonte (PL E, F, 1 ; daily 10-4, 
with permesso, see p. 35; guide not necessary for the garden), sit- 
uated above the town to the N. on the eminence of that name, 
was begun in 1738 by Charles III., but not completed till 1834- 
39 in the reigrr of Ferdinand II. The edifice was designed by 
Medrano , the architect of the Teatro S. Carlo. The *Oardens are 
partly laid out in the English style. Splendid views are enjoyed 
from tha large evergreen oak and other points. Permessi must 
once more be shown at an enclosed part called the Bosco (fee 25- 
50 c; inaccessible in April and May when the pheasants are sitting). 
One-horse carriages are not admitted to the park. 

The palace contains the royal Mdseo di Capodimonte (fee 1 fr.) , a 
somewhat extensive, hut not very valuable collection of pictures, chiefly 
by modern Neapolitan masters , and of modern sculptures , distributed 
throughout the different apartments. The names of the artists are attach- 
ed to the frames. The following are worthy of mention: Sackert, 
Wild- boar hunt in the Bosco di Persano ; Chase of wild fowl on the 
Lago Fusaro, by the same; Lemasle, Marriage of the Duchesse de 
Berry; Camuccini, Death of Csesar; Celentano, Benvenuto Cellini at the 
Castel Si Angelo; Bayez , Ulysses and Alcinous; a table with ancient 
mosaic from Pompeii; Marinelli, Cleopatra at her toilet; Virginia Lebrun, 
Portraits of the Duchess of Parma and Maria Theresa; Angelica Kauf- 
mann, Ferdinand I. and his consort with their children; Podesta, Or- 
pheus; De Angelis, Death of Phaedra ; Guerra, Ossian ; Postiglione, Andro- 
cles ; Bergi, Epaminondas at Mantinea ; Carelli, Capture of the Porta Pia 
at Rome , Sept. 20, 1870 ; Vanvitelli, View of Piedigrotta. — The palace 
also contains a collection of porcelain from the former manufactory of 
Capodimonte, including some exquisitely delicate and transparent spe- 
cimens of pdte tendre, coloured decorations in relief, and (later) imitations 
of the antique. The manufactory was founded in 1743 by Charles III., 
improved in 1771 by Ferdinand IV. , and suppressed by the French in 
1806. The valuable collection of armour (Armerla) contains the ancient 
accoutrements of kings Roger and Ferdinand I. , of Alexander Farnese, 
and of Victor Amadeus of Savoy ; the sword presented by Ferdinand I. 
to the gallant Scanderbeg (d. 1467) ; also an ornamental cradle presented 
by the city of Naples to the present queen Margaret in 1869. 

Near Capodimonte are the villas Meuricoffre (generally open on 
presentation of the visitor's card), Ruffo, Avelli, and Forquet, com- 
manding fine views in all directions. — To the W. , opposite Capo- 
dimonte, stands the Villa Qallo (PI. D, 1), founded in 1809 by the 
Duca di Gallo. 

Following the Salita di Capodimonte , opposite the entrance to 
the park of Capodimonte , and after a few minutes turning to the 
left, we reach the Observatory [Osservatorio Reale, PI. F, 1), occu- 
pying the summit of the hill. It is popularly called La Specola, 
or, after the villa of a Spanish marquis which once stood here, Mira- 
dois. The observatory was founded in 1812, and enlarged in 1820 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. g 

82 Route 3. JXAi'.LJiB. V. The Higher 

from plans by the celebrated Piazzi (d. 1826), under whom it attain- 
ed a European reputation. The present director, Comm. de Gasparis, 
has distinguished himself by the discovery of several planetoids. — 
On the way to the observatory a path descends in steps past the 
church de Miracoli to the Strada Foria (see p. 41). 

Opposite the N.W. corner of the Museum, as mentioned at 
p. 80, the Strada Salvator Rosa (PI. D, E, 3, 4) ascends the 
heights of S. Elmo and the Posilipo. Donkeys may be hired at the 
foot of the hill, and also farther up : to S. Martino l-172ir. ( as 
quick as a carriage, or quicker). The tramway (No. 6, p. 23) as- 
cends at this point by the rack-and-pinion system. In 10 minutes 
walk from the Museum we reach the small Piazza Salvator Rosa, 
where the Str. Salvator Rosa turns to the right towards Arenella, 
birthplace of Salvator Rosa, the painter. 

In a straight direction begins here the *Corso Vittorio Emannele 
(PI. D, 4; E, 5; B, C, D, E, 6; B, 7; steam-tramway, see p. 23), 
which is carried by means of windings and several viaducts round 
the hills of S. Elmo and the Posilipo. It then skirts the slopes 
for some distance, and at length gradually descends to the Piazza 
di Piedigrotta (p. 86) and the Mergellina (p. 86), commanding ad- 
mirable views of the town, the bay, and Mt. Vesuvius. The road 
was begun by the Bourbons for military purposes, but was not com- 
pleted till 1875. The distance from the Piazza Salvator Rosa to 
S. Maria di Piedigrotta is upwards of 2^2 M. From the Corso a 
number of lanes descend, some of them by means of steps, to the 
lower part of the city. Those diverging from the first third of the 
road lead to the Toledo, those from the last third descend to the Chiaja. 

S. Elmo and S. Martino are reached from the Corso Vittorio 
Ernanuele by means of two somewhat steep Bridle Paths, ascend- 
ing in places by shallow steps. One of these, the Pedimentina di 
S. Martino (PI. E, D, 5), begins about Y2 M. from the Piazza Sal- 
vator Rosa, beyond the viaduct and the angle made by the street, 
beside the house No. 350 , and reaches the entrance of the Castel 
in 1/4 hr. The other, the Salita del Petraio (PL D, 6, 5), begins 
about 10 min. farther on, between the houses Nos. 227 and 226. 
Donkeys for hire at both. — A much longer route is by the carriage- 
road, following the Str. Salvator Rosa to the small chapel of S. 
Maria Costantinopolitana (PL C, 4), and diverging there to the left 
(carriage see p. 22). 

The easiest ascent is by one of the Cable Tramways mentioned 
at p. 23, which pass under the Corso and unite the lower town 
with the new quarter of Rione Vomero (PI. C , D, 5) , which is 
still only partly built and sparsely inhabited. One of these has its 
lower terminus ,at Monte Santo, to the W. of the Toledo (PI. E, 4, 
p. 40), the other, more convenient for the majority of travellers, 
begins in the Rione Amedeo (PI. C, 6), and has an intermediate 

Quarters. NAPLES. 3. Route. 83 

station near the Hotel Bristol in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele. The 
upper terminus of the former line is about i/ 4 M. to the N. W., that 
of the other 1/2 M - t0 tae w -i of the entrance to the Castel S. Elmo, 
on the N.AV. side (marked 'Ingr.' on our Plan). 

The Castel Sant' Elmo (875 ft.), or Sant' Ermo, formerly Sant' 
Erasmo, was erected under Robert the Wise in 1343 and conside- 
rably enlarged and strengthened in the 15-17th centuries. The 
vast walls , the fosses hewn in the solid tuffstone rock , its sub- 
terranean passages, and ample cistern formerly obtained for it the 
reputation of impregnability. The fort is now used as a military 
prison, and is accessible only by special permission. 

On entering the precincts of the fortifications we proceed to the 
suppressed Carthusian monastery of — 

*S. Martino (PI. D, 5), which is not less remarkable for the 
beauty of its situation and its views, than for the value of its con- 
tents. It was begun in 1325 by Duke Charles of Calabria, but was 
entirely rebuilt in the 17th century. Since its dissolution, the 
monastery has been placed under the management of the Museo Na- 
zionale, and is shown daily, 10-4 o'clock (adm. 1 fr. ; Sun., 9-2, 
free). If time be limited, the Belvedere should first be visited. 

Beyond the court, in which is situated the main entrance (always 
closed) of the church, we reach the Monastery Court, where sarcophagi, 
inscriptions, marble coats-of-arms , etc., are exhibited, and enter a wide 
archway, immediately to the right in which is the former laboratory of 
the convent, a large and lofty vaulted apartment; on the walls are church- 
banners. — The Hall to the left of this contains the pictures, for which 
there was no room in the Museo Nazionale. The title and artist's name 
are attached to each frame. Some of the pictures are good examples of 
Neapolitan masters of the 16-17th centuries. In the centre of the apart- 
ment is the gorgeous Barge, used for excursions in the gulf of Naples by 
Charles III. The adjoining Room contains Battle Pictures (explained by 
the attendant) and ancient Views of Naples, with an interesting represen- 
tation of a royal visit to the festival of Piedigrotta. The State Coach in the 
centre used to appear in municipal festivals at Naples, and was occupied 
by Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi on entering the city in 1860. The 
uniforms of the former Consiglieri Mnnicipali are preserved in a case in this 
room. A third small Room contains ancient banners. 

We now return through the laboratory to the monastery-court , and 
enter a long, narrow Corridor by the open door in the middle of the wall. 
Here on each side is an open door. — That to the left admits to a room 
containing Models of Italian Fortresses. — The door to the right leads 
through a passage to a tasteful 'Representation of the Infant Christ in 
the manger ( L Presepe^) , with the three Magi , and scenes of Neapolitan 
life, in a mountainous landscape. This representation, the delight of all 
Neapolitans, young and old, is worth seeing on account of the costumes 
and as a specimen of the erections which were common at Christmas in 
the private houses and churches of Naples since the 15th century. 

The narrow corridor (door immediately to the left) leads to the "Clois- 
ters, with 60 columns of white marble. — We then traverse the Audience 
Room and the Chapter-hoose, the roof of which is painted by Corenzio (to 
the right, the 'Coro dei Laici Conversi'), to the church, of which we first 
enter the choir. 

The Church, which consists of a nave with three chapels on each 
side, is richly embellished with marble. On the ceiling is an Ascension, 
and between the windows the Twelve Apostles, by Lanfranco. Over the 
principal entrance a "Descent from the Cross by Stanzioni (damaged), and 

84 Route 3. NAPLES. V. The Higher Quarters. 

next to it Moses and Elias by Spagnoletto. The Apostles above the archei 
of the chapels are by the same artist. Frescoes of the choir by th< 
Cavaliere d'Arpino. The Crucifixion by Lanfranco. On the wall at the E, 
end, Nativity, unfinished, by Outdo Reni (who died during the progress ot 
the work). On the sides : to the left, Communion of the Apostles, by Spa- 
gnoletto (in the style of Paolo Veronese), and Christ washing the disciples' 
feet, by Caracciolo; to the right, the same subject by Stanzioni, and In- 
stitution of the Eucharist, by the pupils of P. Veronese. The marble de- 
corations of the church, twelve different roses of Egyptian basalt, after Co- 
simo Fansaga of Carrara, the beautiful mosaic marble pavement by Presti. 
and the high-altar by Solimena also merit inspection. — The Saoeisty. 
entered to the left from the choir, is adorned with intarsias by Bonaventura 
Presto, and paintings by the Cavaliere aVArpino, Stanzioni, and Caravaggio. — 
Beyond it is the Tesoeo, containing as an altar-piece a "Descent from the 
Cross, the masterpiece of Spagnoletto, fine in colouring and admirable 
for its delineation of pain ; on the ceiling Judith, by Luca Giordano, said 
to have been painted in 48 hours, when the artist was in his 72nd year. 

We return through the chapter-house to the cloisters; to the right is 
the entrance to the — 

Museum. Room I. Silver vessels; objects in marble; reliquary. — 
Room II. Majolicas from Castelli in the Abruzzi (Collection Bonghi), in- 
teresting as specimens of a local industry, but otherwise unimportant: 
most of the pieces, both in this and the other rooms, date from the 17th cent, 
or later. — Room III. Modern glass, porcelain, and ivory carvings; huge 
old choir-books with miniatures; priest's robe. — Room IV. Mirrors 
with chased figures; old chairs. — Room V. Prisonjacket and other 
relics of the Italian statesman Carlo Poerio (1803-67; comp. p. 40) and oi 
his brother Alessandro , the patriotic poet (b. 1802), who died in 1848 
from wounds received at the defence of Venice ; the hat of Card. Ruffo. 
— From R. II. we turn to the right into Room VI. Figures in biscuit 
china from the manufactory of Capodimonte. To the right, in a niche, 
is the wax figure of Padre Rocco, a Neapolitan street-preacher and philan- 
thropist who died at the beginning of this century. On the floor of this 
and the following room, mosaics of the signs of the Zodiac. — Room VII. 
The remainder of the collection of majolicas. The best pieces are (beginning 
to the right): Heliodorus; Israelites crossing the Red Sea; Toilette oi 
Venus; Diana asleep; Judgment of Paris, a curious rendering by Ant. Lolli; 
Apollo and the Python; Boar-hunt; Battle of Alexander; Bacchic pro- 
cession; Galatea; Jupiter and Juno (groups from the frescoes by the Car- 
racci in the Pal. Farnese in Rome); David and Goliath; Bacchus and 
Ariadne ; Finding of Moses. — Room VIII. (to the left of R. I.). Uniforms 
of the Bourbon period. — Rooms IX. and X. Modern pictures. Embroi- 
dery in silk (Judith, Esther, Flight into Egypt, etc.). 

At the end of the right wing of the cloisters is a door leading to the 
right through a corridor to the "'"Belvedere, a hexagonal room with two 
balconies commanding exquisite views of the city, the bay, Mt. Ve- 
suvius, and the fertile country as far as Nola and the Apennines. It is 
less extensive than that from the walls of Castel S. Elmo, but more 

Farther on in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele lie the hotels men- 
tioned at p. 19. Beside the Hotel Bristol is a stopping-place of the 
IUone Amedeo cable-tramway (p. 23). Thence a street descends 
past the small Parco Margherita, and a little farther on a private 
road ascends to several villas belonging to Conte 6. Orifeo. Beyond 
the hotels Tramontano and Britannique , to the right, diverges the 
Via Tasso (see p. 85). The first station of the Cumae Railway is 
farther on between two tunnels ((PI. B, 6; p. 91). — The Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele ends at the Piazza di Piedigrotta, see p. 86. 

VI. The Posilipo. NAPLES. 3. Route. 85 

VI. Hill of Posilipo. 

A most interesting circular tour rn:iy be made from the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele up the Via Tasso to the top of the hill of Posilipo and thence 
back by the Strada Nuova di Posilipo (p. 87) to the Villa Nazionale; a 
walk of 3'/2-4 hrs. or a drive of l ] /2-2 hrs. [Cabs should be hired by the 
hour, as shown under b on p. 22.] The view is best in the late afternoon. 

The hill which bounds Naples on the "W. , with its villages and 
numerous charming villas, derives its name of Posilipo, or Posil- 
lipo, from Pausflypon ('sans-souci'), the villa of the notorious 
epicure Vedius Pollio, afterwards the property of Augustus, which 
was gradually -extended to the whole hill. The Posilipo is most 
conveniently visited either from the Corso Vittorio Emanuele or 
from the Villa Nazionale. We begin with the former. 

The *Via Tasso (PI. B, A, 6), finished in 1885, which diverges 
from the Corso Vitt. Emanuele beside the Hotel Tramontano (see 
p. 84) and gradually ascends the hill of Posilipo, commands most 
beautiful views of Naples and its bay, and of Vesuvius. The street 
from the Corso to the top of the hill is barely l 1 /^ M. in length, 
but for the ascent about 3 /4 hr. is required. The first house on the 
left is the International Hospital (p. 24). Farther on are some new 
villas. At the top is the Trattoria Pallino (p. 21). 

The 'Strada Belvedere' (PI. A, 6) , leading from the Vomero 
(p. 82) and running destitute of view, between garden- walls , is 
joined by the Via Tasso, and then ascends, under the name of 
'Strada Patrizi', the long hill of Posilipo to the S. Here and there 
the garden-walls cease and allow of a beautiful view across the Bay 
of Pozzuoli to Cape Miseno and Ischia. A little before we reach 
the (l 3 / 4 M.) village of Posilipo , the road crosses the line of the 
Posilipo grottoes (see p. 86) , which pierce the hill 465 ft. lower. 
A new quarter here, for which the name Parco Savoia has been pro- 
posed, is to be connected with the entrance of the new grotta by 
means of a lift. The road beyond Posilipo, which commands beau- 
tiful views, continues in the same direction past the village of 
Strato on the right, to (2 M.) the Strada Nuova di Posilipo, which 
we reach at its highest point, near the Villa Thalberg (a little 
moTe than 3 M. from the junction of the Via Tasso). The distance 
back to Naples by the Strada Nuova di Posilipo is about 4 M. (to 
the Piazza Umberto, PL B, 7, about 3 M.). Comp. p. 87. 

The Piazza Umberto (p. 33), at the W. end of the Villa Nazio- 
nale, is adjoined on the N.W. by the long Piazza la Torbetta (PI. 
B, 7), in which are a tramway-station (Nos. 1 and 7, pp. 22, 23) and 
the station for the steam-tramway to Puorigrotta, Bagnoli, and Poz- 
zuoli (No. 5, p. 23). The Mergellina (p. 86) diverges here to the 
S.W., while the Strada di Piedigrotta leads straight W. to the hill 
of Posilipo. 

The Strada di Piedigrotta (PI. B, A, 7), along which the above- 
mentioned steam-tramway runs , brings us in 5 min. to the small 

86 Route 3. NAPLES. VI. Hill of 

Piazza hi Pibdigiiotta, where the Corso Vittorio Emamiele diverges 
(p. 84). At this point rises the church of S. Maria di Piedigrotta, 
a building of the 13th cent., but much altered, and finally restored 
in 1850 after the return of Pius IX. from Gaeta. It contains a very 
old picture of the Madonna, and an interesting Pieta in the Fle- 
mish-Neapolitan style, the wings evidently executed under Sienese 
influence (2nd chapel to the right). The large side-chapel, to the 
right of the high-altar, contains the tombs of the Filangieri, and a 
statue of Gaetano Filangieri, the famous jurist (see p. 146). — For 
the festival of Piedigrotta, see p. 28. 

The continuation of the Strada di Piedegrotta forms the Grotta 
Nuova di Posilipo(Pl. A, 7), a tunnel bored in 1882-85 through the 
hill of Posilipo to replace the old Grotta (now closed) , and giving 
passage to the steam-tramway and other traffic, which creates a 
deafening noise. It is 800 yds. long (or with the approaches 1100 
yds.), 40ft. high, and 40 ft. wide, and is always lighted with gas. 
On a few days in March and October, the setting sun shines directly 
through the grotto, producing a magic illumination. — At the W. 
end of the tunnel is the village of Fuorigrotta (p. 92). 

The Old Grotto, reached by the old road diverging to the left from 
the approach to the new Grotto, but now closed, is a masterpiece of ancient 
engineering, probably constructed in the reign of Augustus. It is men- 
tioned by Seneca and Petronius , under Nero , as a narrow and gloomy 
pass. MediEeval superstition attributed it to magic arts practised by Virgil. 
King AlphoDSo I. (about 1442) enlarged the opening; a century later Don 
Pedro de Toledo caused the road to be paved; and it was again im- 
proved by Charles III. (1754). 

Among the vineyards above the old road, to the S.E., is an ancient Ro- 
man Columbarium, popularly known as the Tomb of Virgil (now quite 
inaccessible). The name of the monument is without satisfactory historical 
foundation, but probability and local tradition favour the assumption that 
this was Virgil's last restingplace. The poet, as he himself informs us, 
here composed his immortal works , the Georgics and the jEneid, and he 
unquestionably possessed a villa on the Posilipo, and by his express wish 
was interred here after his death at Brundisium, B.C. 19, on his return 
from Greece. Petrarch is said to have visited this spot accompanied by King 
Robert, and to have planted a laurel, which at the beginning of the present 
century fell a prey to the knives of relic-hunters, and has since been re- 
placed. It is on record that in 1326 the tomb was in a good state of 
preservation, and contained a marble urn with nine small pillars, the frieze 
of which bore the well-known inscription : — 

Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 
Parthenope : cecini pascua, rura, duces. 
Of all this no trace now remains. The following inscription was placed 
here in 1554 : — 

Qui cineres ? tumuli hsec vestigia : conditur olim 
Ille hie qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces. 

To the S.W. of thePiazzaLaTorretta(p.85) diverges the Strada 
di Mergellina (PI. B, 7), which 5min. farther on crosses the Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele (pp. 85, 82: ordinary cab-fare to this point), and 
forms the entrance of the Strada Nuova di Posilipo. The last begins 
about y 2 M. from La Torretta, before the street turns a corner. 

Posilipo. NAPLES. 3. Route. 87 

A little before this corner, we observe above us to the right the 
small Chiesa del Sannazaro, or S. Maria del Parto. (We ascend 
the approach to the church and mount the steps to the left, -which 
lead in three flights to the terrace above the houses Nos. 10-17.) 
The church stands on the site of a small estate -which King Frede- 
rick II. of Arragon presented in 1496 to the poet Jacopo Sanna- 
zaro (b. at Naples, 1458), for whom he entertained the highest 
regard. After his villa had been destroyed by the French, the aged 
poet caused the church to be erected by monks of the Servite order 
in 1529. It derives its name from his Latin poem, 'De partu Vir- 
ginis' (Naples, 1526). 

The church contains a high-altar and six chapels. In the 1st chapel 
to the right, St. Michael overcoming Satan, by Leonardo da Pistoja. The 
devil is represented with the features of a woman of whom Diomedes 
Carafa, Bishop of Ariano, was once passionately enamoured. Behind the 
high-altar is the monument of the poet (d. 1530), executed by Fra Giovanni 
da Monlorsoli from a design by Oirolamo Santacroce. At the sides Apollo 
and Minerva , popularly believed to be David and Judith ; on a bas-relief 
between them Neptune and Pan, with fauns, satyrs, and nymphs singing 
and playing, an allusion to Sannazaro's poem 'Arcadia' ; above is the sar- 
cophagus with the bust of the poet, which bears his academic name: 
Aclius Sincerus. The inscription at the base of the monument by Bembo 
('Maroni . . . Musa proximus ut tumulo') alludes to the poet's having imitated 
Virgil. His principal works are idyls, elegies, and epigrams in Latin. 

The **Strada Nuova di Fosilipo, which at first skirts the coast, 
and then gradually ascends round the S. slope of the hill, was be- 
gun in 1812 during the reign of Murat, and completed in 1823. 
It leads between many beautifully situated villas, commanding 
exquisite views, and should on no account be omitted from the 
traveller's programme. The tramway map be taken as far as the 
station of Posilipo (No. 1, p. 22). Comp. Map, p. 92. 

Immediately at the beginning of the street rises the Villa Angri. 
On the left ('/2 M. from the Chiesa del Sannazaro), we next ob- 
serve on the sea the picturesque ruins of the Palazzo di Donn' 
Anna (erroneously called that of the Regina Giovanna) , begun in 
the 17th cent, by Fansaga for Donna Anna Carafa, wife of the 
viceroy Duke of Medina, but never completed. To the left, on the 
coast, just before reaching the Palazzo di Donn' Anna, we pass the 
Trattoria dellaSirena, mentioned at p. 21 ; in the Palazzo itself are 
two other trattorie, and just beyond it is the Trattoria dello Scoglio 
di Frisio. In front of the adjacent Marine Hospital, a curious group 
of statuary (St. Francis, Dante, Columbus, and Giotto) was erected 
in 1883. 

Boats for returning are generally to be found below the restaurants : 
to the Villa iy 2 , to the town 2-3 fr. ; Cab from the Piazza del Plebiscito 
to the Frisio 1 fr. (bargain necessary). The tramway-cars mentioned at 
p. 22 also pass the Villa. 

The road leaves the sea and ascends in windings round the spur 
of the hill. To the left the Villa Cottrau, which stretches from the 
road to the sea, and the Villa Rendell, in which Garibaldi (d. 1882), 
spent his last winter (tablet at the entrance). Also other villas. 

88 Route 3. NAPLES. VI. Posilipo. 

About II/4 M. from the Frisio , beyond a church on the right with 
a relief of the Madonna over its portal, a road diverges to the left, 
descending past the Villa De la Hante to the Capo di Posilipo. 
Farther on, on the hill to the right, is the colossal Mausoleum of 
Baron Schilizzi, in the Egyptian style. The small church of S. 
Maria del Faro , in the vicinity, occupies the site of an old lighthouse. 
We here command a beautiful view towards Naples. 

The main road ascends for V2 M. more. At the top of the hill, 
near the Villas Thalberg and Sanssouci, it is joined by the road 
described at p. 85. — [A footpath to the left leads to (iy 2 M.) the 
fisher-hamlet of Marechiaro , where there is a favourite trattoria. 
A few fragments here are said to belong to the villa of VediusPollio 
(see p. 85). J — The road then passes through a deep cutting to a 
(V4 M.) projecting round platform which commands a magnificent 
*View towards Bagnoli, Camaldoli, Pozzuoli, Eaja, and Ischia. 

The road now descends on the "W. side of the Posilipo, com- 
manding a fine view the whole way. On the left, 1 / i M. below the 
round platform, is the entrance to the so-called Grotto op Sejanus, 
a passage hewn through the rock of the Posilipo, about 990 yds. in 
length , resembling the old Grotta di Posilipo (fee 1 fr. ; the in- 
spection occupies about */2 nr -). 

This is the tunnel whose construction is ascribed by Strabo to 
U. Cocceius Nevva (B. C. 37), almost simultaneously with that of the 
Julian harbour on the Lucrine lake by M. Agrippa. It is therefore a 
mistake to associate it with the name of Sejanus, as it is of much earlier 
origin. An inscription records that the tunnel was repaired by the Emp. 
Honorius about the year 400. At the E. end of this passage, especially 
near the rocky promontory of La Gajola, the most beautiful views are 
obtained of Nisida, Procida, Ischia, Capri, and the bay of Naples. 

The custodian conducts the visitor from the grotto to a vineyard in 
the vicinity (fee 30-50 a), whence a magnificent view is enjoyed (from the 
top of the hill on the right, to which visitors should request to be con- 
ducted). Here also some of the scattered fragments of the Pausilypon, 
or villa of Vedins Pollio (p. 85), are visible, extending from the slope 
of the hill down to the sea, and overgrown with myrtles, erica, and 
broom. — In the adjoining property, visible through the hedge, we 
observe the Scuola, or properly Scoglio (rock) di Virgilio, perhaps once a 
temple of Fortune, or of Venus Euploea , to whom mariners sacrificed 
after a prosperous voyage. — The fish-ponds, in which the cruel Vedius 
was in the habit of feeding large lampreys with the flesh of his slaves, lay 
nearer the town. — A small Theatre is also seen, which belonged to a 
villa of Lucullus, with seventeen rows of seats hewn in the rock. Besides 
these are numerous other relics of villas (comp. p. 85). 

The S.W. spur of the Posilipo is called Capo Coroglio, opposite 
which rises the small rocky island of Nisida, the Nesis of the an- 
cients, an extinct crater, which opens towards the S. On the quay 
is a Quarantine building. On the N. side is a rock, connected with 
the mainland by a breakwater, and bearing the Lazzaretto. The 
building on the height is a bagno for criminals. 

The son of Lucullus possessed a villa on this island, to which Brutus 
retired after the murder of Csesar in the spring of B. C. 44, and where 
he was visited by Cicero. He took leave here of his wife Portia on his 
departure for Greece, previous to the battle ofPhilippi, the news of which 
caused her to commit suicide by swallowing burning coals. In the 15th 

Camaldoli. NAPLES. 3. Route. 89 

cent. Queen Johanna II. possessed a villa on the island ofNisida, which 
was converted into a fort for the purpose of keeping the fleet of Louis 
of Anjou in check. 

From the entrance of the Grotto of Sejanus to Bagnoli (p. 93) 
is about i l / t M., so that the whole distance thither from the Villa 
Nazionale (p. 32) is ahout 6 M. Bagnoli is a station on the railway 
and the tramway to Pozzuoli (p. 93). 


An Excursion to Camaldoli and back, including stay there, takes 
4-472 hrs. by carriage (with one horse 6, two-horse 9-10 fr.); on foot 
4'/2-5V2 hrs.; on donkey-back a little less (2-272 fr. and a trifling fee to the 
attendant). The bridle-path from Antignano, which walkers will find 
pleasant, cannot be mistaken if the following directions be attended to 
(see also Plan, p. 18, and Map, p. 92). — The early morning and the 
evening lights are the most favourable for the views, particularly the 
latter. The traveller, however, should start on the return-journey in 
good time, as the path is rough in places, and it is anything but pleasant 
to walk through the beggar-haunted suburbs of Naples after dusk. — The 
monastery is forbidden ground for ladies, who, however , may reach an 
equally good point of view a little lower (p. 90). The monks supply 
bread and wine on request, but in any case expect a donation (72 fr. for 
one pers., 1 fr. for a party). 

The Carriage Road to Camaldoli begins at Cangiani (PI. A, 
1, 2; comp. also the Map at p. 92), the N.W. gate of the customs 
wall ('Muro Fiuanziere' or 'Cinta daziaria') that describes a wide 
circle round Naples. This point is reached from the Villa Nazionale 
■via the Grotta di Posilipo and Fuorigrotta (p. 92) and thence by the 
gradually ascending road outside the customs wall (comp. PI. A, 5; 
carr. in l-l 1 /^ hr.) ; or (somewhat shorter) from the Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele up the Via Tasso, then by the Strada di Belvedere via 
Antignano and Archetiello (see below), and finally by the road out- 
side the wall. In about 1 /o hr. from the Cangiani gate, carriages 
reach Nazaret, a group of houses to the N. of Camaldoli. Here we 
alight (guide unnecessary), pass through the archway with a tablet 
bearing the name of the place (beside the Trattoria Fracchiacconi), 
turn to the left a little farther on, follow the cart-road along the 
slope ofthehill,passthroughahollowway, and then gradually ascend. 
Bearing to the right we reach the N. corner of the wall of the 
monastery-garden in l/ 4 hr., and proceeding to the right, immediately 
afterwards the entrance. 

Pedestrians, after taking the cable-tramway to the Bione Vomero, 
traverse first this new quarter and then the village of Antignano (PL 
C, B, 4), and soon reach V Archetiello (PI. B, 4; so called from a 
former gate), where there is an office of the Dazio Consumo , or 
municipal customs on comestibles. About 200 paces farther on, 
we take the bridle - path diverging to the left a little on this side 
of the 'Villa Curcio : , and passing a group of houses. The path then 
immediately passes under a viaduct and enters a hollow (to which 
point our Plan of Naples extends : A, 4, 3). The path runs between 

90 Route 3. NAPLES. Camaldoli. 

bushes and pines. (The path diverging to the left beneath an 
archway, i/ 4 M. farther, must not be followed.) After 20 min., 
beyond an archway through which we pass, the path turns by two 
semi-detached houses a little to the left to the (4 min. J farm -build- 
ings of Camaldolilli, and passes through the wooden gate, imme- 
diately beyond which it ascends to the right at a sharp angle, in 
the direction of the yellow Trattoria di Campagna, affording a fine 
view of S. Elmo, Naples, Vesuvius, and the bay. After 7 min., 
at the point where the path descends slightly, a path diverges to 
the right to Nazaret, while our route descends to the left and 
skirts a gorge, through which is obtained a fine view of Capri. In 
3 min. more, at a grotto-like hollow in the rocks (on the right), we 
pass a path turning sharply to the left, and in 7 min. reach a 
point where another path diverges to the right to Nazaret and a 
forest-path leads to the left, while the main path to Camaldoli runs 
in a straight direction, soon ascending rapidly. Where the road 
divides, 5 min. farther, we keep straight on, and in 7 min. more 
we turn to the right to a closed gate, on passing through which 
riders have to pay 20 c. and walkers 15 c. each. The path then 
skirts the wall of the monastery-garden, rounds the N.W. corner, 
where it is joined by the path from Pianura via Nazaret (p. 89), 
and where the path to the point of view outside the monastery (see 
below) diverges. We reach the entrance to the monastery in 5 min. 
more. Visitors ring at the gate. 

**Camaldoli, a monastery of the Camaldulensian order found- 
ed in 1585, was suppressed by the Italian government iu 1863, 
but in 1885 passed into private hands and is still inhabited by ten 
monks. It stands on the E. summit of an amphitheatre of hills 
which enclose the Phlegraean plain on the N., being the highest 
point near Naples (1475 ft ), and commands one of the most magni- 
ficent views in Italy. The monastery and church contain nothing 
worth seeing, and we therefore proceed at once to the garden. The 
best point of view is straight before us. The view embraces the 
bays of Naples, Pozzuoli, and Gaeta, the widely extended capital 
(of which a great part is concealed by S. Elmo) with its environs, 
the Agnano valley, the craters of Solfatara and Astroni, the pro- 
montories of Posilipo and Misenum, the islands of Nisida, Procida, 
andlschia, and the districts of Baiae, Cumse, andLiternum. Towards 
the S. the view is bounded by Capri and the Punta della Campa- 
nella. The small towns of Massa, Sorrento, and Castellammare are 
visible; also Monte Sant' Angelo, the smoking cone of Vesuvius, 
and the luxuriant plain at its base. To the W. stretches the open 
sea, with the islands of Ponza, Ventotene, S. Stefano, and Isola 
delle Botte. 

Parties which include ladies (p. 89), may reach a scarcely in- 
ferior point of view, by striking off by the path descending to the 
right, between the N.W. corner of the monastery-wall and the en- 

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PHLEGR/E AN PLAIN. 4. Route. 91 

trance (see p. 90), and then proceeding along the slope beneath 
the wall to a (8 min.) gate (marked l Vcduta Pagliana'~), for open- 
ing which a fee of 25 c. for each person is demanded. 

At the S. base of Camaldoli lies the village of Soccavo, to which a 
steep and rough path descends in 3 /4 hr. from the Veduta Pagliana, shortly 
before the 25 c. gate is reached. 

4. Pozzuoli, Baise, Misenum, and Cumse. 

The Phlegraean Plain, a district to the W. of Naples, has from time 
immemorial been a scene of tremendous volcanic activity, and as lately as 
the 16th cent, has undergone vast changes , of which the traveller will 
observe traces at every step. This tract is, however, scarcely less interesting 
in an historical than in a physical point of view. It was here that Hellenic 
civilisation first gained a footing in Italy, and constant communication was 
thenceforth maintained between this portion of the peninsula and the East. 
The legends of Hellenic tradition are most intimately associated with these 
coasts, and the poems of Homer and Virgil will continue to invest it with 
a peculiar interest as long as classic literature exists. The prosperity of 
this lovely coast has long since departed. The grand creations of imperial 
Rome, the innumerable palatial villas of the Roman aristocracy, have long 
been converted into a chaotic heap of ruins by convulsions of nature, and 
have left behind comparatively slight traces of their former magnificence. 
The malaria prevails in many parts of the district; but the inexhaustible 
beauties of Italian nature are still invested with the same charms as they 
possessed two thousand years ago. Islands and promontories , bays and 
lakes , and singularly beautiful indentations of the coast form the chief 
features of this scenery, which is perhaps without rival. 

One day is sufficient to visit the chief points of interest, with the ex- 
ception of the Lago d'Agnano, which is not specially attractive, and Cu- 
mse, which is interesting chiefly to archaeological students. Railway (Fer- 
rovia Cumana, see below) in the morning to ( 3 A hr.) Baia, thence walk 
or drive to Cape Misenum and On to the Lago del Ftifaro (on foot 5-6 hrs. 
incl. halt; carr. 2'/;:-3 hrs.); return by railway to (20-25 min.) Pozzuoli, and 
after visiting the Temple of Serapis, the Amphitheatre, and also the Sol- 
fatara (I1/2 hr.), reach p/ 4 hr.) Naples by the steam -tramway. Those, 
however, who have more time should devote two days to exploring this 
region as follows. Fiest: Take the tramway to the station of Agnano in 
25 min.; thence on foot to the Lago d'Agnano, V* hr., where the Dog 
Grotto is scarcely worth a visit ; walk over the hill ("View) to the Sol- 
fatara, 1 hr. ; halt there, 20 min. ; walk to Pozzuoli, and visit the Amphi- 
theatre, Temple of Serapis, Harbour, and Cathedral, I1/2 hr. ; drive (car- 
riages generally to be found in Pozzuoli) back to Naples by the Strada 
Nuova di Posilipo (which route must be expressly stipulated for ; 4 fr. and 
fee), 1V4 hr.; in all 5-5'/2 hours. If we take the railway on to Bagnoli, 
and return thence on foot to Naples, we require I1/2 hr. more. — Second: 
Take the railway to Baja, and proceed thence as above via, Miseno to the 
Lago del Fusaro. Energetic travellers may add the walk or drive to Cuma, 
returning via the Arco Felice (i'/a-2 hr3.) 

Railway. The Ferrovia Cumana begins at Monte Santo, to the W. of 
the Toledo (p. 40), and parses beneath the Castel S. Elmo by a tunnel, 
i'/a M. long, to the (l 3 /4 M.) Corso Viltorio Emanuele station (p. 84), which 
is the most convenient for the majority of travellers (omnibus from the 
Piazza S. Ferdinando, see p. 23). — Beyond another tunnel is (2>/2 M.). 
Fuorigrotta (see p. 92). — The following stations are: 5 M. Bagnoli (p. 93), 
71/2 M. Pozzuoli (p. 93). 8V2 M. Arco Felice (p. ill), 10 M. Lago Lucrino (p. 97), 
IOV2 M. Baja (p. 99), It M. Cuma-Fusaro (p. 102), 12'/ 2 M. Torregaveta 
(p. 102). Fares from the Corfo Viltorio Emanuele: tu Pozzuoli 1 l'r. 10, 
65, 30c, return 1 fr. 75, 1 f r. 5, 60c. ; to Baja, 1 fr. 10, 1 fr., 56c, return 
2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 60, 1 fr.; to Cuma-Fusaro 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 10, 60c, return 
2 fr. 90, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 5 c. 

92 Route i. LAGO D'AGNANO. Environs 

Steam Tramway (Tram a Vapore) from La Torrelta at Piedigrotta 
(PI. B, 7). ihe terminus of the tramway-line No. 1 (p. 22), to Pozzuoli in 
3 /4 hr., almost every li/ 2 hr. from 5.30 a.m. (fares 65 and 50 c). The 
intermediate stations are Fuorigrotta (see below); Pilastri; Agnano (see 
below); Bagnoli (p. 93); La Pietra, and Subveni Homini. 

Carnages. A carriage with two horses for the day costs 20-25 fr., 
with one horse 10-12 fr. ; a distinct bargain shonld be made beforehand. 
— Cab-tariff to Bagnoli and Pozzuoli (from the stand in the Strada di 
Piedigrotta) comp. p. 22. 

Guides. The following directions, the map, and a slight knowledge 
of the language will enable the traveller to dispense with a guide. Those, 
however, who desire to avoid the importunities of the guides at Pozzuoli 
and Baja may engage a cicerone at Naples for the excursion (6 fr. ; see 
p. 30). The Naples guides undertake the hiring of a carriage, the pay- 
ment of fees, etc. , thus relieving the traveller of all trouble (total cost 
for two persons with one-horse carriage about 20 fr.). 

The village of Fuorigrotta lies at the exit from the Grotta di 
Posilipo (p. 86). The steam - tramway halts in the piazza beside 
the little church of S. Vitale, in the vesitibule of which is buried 
the poet Count Giac. Leopardi (b. at Recanati in 1798, d. at Naples 
in 1837). The station of the Ferrovia Cumana is 1 / i M. from the 
piazza (take the Via Giac. Leopardi , on the right of the church, 
and turn to the right at the railway). 

Bagnoli is about 2 l /2 M. from Fuorigrotta, beyond the interme- 
diate tramway - stations of Pilastri and Agnano. From Agnano a 
broad road planted with trees diverges to the dried up Lago dAg- 
nano, 3 / 4 M. from the tramway. 

The Lago d' Agnano, which was drained in 1870, is an old crater of 
irregular form, 2 1 /t 31. in circumference. On the S. bank, immediately 
to the right of the point where the road reaches it , are the old Stufe di 
San Germane, or chambers in which the hot sulphureous fumes rising 
from the ground here are collected for the use of sick persons (adm. 1 fr. 
each person). A few paces farther on is the famous Grolta del Cane, or 
Bog Grotto. It derives its name from the fact that the ground and sides 
are so thoroughly impregnated with carbonic acid gas, that the fumes ren- 
der dogs insensible in a few seconds, and produce a feeling of languor 
on human beings. Dogs are provided for the exhibition of this somewhat 
cruel experiment, but the curiosity of the traveller may be sufficiently 
gratified by observing that a light is immediately extinguished when 
brought in contact with the vapour. Pliny (Hist. Nat. ii. 93) mentions 
this grotto as : 'spiraeula et aerobes Charonere mortiferum spiritum exha- 
lantes in agro Puteolano'. (Adm. 1/2 fr- each person; 1 fr. more is de- 
manded for the experiments with the dog and the light.) 

From the Lago dAgnano to Pozzuoli, I1/4 hr., a pleasant footpath 
leads across the hills to the W. By a solitary house, about 8 min. from 
the Dog Grotto, a road diverges to the left from the above-mentioned 
Astroni road, and skirts the N. base of the Monte Spina. After 3 min. 
we turn to the right, and in 10 min. more to the right again; where 
the road divides into three (2 min.) we turn to the left, then immedia- 
tely afterwards to the left again, continuing to follow the main road. At 
a farm-house (10 min.) the road narrows to a footpath, which ascends 
steeply past ancient walls to a (8 min.) white building and yard, through 
which we pass by a door on the left. The Villa Sarno, to the left, a little 
farther on, the tenant of which admits visitors and courteously provides 
refreshments , is a decayed villa of the Prince Cariati , commanding a 
beautiful "View from the upper terrace. Passing through a narrow dell, 
the path leads in 8 min. more to the top of the hill, where we take the 
road to the right. Looking back, we obtain abeautiful glimpse of Nisida 
and Capri, and immediately after, by the (5 min.) Capuchin monastery of 

G«oy;ra.yh. AJifrtilt von "Wagner *■ DirVn.Xrip: 

Chilometr i 

Abbreviazioni : 9r" Grotttv, r 1 ? Fiatta, Str? Hznerw, 
Sc. Scotflio. Sp? Spiaggia,, T" Torre, r? TOUl , T? Vidimus. 

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X ChfLonr^tro 

of Naples. POZZUOLI. 4. Route. 93 

S. Gennaro (p. 95), we enjoy a superb "Survey of Pozzuoli and its bay. 
the Capo Miseno, and Jschia. After about 4 min. more in a straight di- 
rection , we may either to the right to the entrance of the Solfatara (p. 
95), or to the left to (1/4 hr.) Pozzuoli. 

The road skirting the W. bank of the dried lake leads to (1 M.) the 
royal chasse or park of Astroni, the largest and most important of the vol- 
canic craters in this region, being upwards of3 3L in circumference, and 
densely overgrown with holm-oaks and poplars. On the S. side it contains 
a small lake, and in the centre an eminence of trachytic lava. Picturesque, 
but somewhat dull park-scenery. Driving is practicable only as far as the 
margin of the crater. We then ascend the old road to the left to the 
large gate, where we show our 'permesso' (see p. 35). Fee 1/2 fr. The 
park is sometimes closed in spring, on account of the breeding-season. 

"When the line approaches the coast, the island oiNisida (p. 88) 
becomes visible on the left. 

Bagnoli (Ristor. Figlio di Pietro, at the tramway-station ; Caffe 
Lombardo, at the railway) is a small watering-place with hot springs, 
some of which contain salt and carbonic acid gas, others sulphur and 
iron. There are several bath and lodging-houses. Bagnoli is much 
frequented by Neapolitans in July, August, and September. There 
are two railway-stations : Bagnoli and Terme. From Bagnoli by the 
Strada Nuova di Posilipo to Naples, see pp. 89-87. 

From Bagnoli to Pozzuoli, 2 l /% M., the road and railway skirt 
the coast. In the lava hills (pierced by one long and two short 
railway -tunnels) which rise near the sea are extensive quarries 
(petriere), where convicts are employed. The tramway stops just 
outside the town at an archway forming the entrance; the railway 
passes through a tunnel beneath the town and halts on the N. side. 

Pozzuoli. — Restaurants, generally mediocre and dear : Ristor. Mi- 
lanese (formerly Bella Venezia), with E., at the harbour, near the railway- 
station, is perhaps the best; Ristor. G. Polisana (Figlio di Pietro), in an 
old convent close to the sea, near the tramway-station. 

Guides, Car-drivers, Donkey-boys, and Beggars assail the traveller per- 
tinaciously the moment he arrives. The services of the guides may well 
be dispensed with. For a walk through the town, to the Amphitheatre, and 
the Temple of Serapis 1 fr., or, with the addition of the Solfatara, l'/zfr., 
suffices; donkey to the Solfatara 1 fr. — The guides and others also 
importune visitors to buy 'antiquities', which are manufactured at Naples 
and then buried to give them the requisite coating of rust or verdigris. 
Genuine antiquities may be purchased of De Griscio, in the place in front 
of the church of the Deipara, mentioned at p. 95. 

Steamboat to Procida and Casamiceiola, see p. 104. 

Those who arrive by Tramway should turn to the right (comp. p. 85) 
and ascend to the Solfatara, Amphitheatre, and Temple of Serapis (l 3 /4-2 hrs. 
incl. stay). The harbour may be visited on returning, if time permit. — 
Those who arrive by Railway (Ferrovia Cumana) first descend from the 
station to the high-road, follow this to the right to (2 min.) the lane on 
the right, in which is the entrance to the Temple of Serapis. Then ascend 
the lane farther, cross the railway, and turn to the right to the high-road 
leading uphill; thence either cross the high-road diagonally and after 120 
paces take to the left the paved 'Strada Mandra', lending to the place 
in front of the Deipara (p. 95) whence the 'Via Anflteatro' leads to the left to 
the Amphitheatre (10-12 min. from the Temple of Serapis); or ascend the 
high-road (see above) to the left as far as the Ufflzio Daxiario, there turn 
sharp to the right, and proceed to the Amphitheatre (25 min. from the 
temple). From the Amphitheatre proceed as indicated on p. 95, pass to 
the left of the Deipara, ascend to the Solfatara (there and back '/, h r .) 

94 Route 4. POZZUOLI. Environs 

and descend to the tramway-terminua at the B. entrance of the town (in 
all a walk of 2 hrs.). 

Pozzuoli , a quiet town with. 16,000 inhab. , situated on a 
projecting Mil and at its base, on the bay of the same name, 
which forms part of the Bay of Naples, was founded at an early 
period by the Greeks and named by them Dicaearchia. It was 
subdued by the Romans in the Samnite wars, repeatedly colo- 
nised by them, and called by them Puteoli. It afterwards be- 
came the most important commercial city in Italy, and the prin- 
cipal depot for the traffic with Egypt and the East, whence 
Oriental forms of worship were introduced here at an early pe- 
riod. St. Paul on his journey to Rome spent seven days here (Acts, 
xxviii). Several ruins, which lie close to the modern town, bear 
witness of its ancient importance. The town itself presents few 
attractions. — The volcanic puzzolana earth found in the whole 
of this district, from which an almost indestructible cement is 
manufactured, derives its name from Pozzuoli. 

From the tramway-terminus a broad paved road ascends to the 
right in windings, leading to the upper town (see below). — Enter- 
ing by the gate straight in front of us we soon reach the principal 
Piazza, in which rise the statue of a senator, bearing the name of 
Q. Flav. Mavortius Lollianus, discovered in 1704 (head originally 
not belonging to this statue, but also ancient), and that of Bishop 
Leon y Cardenas, viceroy of Sicily under Philip III. — Hence a 
street to the left runs to the harbour, while the Via Cavour to the 
right leads to a large square, stretching from the harbour to the 
station of the Ferrovia Cumana. 

At the harbour are the remains of the ancient pier, called by 
Seneca Pilae, by Suetonius Moles Puteolanae, and now Ponte di 
Caligola. Of twenty-five buttresses, which supported twenty-four 
arches, sixteen are left, three being under water. They are 
constructed of bricks and puzzolana earth, and bear an in- 
scription recording that the pier was restored by Antoninus Pius. 
A common , but erroneous impression is , that they were con- 
nected with the bridge -of- boats which Caligula threw across 
the bay of Baiee, in order that, clad in the armour of Alexander 
the Great , he might there celebrate his insane triumph over 
the Parthians. — A few yards on the other (N.) side of the square 
(see above) we reach a lane (with a sign marked 'Bagni di Sera- 
pide') diverging to the right from the high-road and leading to the 
Temple of Serapis (p. 96). 

Most travellers will , however, follow the paved road leading to 
the right (see above) from the tramway-terminus. If at the first bend 
in this road we turn to the left, we soon reach the Piazza del Muni- 
cipio , whence we may follow the Via del Duomo and its second 
side-street to the left to the cathedral of 8. Proculo. This occupies 
the site of a temple of Augustus, erected by L. Calpurnius, six 

of Naples. POZZUOLI. 4. R oute . 95 

Corinthian columns from which are still outside. The church con- 
tains relics of St. Proculus and the monuments of the Duke of 
Montpensier, Governor of Naples under Charles VIII. of France, 
and of Giovanni Battista Pergolese of Jesi, the talented composer 
of the original Stabat Mater, who died at Pozzuoli in 1736 at the 
age of 26. 

We return to the broad road outside the town and ascend it 
farther, passing the yellow barracks of the Guardie di Finanze (Via 
Carlo Rosini) and the reddish building of the former Hotel Grande 
Bretagne. After about 12 min. we reach an oblong, the E. (right) 
end of whichis bounded by the Orfanotrofio Carlo Rosini, fororphan- 
girls, and the little church Deiparce Consolatrici Sacrum. The road 
to the left leads to the Amphitheatre (see below), that straight on, 
past the facade of the church, to the Solfatara. The latter ascends 
through vineyards. The ascent to the entrance of the Solfatara on 
foot takes 20 min. (adm. V2 *' r - eac h person) ; 8 min. more to the 
actual spot. 

The Solfatara is the crater of a half-extinct volcano, an oblong 
space enclosed by hills of pumice-stone , from numerous fissures 
('fumaroli') in which vapours and sulphureous gases ascend. The 
ground is hollow in every direction. The powder found at the top, 
which the guides erroneously call saltpetre, is really ceramohalite, 
or sulphuretted potter's clay. The ancients (Strabo) called this crater 
Forum Vulcani, and believed it to be connected with the crater of 
Ischia. The only recorded eruption from it, attended with an emis- 
sion of lava, took place in 1198. — Above the Solfatara, towards 
the E. , rise the Colles Leucogaei, the white hills whose light-coloured 
dust was so highly prized by the ancients for colouring groats and 
other kinds of grain. Several small brooks containing alum have their 
source here, called I Pisciarelli, the Fontes Leucogaei of the ancients 
(Plin. Nat. Hist. xxxi. 2), which fall steaming into a ravine be- 
tween the Solfatara and the Lago d J Agnano. 

Shortly before our route reaches the Solfatara It is .ioined on the 
right by a road coming from the Lago d'Agnano (p. 92). The 'View on 
the latter road is so fine that the traveller should not omit to ascend as 
far as (6 min.) the Capuchin monastery of S. G-ennaro, erected in 1580 on 
the spot where St. Jarmarius is said to have been beheaded in 305, and 
(»/2 M. farther) the Villa Sarno (p. 92). 

"We now return to the open space before the D eipara and traversing 
itlengthwise to the N.W., passingthe antiquarian depot of De Criscio, 
enter the Via Anflteatro, which brings us in less than 3 min. to the 
entrance of the Amphitheatre, the most interesting and perfect of 
all the ruins of Pozzuoli (admission 1 fr. ; Sundays gratis). 

The *Araphitheatre rests on three series of arches, which were 
surrounded by an external court ; the two principal entrances were 
adorned with triple colonnades. The interior contained four tiers of 
seats in several compartments (cunei), connected by flights of steps. 
The imperial seat was distinguished by Corinthian columns of black 

96 Boute 4. POZZUOLI. 


marble. The arena, 369 ft. long, and 216 ft. broad, was excavated 
in 1838 , when a number of subterranean passages and receptacles 
for the wild beasts, etc., 98 paces long and 53 broad, were dis- 
covered. By means of a water conduit (to the left of the principal 
entrance) the arena could be laid under water when naval combats 
were to be represented; the outlet is in the principal passage. The 
entrances for the gladiators, and the air-holes and outlets of the 
dens of the animals are easily recognised. The celebrated gladiator- 
combats under Nero, when he received Tiridates, King of Armenia, 
as a guest at his court, took place here, and even the emperor him- 
self entered the arena. Under Diocletian St. Januarius and his 
companions were thrown to the wild beasts here in vain, as an in- 
scription on the chapel dedicated to him records, before they were 
put to death near the Solfatara. 

On quitting the Amphitheatre we may either return to the space 
before the Deipara, thence descend the pavedVia Mandra immediately 
to the right, at the bottom turn to the right, and cross the high- 
road diagonally (see p. 97) ; — or from the Amphitheatre we may 
turn at once to the right and proceed, with a fine view of the Bay 
of Pozzuoli, to (10 min.) the Ufflzio Daziario, there turn sharply 
to the left and descend the high-road to (8 min.) the junction of 
the above-mentioned Via Mandra. Hence we proceed to the right, 
and after 4 min. cross the railway and turn to the left into the Se- 
rapis lane, leading, between garden-walls, to the entrance of the 
Temple of Serapis (on the left side). 

The so-called Temple of Serapis, or Serapeum, which, how- 
ever, is more probably an ancient market-hall (macellum, as at 
Pompeii; see p. 127), consisted of a square court, enclosed by 
forty-eight massive marble and granite columns, and with thirty- 
two small chambers adjoining. The portico rested on six Corinthian 
columns (three of which remain), once bearing a rich frieze. In 
the centre of the court stood a circular temple , surrounded by 
a peristyle of sixteen Corinthian pillars of African marble, which 
have been transferred to the theatre of the palace at Caserta 
(p. 9), the bases alone being left. The interior was approached 
by four flights of steps. The statues of Serapis, now in the mu- 
seum at Naples, were found in the neighbourhood. Two inscrip- 
tions found here mention the restoration of the temple by Mar- 
cus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. The ruin was excavated in 
1750, but its lower parts, which are under water , were filled up 
again in order to prevent unhealthy exhalations. — Interesting 
observations may be made here with respect to the changes which 
have taken place in the level of the sea at different periods. That 
it had risen considerably, even in ancient times, is proved by the dis- 
covery of mosaics 6 ft. below the present level of the pavement and 
by the different water-marks. Subsequently the lower part of the 
edifice was buried to a depth of 13 ft., probably by an eruption of 

of Naples. LACUS LTJCR1NTJS. 4. Route. 97 

theSolfatara. Thenonce more the entire region sank for centuries be- 
neath the level of the sea. During this period a species of shell- 
fish (lithodomus, or modiola lithophaga, still found in this vicinity") 
attacked the exposed middle portions of the columns, while the 
bases covered with rubbish remained intact. These borings extend 
to a height of 10 ft., so that at one period the sea -level must have 
been at least 20 ft. higher than at present. This great change was 
caused by the convulsion connected with the upheaval of Monte 
Nuovo (see below) in 1538. Since the last century the ground 
has again been gradually sinking. 

The lower end of the Serapis lane debouches on the high-road, 
which brings us (on the left) in 3 min. to the piazza in front of the 
station of the Ferrovia Cumana. 

The Temple of Neptune is a name applied to another ruin, to the W 
of the Serapeum , consisting of a few pillars rising from the sea. In the 
vicinity, also under water, is situated the so-called Temple of the Nymphs, 
from which a considerable number of columns and sculptures have been 
recovered. Farther on, a few fragments mark the site of Cicero's Puteolaneum, 
a villa delightfully situated on the coast, which the orator in imitation of 
Plato called his Academy, and where he composed his 'Academica' and 
'De Fato\ Hadrian (d. atBaiae, A.D. 138) was temporarily interred within 
its precincts , and Antoninus Pius erected a temple on the spot. 

Above the amphitheatre was situated a theatre , the ruins of which 
have not yet been excavated. Other ruins in the vicinity , externally of 
circular construction, are believed to have been either Baths or a Temple 
of Diana. The Villa Lusciano contains the so-called Labyrinth , really a 
piscina, or ancient reservoir. The Piscina Grande , with vaulted ceiling, 
resting on three rows of ten columns each, still serves as a reservoir, and 
was doubtless once connected with the ancient aqueduct from the Pausi- 
lypon to Misenum. — Roman Tombs have been discovered in great num- 
bers on the old roads , the Via Puleolana to Naples , and the Via Cu- 
mana to Cumae, but most are now mere shapeless ruins. Others in better 
preservation have been found on the Via Gampana, leading to Capua, 
which diverges to the right from the road leading to the N.W. beyond 
the amphitheatre (comp. the Map, p. 93). 

The railway to Cumae traverses a short tunnel beyond Pozzuoli 
and then passes the Cantiere Armstrong , a branch of the well- 
known cannon and armour-plate works of Armstrong & Co. at 
Newcastle , actively supported by the Italian government. Fine 
retrospect of Pozzuoli on the left. — l'/4 M. (from Pozzuoli) Arco 
Felice, a station at the junction of roads to the Arco Felice (l 3 /4 M. ; 
p. 103) and to Cumae (p. 102). The railway skirts the base of the 
Monte Nuovo (455 ft.), a volcanic hill of comparatively recent origin, 
having been upheaved on 30th Sept., 1538, after a violent earth- 
quake. Its form is that of an obtuse cone, in the centre of which 
is a very deep extinct crater, enclosed by masses of pumice-stone, 
trachyte, and tufa. The ascent is interesting, and not less so the 
toilsome descent into the crater. 

l 3 / 4 M. Station of hucrino (Hotel de Russie, de'j. 2i/ 2 fr.), 
at the E. end of the small Lacus Lucrinus, which is separated from 
the sea by a narrow strip of land. An ancient embankment here, 
still to be traced under the water, was called the Via Hercitlea, 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edit. 7 

98 Route 4. LACUS AVERNUS. Environs 

from the tradition that the hero traversed it when driving the hulls 
of Oeryon across the swamps. The lake was famed for its oysters 
in ancient times, and the oyster-culture flourishes again, as of yore. 
The lake yields also the spigola, a fish well-known to the Romans. 

About i/ 2 M. to the N. of the Lacus Lucrinus , a little in- 
land, bounded on three sides by hills clothed with chestnuts, 
vineyards, and orange-gardens, lies the celebrated *Lacus Avernus, 
which was regarded by the ancients as the entrance to the infernal 
regions on account of its sombre situation and environs. Its 
banks are now bordered with blocks of lava. Circumference 
nearly 2 M. ; depth 210 ft. ; height above the sea-level 3y 2 ft. 
Tradition affirmed that no bird could fly across it and live, owing 
to its poisonous exhalations, and that the neighbouring ravines 
were the abode of the dismal, sunless Cimmerii, mentioned by 
Homer (Odyss. xi). Virgil, too, represents this as the scene of 
the descent of iEneas, conducted by the Sibyl, to the infernal 
regions (^En. vi. 237). Augustus, by the construction of a naval 
harbour (Portus Julius), the building of which was entrusted to 
Agrippa, and by connecting this lake with the Lacus Lucrinus, 
was the first to dispel these gloomy legends. Horace and Virgil 
accordingly extol the harbour as a prodigy . — The canals and 
wharves of Agrippa were still in existence in 1538, but the 
upheaval of the Monte Nuovo destroyed every vestige of them, 
half filled the Lucrine Lake, and entirely altered the configuration of 
the neighbourhood. 

On the S. Side of the lake are observed grottoes and cuttings, hewn 
in the tuffstone rock, which probably once belonged to the Portus Julins. 
One of these caverns, situated a few hundred paces to the left of the end 
of the road coming from the Lucrine Lake , and now called the Grotto 
of the Sibyl, or Grotta d'Averno, is entered by a gateway of brick , and 
consists of a long, damp passage hewn in the rocks and ventilated by 
vertical apertures. Midway between the two lakes a passage to the right 
leads to a small square chamber, the 'Entrance to the Infernal Regions'. 
Near it is a chamber with mosaic pavement and arrangements for a warm 
bath. It contains lukewarm water, 1 ft. in depth, which rises in the 
neighbourhood , and is styled by the guides the 'Bath of the Sibyl'. The 
grotto is 280 paces in length, and blackened with the smoke of torches. 
— The visit is on the whole scarcely worth the trouble , and the de- 
mands of the guides should be beaten down. 

On the N.W. Side of the lake is one end of the Grotta delta Pace 
(p. 103). — On the E. Side are the interesting ruins of magnificent Baths, 
sometimes called a Temple of Apollo, Pluto, or Mercury. 

The Railway runs by the high-road along the strip of land be- 
tween the Lucrine Lake and the sea, and pierces the Punta dell', 
Epitaffio, round which the road runs. To the right, before we enter 
the tunnel, lie the Bagni di Nerone, a long, narrow, dark passage 
in the rock, at the farther end of which rise several warm springs, 
the famed Thermae Neronianae of antiquity, and still frequented 
by invalids. The entire mountain-slope is covered with innumerable 
fragments of old masonry, passages, colonnades, mosaic-pavements, 
etc. The hill is pierced by another shorter tunnel, beyond which, 

of Naples. BAJA. 4. Route. 99 

to the right, is the so-called Temple of Diana, and to the left, the 
station of Baja, 1/2 M. from the Lacus Lucrinus and 3 M. from 
Pozzuoli. — Continuation of railway, see p. 102. 

Baja. — Restaurants (not suited fornight-quarters): Hotel de la Rhine, 
near the station, bargaining advisable in spite of the announcement of 
fixed charges, D. 5, lunch 3'/4, beefsteak l'/ 2 fr. , A. 25 c; Albekgo 
della Vittokia, at the foot of the castle, »/i M. farther, to the left of the 
road, well spoken of, D. 5, dej. 3'/2 fr. 

Carriages (one-horse, for 3 pers.) meet the trains; drive to Miseno 
and the Lago del Fusaro, including waiting at the Piscina Mirabilis and 
at Cape Miseno, which is ascended on foot, about 6 fr. (previous bargain 
necessary). — Walkers require 5-6 hrs. for this expedition; guide unne- 

Boat to Pozzuoli for 3-4 persons about 2 fr. ; to Bacoli and Miseno 
the same ; there and back 3-4 fr. ; according to bargain in each case. 

Baja, the ancient Baia>, now regaining some importance, situat- 
ed on the bay of the same name and commanding a charming view, 
was the most famous and magnificent watering-place of antiquity, 
and had attained the zenith of its splendour in the age of Cicero, 
Augustus, Nero, and Hadrian. 'Nothing in the world can be com- 
pared with the lovely bay of Baife', exclaims Horace's wealthy Ro- 
man (Epist. i. 85), who is desirous of erecting a magnificent villa 
there. Luxury and profligacy, however, soon took up their abode 
at Baiae, and the desolate ruins which now alone encounter the eye 
point the usual moral. With the decline of the Roman empire the 
glory of Baiie speedily departed. In the 8th cent, it was devastated 
by the Saracens, and in 1500 entirely deserted by its inhabitants 
on account of malaria. 

Of the imposing baths and villas of the Romans , the founda- 
tions of which were often thrown far out into the sea, nothing but 
fragments now remain. In modern times these ruins are often 
exalted into temples, or otherwise dignified in a manner for which 
there is not the slightest foundation. The principal remains consist 
of three large vaults which belonged to baths. 

We first observe in a vineyard opposite the station, which affords 
a sufficiently good view of it, a large octagonal building, with 
a circular interior, a half -preserved dome, and four recesses in the 
walls , and remains of a water-conduit , styled a Temple of Diana 
(fee 30-50 c). 

Turning to the right on quitting the station, about 150 paces 
bring us to the Hotel de la Reine, immediately before which, to the 
right, is the entrance to another vineyard, containing a large circu- 
lar building, with a vaulted ceiling, open in the centre, and four 
niches in the walls. This is obviously a bath, but is called a Temple 
of Mercury, or by the peasantry il troglio (trough). Fine echo in the 
interior (fee 30-50 c. ; women here offer to dance the tarantella for 
the traveller's entertainment, 50 c). 

About 100 paces farther along the high-road is situated an octagonal 
structure with a vaulted ceiling, in the interior circular, and 25 


100 Route 4. BACOLI. Environs 

paces iu diameter , with remains of the ancient lateral chambers, 
windows, and staircases, somewhat resembling the Minerva Medica 
at Rome, now called the Temple of Venus. This is a public passage. 

The high-road, bordered with a number of modern villas, skirts 
the bay, and then (to the left, the Hotel Vittoria), passing several 
ancient columbaria, ascends the hill occupied by the Castle of Baja, 
which was erected in the 16th cent, by Don Pedro de Toledo. It now 
contains a small garrison; admission is granted, but is not worth 
the trouble. 

About 2 M. beyond Baja we reach the village of Bacoli, which 
is believed (not with absolute certainty) to derive its name from 
the ancient Villa Bauli, and also boasts of a number of antiquities. 
The traveller who is pressed for time, however , had better confine 
his attention to the Piscina Mirabilis (see below). 

The Villa Bauli is celebrated as having been the frequent residence of 
distinguished Romans , and it was here that Nero planned the murder of 
his mother Agrippina, in March, A.D. 59, a crime which was afterwards 
perpetrated at her villa on the Lucrine Lake. The tomb of Agrippina, of 
humble pretensions as Tacitus informs us (Ann. xiv. 9), was situated on 
the height by the road to Misenum, near the villa of Caesar, but the 
spot cannot now be exactly determined. What is commonly named the 
Sepolcro cf Agrippina, on the coast below the village, a semicircular pass- 
age with vaulted ceiling, reliefs, and paintings, is really the ruins of a 
small theatre. Extensive ruins near this, partly under water, are supposed 
to belong to the villa of the eminent orator Hortensius, and may be visited 
by boat. Even the pond in which he reared his favourite lampreys is 
said to be visible. In this villa Nero is believed to have sanctioned the 
proposition of his freedman Anicetus, commander of the fleet, to drown 
his mother Agrippina by sinking her in a ship. The attempt, however, 

The Villa of Julius Caesar, on the height near Bauli, was afterwards 
the property of Augustus, and was occupied by his sister Octavia after the 
death of her second husband M. Antony; and. here she lost her hopeful 
son, the youthful Marcellus, whom Augustus had destined to be his suc- 
cessor. It is believed by many that the subterranean chambers, known as 
the Cento Cameeelle, or Carceri di Nerone, or the Labyrinth, belonged to 
the basement story of this villa (fee 1/2 f r O- They are sometimes 
visited by torchlight, but the view from them is the chief attraction. 

On the hill to the S. of Bacoli, 10 min. from the entrance to 
the village, is situated the *Piscina Mirabilis. (Guide unnecessary. 
We may either leave the road by the Ufflzio Daziario and follow 
the long street of the village ; or, better , follow the road to the 
bifurcation mentioned below , and 60 paces beyond it ascend a 
path diverging to the left from the Misenum road. On the hill we 
turn to the right. Custodian, whose house is on the right, near 
the Piscina, '/ 2 ft. ; he sells vases and other antiquities found in 
the vicinity.) The Piscina is a reservoir at the extremity of the 
Julian Aqueduct, 230 ft. in length, 85 ft. in width, with a vaulted 
ceiling supported by forty-eight massive columns, and admirably 
preserved. — Following the top of the hill in the same direction 
I S. ) for 5 min. more, we reach a cottage (good wine), the roof of 
which commands a very fine view , though inferior to that from 
the Capo Miseno. 

of Naples. CAPO MISENO. 4. Route. 101 

Near Bacoli, about '/4 M. beyond tlie Uffizio Daziario, the road 
forks : the branch to the right leads to Miniscola, that to the left in 
a straight direction to Misenum. Both of these roads skirt the mar- 
gin of the shallow Mare Morto, part of the old harbour of Misenum, 
from which it has only recently been separated by the embankment 
which bears the road. The two basins are now connected by a narrow 
channel only, which is crossed by a bridge. 

In the time of Augustus a vast war-harbour was constructed at Mise- 
num by Agrippa, in connection with the works at the Lacus Avernus 
and the Lacus Lucrinus, in order to serve as a receptacle for theltoman 
fleet on this coast, like Ravenna in the Adriatic. The harbour consisted 
of three basins, two outer, one on each side of the promontory called 
Forno, and one inner, the present Mare Morto. The Punia di Peiuiata, 
a narrow promontory which bounds the harbour of Misenum on the N., 
was penetrated by a double subaqueous passage for the purpose of pre- 
venting the accumulation of sand at the entrance. A pier was also con- 
structed on pillars, three of which are still visible under water. Other 
relics of antiquity abound in the neighbourhood , but it is a difficult 
matter now to ascertain to what they belonged. Even the situation of 
the Town of Misenum is not precisely known , although it probably lay 
near the modern village of that name. Scanty remnants of a theatre are 
still traceable near the small promontory 11 Forno. Some ruins on the 
height above are supposed to belong to the once famous villa of Lncullus, 
afterwards the property of Tiberius, who died here, and subsequently 
that of Nero. The Orotia Dragonara, a long subterranean passage on 
the W. side of the promontory, with vaulted roof, supported by twelve 
pillars, is variously conjectured to have been a naval depot or a reser- 
voir for water. 

Beyond the above-mentioned bridge, t/ 4 M. from the bifurcation 
of the road, we pass a white powder-mill (smoking forbidden here), 
and soon reach ( ! /2 M.) the village of Miseno , situated at the foot 
of the cape, and proceed to the church. (Driving is not allowed 
beyond the village.) The ascent (to the top and back I-IV4 nr ' s 
fatiguing for ladies. A boy may be taken as guide ('in coppa', to 
the top). AVe follow the main road to the farm, a little before 
which we ascend to the right ; a steep and narrow path then leads 
to the summit through vineyards. 

The *Capo Miseno is an isolated mass of tufa-rock rising from 
the sea, which was formerly connected with the mainland only by 
the narrow Spiaggia di Miniscola (p. 102), extending towards the 
W. Its remarkable form gave rise to the belief that it was an arti- 
ficial tumulus of very ancient origin. Thus Virgil (JEn. vi. 232) de- 
scribes it as the burial-place of the trumpeter Misenus : — 
At plus jEneas ingenti mole sepulcrum 
Inponit, suaque anna viro remumque tubamque 
Monte sub aereo, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 
Dicitur aeternumqve tenet per saecula nomen. 

The summit (300 ft.) commands one of the most striking 
**Views in the environs of Naples (20 c. to proprietor). It embraces 
the bays of Naples and Gaeta and the surrounding heights, with 
the peculiarity that the spectator appears to stand in the midst of 
a complicated assemblage of straits, peninsulas, bays, lakes, and 
promontories. On the side next the sea rises a picturesque medieval 

102 Route 4. LAGO DEL FUSARO. Environs 

watch-tower ; another similar tower has recently been removed to 
make way for a lighthouse. 

Carriages return to where the road forks and follow the road 
passing to the N. of the Mare Morto. After ahout 1 / i M. the road 
again forks; we follow the branch to the right, leading between the 
Monte di Procida, a volcanic rock , covered with vineyards yielding 
excellent wine, and fragments of ancient villas, and the Monte de 
Salvatichi, to (i 3 /i M.) Torre di Gaveta and (2^. 2 M.) the Lago del 
Fusaro (see below). 

"Walkers cross the narrow strip of coast, about 1 M. in length, 
separating the sea (Canale di Procida) from the Mare Morto, called 
the Spiaggia di Miniscola, or Miliscola, a name which is said to he 
a corruption of Militis Schola ('military exercising-ground'). At the 
foot of the Monte di Procida, at the point where the road from Baja 
reaches it, is the landing-place (sbarcatojo) for boats to Procida 
(p. 104; iy 2 -2fr.). About i/ 3 M. to the N. is the junction of the 
above-mentioned carriage-road, to Torre di Gaveta and the Lago del 

The distance by Railway from Baja to the Lago del Fusaro is 
little more than 1 / 2 M. Immediately beyond Baja is a short tunnel. 

The Lago del Fusaro , perhaps once the harbour of Cumae, to 
which the poetical name of the Acherusian Lake is sometimes 
applied, is believed to occupy the crater of an extinct volcano. It is 
celebrated for its oysters. At the station is an unpretending Trat- 
toria, and 100 paces farther on is the entrance to the Ostricoltura, 
with a : ' : ftestaurant and pleasure-gardens, much frequented in spring 
and autumn (in summer open on Sun. only). In the lake, opposite 
the restaurant, is a pavilion or Casino, erected by Ferdinand I. 
(open to visitors). 

The railway ends, l l / i M. farther on, at the Torre di Qaveta, 
near which are the ruins of the villa of Servilius Vatia, who retired 
hither when Nero's folly and tyranny at Rome had become in- 

From the Lago del Fusaro a walk of ahout 3/ 4 hr. by the road 
running to the N. past the Ostricoltura brings us to Cumae. About 
1% M. from the station of Fusaro the road forks, the branch to 
the right leading to the Arco Felice (p. 103). In a vigna, about 
120 paces before this bifurcation, we observe to the right an ancient 
Amphitheatre with twenty-one tiers of seats, covered with earth and 
underwood. If we then follow the branch of the road to the left, 
and after 90 paces diverge from it, beside a large farm-yard, by a 
path to the left (last part steep), we are led in i / i hr. to the site of 
ancient — 

Cumse, Greek Cyme, the most ancient Greek colony in Italy, 
situated near the sea on a voloanic eminence (trachyte), which 
rises from the extensive plain between the Monte di Procida and 
the mouth of the Volturno. 

of Naples. CUM^E. 4. Route. 103 

The town is said to have been founded by iEolians from Asia Minor 
in B. C. 1050, or at an even earlier period. Cumae in its turn founded 
Dicaearchia, the modern Pozzuoli, and Palaeopolis, the modern Naples, and 
exercised the most widely extended influence on the civilisation of the 
Italian peninsula. All the different alphabets of Italy were derived from 
the CumEean ; and Cumae was the centre whence the Hellenic forms of 
worship, and with them Hellenic culture, became gradually diffused among 
the aboriginal tribes. Rome received the mysterious Sibylline books from 
Cumae, and the last of the Tarquinii died here in exile. The city, which 
once boasted of great wealth and commercial prosperity, was often seri- 
ously imperilled by the attacks of the neighbouring tribes, especially the 
Etruscans , who were signally defeated in a naval battle near Cumse , by 
Hiero of Syracuse, the ally of the citizens, B.C. 474. Pindar cel- 
ebrates this victory in the first Pythian ode , and a helmet of the en- 
emy dedicated at Olympia as a votive offering from the spoil was found 
there (now in the British Museum). At the close of the 5th cent. Cumae 
participated in the general decline of the Hellenistic towns. In 420 it was 
stormed by the Samnites, and in 337 taken by the Romans, after which 
it became a Roman municipium of little importance. Under the emperors 
it fell entirely to decay, but was restored by the Goths. In the 9th cent, 
it was burned by the Saracens , and in the 13th it was finally destroyed 
as a stronghold of pirates by the inhabitants of Naples and Aversa. 

Fragments of the huge external walls of the former * Acropolis 
are still standing. Beautiful prospect thence towards the sea, 
Gaeta, and the Ponza Islands, and (to the left) of the Lago Fusaro, 
Ischia, etc. Extensive remains of the ancient fortifications are 
preserved, especially on the E. side and by the S. entrance. The 
rock on which this castle stood is perforated in every direction 
with passages and shafts. One of these (descend to the left by the 
hut), with numerous lateral openings and subterranean passages, is 
thought to correspond with the description given by Virgil (.(En. 
vi. 41) of the Grotto of the Sibyl, which had a hundred entrances 
and as many issues, 'whence resound as many voices, the oracles 
of the prophetess'. The principal entrance is on the side of the 
hill towards the sea, but most of the passages are blocked up. It 
is believed that one of the passages leads to a large, dark cavern 
in the direction of the Lago del Fusaro. Numerous interesting and 
valuable objects found here are now preserved at Naples (p. 70), 
Paris, and St. Petersburg. — The form of the temples of Apollo, 
Diana, the Giants, and Serapis, where excavations have brought 
sculptures and columns to light, is not now traceable. The scanty 
ruins are concealed by vineyards and underwood. 

On the return we follow the road, mentioned on p. 1(12, leading to 
the Arco Felice. After about 400 yds . an ancient paved way diverges 
to the right to a subterranean vaulted passage, called the Qrotta della Pace 
(after Pietro della Pace, a Spaniard who explored it in the 16th cent.). 
It was constructed by Agrippa for the purpose of affording direct commun- 
ication between Cumae and the Lacus Avernus. This tunnel is upwards 
of '/jM. in length, and is lighted at intervals by shafts from above. The 
entrance is closed by a gate (admission 1 / 2 fr.). The floor is covered 
with deep fine sand. The tunnel debouches on the N.W. bank of the 
Lacus Avernus (p. 9S). 

About 400 yds. farther the road, still showing traces of the ancient 
pavement, passes beneath the Arco Felice, a huge structure of brickwork, 
U3 ft. high and 18'/2 ft. wide, spanning a hollow. On the summit are traces 
of an aqueduct. The arch may have been exclusively destined for the 

104 Route 5. PROCIDA. 

latter purpose, or it may also have carried a road over the higher ground. 
A few min. later the way joins a broad road which follows the top of 
the E. margin of the Lago Averno and then descends to (30-35 min.) 
the railway-station of Arco Felice (p. 9?). 

5. Procida and Ischia. 

Comp. the Map. 

Steamboat from Pozzuoli to Procida and Ischia in connection with 
the Ferrovia Cumana (p. 91), twice daily in l'/2hr.; fares: from Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele (Naples) to Casamicciola, 3fr. 45, 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 40 c, 
return-ticket 5 fr. 20, 4 fr. 20, 2 fr. 15 c; from Pozzuoli to Casamicciola, 
1st and 2nd cl. 2 fr. 35, 3rd cl. 1 fr. 20, return, 3 fr. 45, 1 fr. 80 c. In 
addition 5 c. passenger-duty is charged on each ticket. Return-tickets are 
valid for four days. — Procida and the towns of Ischia and Forio are also 
touched at by the Mail Steamers to the Ponza Islands (p. 14, leaving the 
Immacolatella at Naples, where they lie alongside the quay, on Mon. and 
Thurs. mornings., returning from Ischia on Tues. and Frid. afternoons). 
— The voyage from Naples to Procida takes l'/2 hr. ; to Ischia 2>/2 hrs. ; 
to Forio 3'/2 hrs. — Embarking or landing at Pozzuoli is free; at Procida, 
Ischia, or Casamicciola 15 c. ; the boatmen are rarely satisfied with this 
tariff, but their importunities should be disregarded. 

The most convenient arrangement for visiting these islands varies 
with the hour at which the start is made from Naples. Travellers who 
start early in the morning, have ample time to visit Procida and reach 
Ischia the same day. — Those who land at Procida , ascend to the fort 
for the sake of the view, and then either traverse the island lengthwise 
to the bay of Chiajolella (2 M.), where boats are found for the crossing to 
Porto a" Ischia; or they may go on by the afternoon steamer to Casamicciola. 
Those who omit Procida need not start from Naples until the afternoon. 
Next morning drive to Fontana (one-horse can 1 , from Casamicciola in 4, 
from Porto d'Ischia in 3 hrs.), whence Monte Epomeo can easily be ascend- 
ed in 3 /4 hr. It is even possible by making a very early start to return 
to Naples the same day; but a longer visit is strongly recommended. From 
Casamicciola to Forio, see p. 107. 

A rowing-boat takes 6 hrs. to cross from Ischia to Capri in fine wea- 
ther (20 fr.). 

Procida, the Prochyta or Prochyte of the ancients, like its 
sister island Ischia, with which it appears once to have been con- 
nected, is of volcanic origin, being composed of pumice-stone 
and lava. It consists of two contiguous craters, which now form 
two semicircular bays, their S. margins having been destroyed 
by the action of the sea. A third and smaller crater forms 
the creek of Chiajolella, and a fourth the neighbouring island 
of Vivara, which has been separated from Procida by some con- 
vulsion of nature. The island is 2 M. in length, and of varying 
width; population 14,000, whose occupations are fishing and the 
cultivation of the vine and other fruit. The surface is somewhat 
flat compared with that of its more majestic sister isle. 

As the island of Procida is approached, the most conspicuous 
object is the fort, situated on the Punta di Rocciola, the N.E. ex- 
tremity. Below lies the town of Procida, extending along the N. 
coast, partly built on the higher ground above, and stretching 
thence towards the S. side. The white, glistening houses with 
their flat roofs present a somewhat Oriental aspect. The chief festi- 
vals on the island are St. Michael's Day (29th Sept.) and 8th May. 

PROCIDA. 5. Route. 105 

The landing-place ('Marina') is on the N. side. In order to reach 
the castle we follow the main street of the village {Albergo del Fiori, 
primitive], which ascends to the left by the Carre del Commercio at 
the W. end of the Marina, and take the first side-street to the left. 
This leads to the small Piazza dei Martiri, with a tablet in memory 
of twelve Procidans who were executed during the reaction of 1799 
(fine view towards the S.). In u min. more we reach the Castle, 
now a house of correction, situated on a precipitous rock, and com- 
manding fine *Views of ProcidaandtheEpomeo, Capo Miseno, Capri, 
Vesuvius, and the peninsula of Sorrento. 

The above-mentioned main street intersects the town from E. 
to W., and is prolonged to the left by the 'Strada Yittorio Ema- 
nuele', which runs between garden-walls and rows of houses, and 
traverses the whole island towards the S.W. In 40 min. we reach 
the Bay of Chiajolella, situated below the old chateau of S. Mar- 
garita, and near the small olive -clad island of Vivara. At the 
Chiajolella boats for the passage to Ischia are always to be found 
( 3 / 4 hr. ; fare 2 fr.). As soon as we have passed Vivara, we obtain 
a view of Ischia with its beautiful hills, commanded by the summit 
of the Epomeo, with the town and castle of Ischia in the foreground. 

Ischia, the Pithecusa, Mnaria, or Inarime of antiquity, and 
the mediaeval Iscla, the largest island near Naples, is about 19 M. 
in circumference, without taking the numerous indentations into 
account, and has about 20.000 inhabitants, who are principally 
engaged in the culture of the vine (white wine, light and slightly 
acid) and other fruit, and to a certain extent in fishing. The 
manufacture of Mattoni, a kind of tiles, and other articles from a 
variety of grey clay (creta) found in the island, is of great an- 
tiquity. Straw-plaiting has recently been considerably developed 
at Lacco (p. 107). The island was almost entirely neglected by 
travellers after the severe earthquake of 1883, but visitors are now 
beginning to find their way back to the mineral springs, which 
still retain their efficacy. The climate is genial, the soil extremely 
productive ; the scenery almost everywhere singularly beautiful, 
though only seen in its full glory in summer. The entire island 
is of volcanic origin. Monte Epomeo (the ancient Epomeus, or Epo- 
peus) was an active volcano at a much earlier period than Vesu- 
vius, and in consequence of its eruptions the island was deserted 
in B. C. 474 by the greater number of the Greek inhabitants. 
Eruptions also took place in B.C. 92, and in the reigns of Titus, 
Antoninus Pius, and Diocletian. According to the ancient poets, 
the giant Typhceus, transfixed by the thunderbolt of Jupiter, lay 
buried beneath this mountain, like Enceladus under yEtna, period- 
ically groaning and causing fearful eruptions of fire. The last 
eruption recorded took place in 1302. The stream of lava which 
on that occasion descended to the sea near Ischia is not yet wholly 

106 Route 5. ISCHIA. Environs 

covered with vegetation. The earthquake of 28th July 1883 dis- 
placed a large mass from the mountain. 

After the fall of Rome Ischia suffered many attacks and devastations 
at the hands of the different lords of Italy, especially the Saracens in 813 
and 847, the Pisans in 1135, and the Emp. Henry VI. and his son 
Frederick II. In 1282 it revolted with Sicily against the Anjou dynasty, 
hut was subdued by Charles II. of Naples in 1299, and has since been 
united with the kingdom and shared its vicissitudes. The celebrated 
general, the Marchess Pescara, was born in 1489 at the castle of Ischia, 
which was afterwards gallantly defended by his sister Constance against 
the forces of Louis XII. of France. As a reward, her family were invested 
with the governorship of Ischia, which they retained till 1734. In 1525 
Pescara's widow, Vittoria Colonna, celebrated alike for her talent and 
beauty, the poetical friend of Michael Angelo, retired to Ischia to mourn 
her husband's loss. So too Maria of Aragon in 1548, widow of the Mar- 
chese del Vasto. 

Ischia, the capital of the island, with 7000 inhah., and the 
seat of a bishop , stretches picturesquely along the shore in the 
form of a street, 1 M. in length, extending from the Castle on its 
lofty isolated rock on the S. to the Punta Molina on the N. The 
castle, erected by Alphonso V. of Aragon (Alphonso I. of Naples) 
about 1450 , afterwards the residence of Vittoria Colonna [see 
above), and connected with the land by a stone pier (280 ft. in 
length) , deserves a visit for the sake of the *View from the roof 
(20-30 c). 

From Ischia a good road skirts the whole N. coast of the is- 
land, passing Porto d'Ischia and Oasamicciola, to (7 M.) Forio, 
which is situated on the "W. coast, and thence to the Monte Im- 
peratore. It is to be conducted round the S. side of the island to 
Moropano, the present terminus of the new road from Ischia. From 
the landing-place at Ischia we follow the road to the right in a 
straight direction, crossing the Lava dell' Arso, or lava-stream of 
1302. About 1 M. from Ischia we reach — 

Porto d'Ischia (Grand Hotel Fasolini, definite bargain advisable ; 
Hotel-Pension S. Pietro, on the Punta S. Angelo or S. Pietro, fac- 
ing the sea; Cafe Angarella ; Cafe Isolano, both well spoken of ; 
Cafe del Viaggiatori ; Cafe Epomeo ; all also restaurants, with rooms), 
also called Bagno d'Ischia, from several warm salt springs, which 
are used at different bathing establishments. In the piazza, close to 
the harbour, are the large Bathing Establishment, and a royal park 
and casino (now a bath). The harbour, the circular shape of which 
denotes that it occupies an old crater, was at one time a lake, but 
it was connected with the sea in 1853-56 in order to afford refuge 
to vessels in stormy weather. Excursion to Moropano and ascent 
of Monte Epomeo see p. 107. 

The road ('Via Quercia') ascends to the left by a yellow church 
with Ionic columns, being accompanied by the telegraph-wires, and 
commanding a beautiful view of the coast and the sea. About 
1 l /-2 M. farther we reach — 

Casamicciola. — Hotels. "Hotel Pit^cusa, E. 3, B. l'/z, dej. 3, 
D.4!/2, pens. 10 fr., cheaper for a longer stay, well spoken of; Hotel du 

of Naples. ISOHIA. 5. Route. 107 

Vesove, R. 3 fr., L. 40 c, A. 1/2, B. l'/j, dej. 21/2,' D. 4, pens. 7-8 fr.; Villa 
Balsamo, Grande Senti.nella, both higher up, the latter 1 M. from the 
sea; Piccola Sentinella, new. — Restaurant des Strangers , on the beach, 

Carriage with one horse, on the quay, l'/2 fr. per hr. — Donkey, 1 fr. 
per hr. (bargain advisable). 

Casamicciola , formerly a little town with 4500 inhab., fre- 
quented by Italians and foreigners as a summer-resort on ac- 
count of its charming situation on the N. slopes of the Epomeo and 
its warm alkaline and saline springs. The terrible earthquake of 
28th July 1883, however, in which about 7500 lives were lost, laid 
it almost entirely in ruins. The church, the bath-houses, and the 
Monte della Misericordia hospital were laid in shattered heaps, and 
most of the few houses that remained standing suffered severely. 
The rebuilding of the town is superintended by a Comitato di Ri- 
sorgimento; and by order of government the new houses are all built 
of light timber and plaster work. A wide street is to be constructed 
along the shore. Several Baths have been reopened ; but many of 
the townspeople still live in the wooden huts hastily erected after 
the disaster. A visit to the scene of the calamity takes 1-2 hrs. ; the 
coachman should be directed to drive to the upper part of the former 
town, in which the earthquake was most severely felt. The hill com- 
mands a fine view. A visit may also be paid to the new Campo 
Siinto, at the foot of the Monte Rotaro, to the E., where the victims 
of the earthquake of 1883 are buried. 

The road continues along the slope a little longer, and then 
descends to Lacco, a village where the earthquake was much less 
disastrous. At the beginning of the village, to the left, is the 
School of Straw-plaiting (tasteful specimens for sale; conip. p. 26); 
farther on is situated the church of Sta. Restituta , the patroness of 
the island, whose festival (17th May) is celebrated by the illumi- 
nation of the neighbouring Monte Vico. Near the former monastery 
and in the garden attached to it rise hot springs which are used for 
vapour-baths. A huge rock in the sea, near the village, is named 
'il Fungo' from its shape. 

The road leads above an ancient lava-stream (snakes abundant) 
from Lacco to (3 M.) Forlo, the most populous place in the island, 
with upward of 7000 inhabitants. The Ponza steamers (p. 104) touch 
here. The Franciscan monastery by the sea merits a visit on account 
of the beauty of its situation. Fine view of the Monte Epomeo and 
the Punta Irnperatore, the S.W. extremity of the island. 

The Ascent op the Epomeo (horse or donkey 4-5 fr. and fee), 
occupying 2'/2-3 hrs., may be undertaken from any of the principal 
towns, but is most conveniently accomplished from Porto d'Ischia 
or from Casamicciola (one-horse carr. to Fontana from Porto d'Ischia 
3, from Casamicciola 4 hrs.; provisions should betaken). The road 
from Porto d'Ischia crosses the Lava dell'Arso (p. 106 J, the 
course of which is still distinctly visible above, and leads first 

108 Route 6. PORTICI. 

through pine-woods and then through luxuriant vineyards and 
orchards to Barano, beyond which we enjoy a fine survey of the 
sea and the fertile island. "We then cross a gorge and reach Moro- 
pano, and then For tana. An easy footpath (guide not necessary) 
leads hence to the summit in 3 / 4 hr. — The **Epomeo (2782 ft.) falls 
away on the N. side almost perpendicularly, hut is less steep on the 
other three sides. At the top are a Hermitage and the Chapel of S. 
Nicola, hewn in the volcanic rock, from which the mountain is also 
called Monte S. Nicola. Wine and bread (bargaining necessary) may 
be obtained from the hermit, and in any case a trilling donation is 
expected. Passages and steps cut in the rock ascend to the Belvedere, 
commanding a strikingly beautiful panorama, embracing the bays 
of Gaeta and Naples. At our feet lies the island of Ischia itself; 
to the W. the open sea; to the E. the coast of Italy from Terra- 
cina , the promontory of Circello, and the Ponza islands to Capo 
Miseno, Vesuvius, and the Capo Campanella, the extremity of the 
peninsula of Sorrento ; in the foreground Procida, then the inden- 
tations of the Bay of Naples, to the right the island of Capri; to- 
wards the N. the distant snowy peaks of the Abruzzi. — The descent 
to Casamicciola or to Forio takes 2-2 '/g h rs - 

6. From Naples to Pompeii (and Salerno). 

Railway to Pompeii, 15 M., in 50 min.; fares 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 10 c. 
(return-tickets 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 10, 1 fr. 85 c). — High-road, see p. 111. 

The railway from Naples to Pompeii , and thence to Salerno 
and Metaponto (best views to the right), traverses the suburbs 
and crosses the insignificant Sebeto, a stream which bounds Naples 
on the E. The large red building on the right is the Granili, 
used as barracks and (as the name imports) corn -magazines. 
Beyond these we obtain a retrospect of the Castel S. Elmo. 
This district is densely peopled ; the first village is the straggling 
S. Giovanni a Teduccio. To the right the view becomes less cir- 
cumscribed; and Naples, thePosilipo, beyond which rise the moun- 
tains of Ischia, the island of Capri opposite , and the peninsula 
of Sorrento are now visible. 

5 M. Portici. — Hotel. Bellevoe, R. 2-5, pens. 8-10 fr. — Trattoria. 
Asso di CorPA, clean, cuisine well spoken of. 

Tramway to Naples see p. 22 (Nos. 2, 3). 

Portici, a town with 12,500 inhab., is also the station for Be- 
sina (see p. 109). It has a small harbour formed by t a molo, from 
the end of which a fine view is obtained of the bay. The high- 
road from Naples to Salerno traverses the town, and also leads 
through the court of the palace built by Charles III. in 1738. 
In the somewhat neglected park of the latter is now a school of 
agriculture. — Continuation of the Railway Journey, see p. 110. 

RESINA. e. Route. 109 

Adjoining Portici , immediately beyond the palace , are the 
houses of Resina, a town with 13,000 inhah., built upon the lava- 
streams which cover the ancient Herculaneum. About i / i M. beyond 
the palace, and 200 paces beyond the office of the Vesuvius guides, 
immediately on this side of a viaduct crossing the Vicolo di Mare, 
and to the right of the high-road, is the entrance to the excavations. 
— Distance thither from the railway-station of Portici 2 / 3 M. (guide 
unnecessary). On leaving the station we follow the main street to 
the right, and after 7 min. turn to the left ('Linea Daziaria del Co- 
mune di Resina'); in 5 min. more, near the palace of Portici (on 
the left) we reach the above-mentioned high-road, which we follow 
to the right. Over the entrance is the inscription, ; Scavi di Erco- 
lano'. Admission 2 fr., for which the visitor is provided with a 
guide (no fees) ; on Sundays gratis. 

Herculaneum, the Heracleia of the Greeks, derived its name from the 
worship of Hercules peculiar to the place. Tradition attributed its 
foundation to the hero himself, who during his wanderings in the West 
visited this district. It was inhabited by Oscans, the aboriginal natives 
of the country, by Etruscans, and by Samnites , before it became subject 
to Eome. Owing to its salubrious situation on a height, between two 
rivers, and being near the sea, it became a favourite site for Roman 
villas. The spot retained its name even after the total annihilation of the 
town by the eruption of 79. A number of poor families then took up their 
abode here, but in 472 their village was again destroyed by an eruption, 
which altered the configuration of the whole coast. Subsequent eruptions 
increased the depth of ashes and lava under which the old town was 
buried to 40-100 ft. , that being the depth of the remains at the present 
day below the surface of the soil. The discovery of Herculaneum took 
place in 1719. Prince d'Elbceuf of Lorraine, whilst erecting a casino at 
Portici, caused a well to be dug to supply it with water. This led to the 
discovery, at a depth of about 90 ft., of the ancient theatre. The excava- 
tions were then discontinued, but in 1737 Charles III., when engaged in 
erecting a palace at Portici, recommenced operations, which were unfor- 
tunately directed by unskilful hands and led to no satisfactory result; nor 
was it an easy task to remove the thick layer of ashes, that had hardened 
into tuffstone, especially as the buildings and streets of Portici and Ke- 
sina were thereby undermined. In 1750 a long, narrow passage was hewn 
through the rock, leading to the theatre, which lies 69 ft. below the level 
of the street, and this is the entrance at the present day. In 1755 the 
Accademia Ercolanese was instituted for the investigation of the antiquities 
discovered, and under their auspices was published the 'Antichita d'Erco- 
lano' in 9 vols. (Napoli, 1757-1792), which caused immense sensation in 
the learned world. The excavations progressed more favourably under the 
French kings Joseph Napoleon (1806-8) and Joachim Murat (1808-15). Under 
the Bourbons operations were suspended till 1828. Many of the most interest- 
ing objects were excavated and again covered; thus the theatre, part of 
the forum with its colonnades, a colonnade (erroneously called a basilica), 
resembling the building ofEumachia at Pompeii (p. 128), various temples, 
a large villa, in which were found most (and by far the finest) of the 
bronzes now in the museum at Naples, as well as the 3000 papyrus-rolls 
(p. 71), private houses, etc. The later excavations of the Italian govern- 
ment have as yet attained no great result, though in due time, doubtless, 
a number of interesting discoveries may confidently be expected, as the 
mantle of lava has successfully repulsed the ancients in their search for 
objects of value. 

From the entrance we are first conducted down a dark flight 
of more than a hundred steps to the Theatre, of which an accurate 

110 Route 6. HERCULANEUM. From Naples 

idea is not easily formed by the light of the flickering candle. 
Owing to the buttresses built to support the rock above, the 
place rather resembles a profoundly dark subterranean labyrinth. 
It contained four broad tiers or steps for the chairs of the more 
dignified spectators, above which were sixteen tiers of seats in six 
compartments (cunei) : between these, seven flights of steps as- 
cended to a broad corridor, above which were three more tiers 
of seats. The number of spectators cannot have exceeded 3000. 
The orchestra lies 85 ft. below the level of the modern Resina, 
and is faintly lighted from above through the shaft of the well 
which was the occasion of the discovery. One inscription records that 
L. Annius Mammianus Rufus erected the theatre, another that 
Numisius, son of Publius, was the architect. On each side of the 
proscenium are pedestals for honorary statues, with inscriptions. 
A visit to the buildings brought to light by the Scavi Nuovi 
of 1828 to 1837, and resumed in 1868, is of far higher interest. 
We are conducted by the custodian down the Vicolo di Mare 
(p. 109) for 4 min. ; the entrance is by an iron gate to the left. 
A street, part of a large private house, and several houses used for 
trading purposes have been excavated here. They lie 40 ft. below 
the present surface, and the different layers of the superincumbent 
lava are readily distinguished. The houses with their fittings and 
decorations resemble those of Pompeii. The building-material is 
a yellow tufa from Mte. Somma, of very soft consistency, which 
accounts for the thickness of the walls. The garden of the principal 
house, that of the Argus, is one of the most interesting objects. 
It is enclosed by an arcade of twenty columns and six buttresses. 
To the right of it is a triclinium with a painting (not now visible) 
of Mercury before ATgus and Io, from which the house derives its 
name. Towards the sea, the proximity of which at that period is 
indicated by the rapid descent of the street, are situated magazines, 
three stories in height, and well preserved. 

Near Portici we enjoy a fine view from the railway of the Bay 
of Naples with the Castello dell' Ovo and Pizzofalcone, commanded 
by Camaldoli ; in the background the Capo Miseno and the moun- 
tains of Ischia. Farther on, to the left, "Vesuvius and Resina. 
The train skirts the coast and traverses the huge lava-stream of 
1794, 38 ft. in thickness and 700 yds. in breadth. 

7'/-2 M. Torre del Greco. — Hotels. *Eden Hotel, a large new 
building, well fitted up and comfortably heated, etc., frequented in winter 
by foreigners, and during the sea-bathing season by Italians, R., L., & 
A. 5-12, B. li/2, dej. 3'/2, D- 6 (both incl. wine), pens. 9-18 fr. — Pension 
Fkaxcaise Legeand, new; Pension Belvedeke, Pension Suisse, both in 
the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, pens. 6-7 fr.; Hotel-Pension dd Vescve, in 
the Villa Vallelunga, pens. 6-8 fr. — Restaurant, at the tramway-ter- 
minus (p. 22). 

Torre del Greco , a flourishing town with 25,000 inhabitants, 
stands on the lava-stream of 1631 , which destroyed two-thirds 

Ponte delta 2IaddaleTiti^*J~ *-' '* 









f^' ■ 3fo*«jj\j£ 

S. Giovanni a Teduccio^WV^^ji^Y^^^ti '. 

Fonder ia 3i^j 



Holn -/,-/ GranateTlei 

Fabbrica. di 'Vktrt^l 


Fortino di. Gzlastr(t\&$ 






Scala nel 1:100.000 

Chilom c t 


*"ffi /.are del LS71-72 Lave pik antUh£ . 

_M>brevLaarioni : B.Soeca,. ('. Cap o, KM" Madonna , T^Villu. 

to Pompeii. TORRE ANNUNZIATA. 6. Route. Ill 

of the older town. The lava-streams of 1737 and 1794 also caused 
great damage. The earthquake of 1857, and particularly the 
eruption of 8th Dec. 1861, proved still more destructive. On 
this last occasion eleven small openings were formed immediately 
ahove the town, whence vast showers of ashes were precipitated, 
while the shore in the vicinity was upheaved to the extent of 
3 ft., causing the ruin of many houses. Although the entire base 
of Vesuvius as far as Torre Annunziata is covered with traces 
of similar catastrophes, yet the inhabitants appear never to be 
deterred from rebuilding their dwellings, a circumstanoe which 
has given rise to the jesting saying of the Neapolitans, 'Napoli fa i 
peccati e la Torre li paga'. In June the great popular festival 'Dei 
Quattro Altarf is annually celebrated here, in commemoration of the 
abolition of the feudal dominion in 1700. Every April a large fleet 
of boats leaves Torre del Greco for the coral-fishery off the coasts 
of Africa and Sicily, returning in November. 

The line intersects Torre del Greco (to the right a small har- 
bour], and then skirts the sea. To the left the monastery of Ca- 
maldoli delta Torre is visible, standing on an isolated volcanic peak 
at the base of Vesuvius, and thus protected against lava-streams. 

After passing another stream of lava, the train reaches — 
12i/ 2 M. Torre Annunziata, Citth station, a prosperous town of 
17,000 inhab., with a small harbour and an office of the Vesuvius 
guides (Agenzia delle Guide del Vesuvio e di Pompei, Via Ventidue 
Febbraio, CaseCosco; see p. 112). A beautiful glimpse is disclosed 
here of the bay of Castellammare with the town, commanded by Monte 
S. Angelo, the summit of which is crowned by the chapel of S. 
Michele; beyond it Vico Equense, in the distance Sorrento. 

131/2 M. Torre Annunziata, Central station, the junction for 
the railways from Caserta to Castellammare (p. 10), and from 
Naples to Gragnano (p. 143) via, Castellammare. 

The Pompeii train now proceeds inland towards the S. E., and 
on the left the partially overgrown heaps of ashes thrown up by 
the excavations soon become visible. 

15 M. Pompeii, see p. 119. 

Continuation of the line to Salerno, see R. 10. 

High Road prom Naples to Pompeii. 

n „d ^ e ,Si GH E f., AD fr0m ? aples (0 Pom P eii ^ also still much frequented, 
and in cool weather may be recommended as a route as far as Portici 

Pntlv ,?ln»;.^ t ra 'i wa y- s t ,ations at Na P les and Portici are inconveni- 

fT ' i„ , la I , * Jf * he } 0t Sea90n the du8t is extremely unpleasant. 

nn 22 B inq^ e T £° m ^ PiaMa deI """^Pio to Eesina, see 

pp. J2, 1U9; tramway to Torre del Greco, see p. 23.) 

The road, which traverses the busy and bustling E. suburb of 
Naples, leaves the town near the Castello del Carmine, skirts the 
jMarinella, and crosses the Sebeto by the Ponte delta Maddalena 
passing the barracks of the Granili (p. 108) to the right It then 

112 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 

leads alsng the coast, which, however, is so covered with villas and 
other houses that the route is more like a long street than a country 
road. Maccaroni hung out to dry is seen on every side. The first 
village reached is S. Giovanni a Teduccio, which is adjoined on the 
left by the small town of La Barra, a favourite summer-resort. 
We next reach Portici (p. 103) and Resina (p. 109), which stretch 
along the road for a distance of 2 M., the boundary between them 
being immediately beyond the royal palace, through the court of 
which the road passes. At the beginning of Resina on the left is the 
office for the Vesuvius guides (see below). On the right, farther 
on, is the entrance to the excavations of Herculaneum (p. 109), 
beyond which the road to Vesuvius diverges to the left (see p. 116). 
We next pass the chateau of Favorita on the right, with a fine 
park, now in the possession of the ex-khedive Ismail Pasha (no ad- 

As far as Torre del Greco (p. 110) the road runs between 
houses and garden-walls , but farther on it commands an unim- 
peded view. Torre Annunziata, see p. 111. The drive from 
Naples to Pompeii takes 2-3 hrs. (carr. and pair 20 fr.). Pompeii, 
see p. 119. 

7. Mount Vesuvius. 

The expedition to Vesuvius, for which bright weather is desirable, 
takes an entire day. The great majority of travellers avail themselves 
of the arrangements of Afesfrs. Thomas Cook & Son (p. £0), who convey travel- 
lers to the top of the cone and back for 25 fr. each; that charge including 
the Drive from Naples to the foot of the cone (4 his.) and back (2'/2 his.), 
the ascent and descent by the Wire Rope Railway (3 hrs. including stay at 
the top), services of a guide, and all gratuities and fees, except for extra 
conveniences (p. 118). Tickets should be taken the day before. The con- 
veyances start from the Piazza dei Martiri at 8.S0 a. m. in winter and 
at 7 a. m. in summer. Travellers or parties who desire to keep by 
themselves pay the following rates: 1 pers. 45 fr., 2 pers. 29 fr. each, 3 pers. 
(one on the box-seat) 26 fr., 4 or 5 pers. (the fifth on the box-seat), 25 fr. 
as above; these may order the carriage to call for them at their hotel at 
auy convenient hour. No large luggage is allowed; and provisions are 
also forbidden, on the ground of 'octroi formalities', so that the travellers 
must rely on the restaurant at the wire-rope railway (p. 117) to satisfy 
their bodily wants. — Expeditions at night, arranged only between Apiil 
and November, and for parties of not less than five, cost more, and 
should be carefully arranged in detail beforehand. When Vesuvius is 
covered with snow, Cook's excursions are suspended. 

It is not advisable to drive to Vesuvius in carriages not belonging 
to Messrs. Cook, for in that case each person pays 18 fr. for the railway 
ticket alone, besides 5 fr. (exacted also from walkers) for the use of the 
proprietary carriage-road leading to the lower station (p. 117). 

A much less expensive way of making the ascend is to avoid the 
railway and its neighbourhood altogether, and to ascend on foot or on 
horseback, either from Resina on the W. side, or from Torre Annunziata 
or Pompeii on the S. side. There are guide offices at the two first-named 
places, wheie the tariff for guides and horses maybe seen (comp. pp. 109, 
111). The shameless attacks on the traveller's pu;se, once common, have 
been much mitigated owing to the competition of Messrs. Cook. The 
charges at present are: guide 5 fr., horse or mule 5 fr., horse boy 2 fr., 
and fee. It is quite unnecessary to provide a horse for the guide. Ex- 

MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 113 

press stipulations should be made beforehand that the guide shall carry 
the provisions and shall conduct the traveller to all the points of interest. 
The charges are less from Pompeii, where the innkeepers provide guides 
and horses (e. g. guide and horse from the Albergo del Sole, 5 fr.). — 
The ascent without a guide presents no difficulties to practised pedestrians, 
though the scaling of the final cone is fatiguing (coinp. p. 113). But 
travellers should on, no account approach the crater alone. 

A good popular account of the volcano is given in Prof. J. Logan 
Lobley's 'Mt. Vesuvius' (London; 1889). 

Mount Vesuvius , sometimes called Vesevus by ancient poets 
(e. g. by Lucretius and Virgil), rises in isolated majesty from the 
Campanian plain, near the sea. The height varies, according to 
the different effects of the eruptions , from 3900 to 4300 ft. ; 
in 1845 the height was 3900 ft., and in 1868 it had increased 
to 4255 ft. ; it -was somewhat diminished by the eruption of 1872, 
but is now steadily increasing. The N.E. side of the mountain is 
named Monte Somma, of which the highest peak is the Punta del 
Nasone (3730 ft.). A deep sickle-shaped valley, the Atrio del Ca- 
vallo, separates Somma from Vesuvius proper, which consists of a 
cone of ashes with the crater in the centre, the 'Forge of Vulcan'. 
The summit is also liable to constant change after eruptions ; at 
present there are two openings, the Cratere Centrale and the Cratere 
Nuovo. The mountain rises from the sea at an angle of 10°, while 
the cone itself has a gradient of 30-35°. Monte Somma descends 
almost perpendicularly to the Atrio del Oavallo, but slopes very 
gradually down to the plain (3°). 

Vesuvius in Ancient Times. Vesuvius forms the S.E. ex- 
tremity, and has for the last three centuries been the only active 
crater, of a highly volcanic district, which includes Ischia, Procida, 
the Solfatara , and the Monte Nuovo. The case was reversed in 
ancient times , as we are informed by the geographer Strabo 
(Bk. v., chap. 4), who lived in the time of Augustus: 'Mount 
Vesuvius is covered with beautiful meadows, with the exception 
of the summit. The latter is indeed for the most part level, but 
quite sterile ; for it has an appearance like ashes , and shows 
rugged rocks of sooty consistency and colour, as if they had 
been consumed by fire. One might conclude from this that the 
mountain had once burned, and possessed fiery abysses, and had 
become extinguished when the material was spent. And just 
from this cause its fertility may arise , as in the case of Catania 
the eruption of ashes from Mtna, renders it so productive of 
wine'. About fifty years later, in the time of Nero, A. D. 63, 
the volcanic nature of the mountain manifested itself by a fearful 
earthquake , which destroyed a great part of the prosperous en- 
virons, and seriously damaged Herculaneum and Pompeii. This 
was repeated at Naples in 64 , and again at intervals till the 
reign of Titus, when, on 24th Aug. 79, the first (recorded) 
eruption took place with appalling fury , and overhelmed Pom- 
peii, Herculaneum, Stabise, and other villages of this smiling 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. 8 

114 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Eruptions. 

district. On that occasion, it would appear, the peak now called 
Vesuvius was formed. Previously it had been a rounded crater ; 
the S. side, where Vesuvius now rises, having been the lowest. 
The naturalist Pliny, then in command of a section of the fleet 
stationed at Misenum, also perished on this occasion. He had 
ventured as far as Stabiae, both as an observer and for the purpose 
of rendering aid to the distressed, when he was suffocated by 
ashes and exhalations. His nephew, the younger Pliny, in two 
letters (Bp. vi. 16, 20) to his friend the historian Tacitus, gives 
a graphic description of this fearful phenomenon. He mentions the 
premonitory earthquakes, day turned into night, the extraordinary 
agitation of the sea, the dense clouds overhanging land and sea, 
and riven by incessant flashes of lightning, the emission of fire 
and ashes, the descent of streams of lava, and the universal terror 
of men, who believed the end of the world had arrived. A similar 
description is given of an eruption in the reign of Alex. Severus, 
A.D. 222, by Dion Cassius (lxvi. 23), who describes how the clouds 
which hovered over the mountain assumed the form of awful co- 
lossal figures. The eruptions of Vesuvius have been repeated at 
intervals with varying violence, down to the present day. The next 
took place in 203, under Septimius Severus, and another in 472, 
sending its showers of ashes as far as Constantinople. 

Vesuvius in Modern Times. Down to the year 1500 nine 
eruptions are recorded , and from that date to the present time 
fifty. The mountain has been known to be quiescent for centuries 
in succession, while at other periods its activity has been al- 
most uninterrupted, e. g. from 1717 to 1737. From 1500 to 
1631 Vesuvius was quiescent, while in 1538 the Monte Nuovo 
was upheaved near Pozzuoli, and jEtna was labouring without 
intermission. During that period Vesuvius was entirely covered 
with wood and bushes, like the deer park of Astroni at the 
present day, and cattle grazed peacefully within the crater. After 
this lull, on 16th Dec, 1631, came a most terrific eruption, the 
first of which we possess detailed accounts. A huge cloud of 
smoke and ashes rising in a conical form , cast a profound 
gloom over Naples in the middle of the day, and extended 
with incredible rapidity over the southern portion of Italy , as 
far as Tarentum. Heavy stones were thrown to a distance of 
15 M. (one which fell at the village of Somma being 25 tons 
in weight) , while the earth was convulsed by violent earth- 
quakes , and seven streams of lava poured from the summit, 
overwhelming Bosco, Torre Annunziata, Torre del Greco, Re- 
sina, and Portici. No fewer than 3000 persons perished on that 
occasion. An eruption in 1707 was of a very alarming nature, 
lasting from May to August, and covering Naples with dense show- 
ers of ashes, to the terror of the citizens. The eruptions of 1737, 
1760, and 1767 emitted considerable quantities of lava and scoriae 

Eruptions. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 115 

which in 1767 descended on Portici , and even reached Naples. 
One of the most stupendous of these phenomena took place in 
Aug. 1779, when a vast number of red-hot stones were hurled to 
a height of 2000 ft., spreading terror among the inhabitants far 
and wide. The lava eruption of 1794 was even more fatal in its 
effects, the streams precipitating themselves into the sea by Torre 
del Greco ; upwards of 400 lives were lost, and the ashes were car- 
ried as far as Chieti andTaranto. Eruptions during the present cen- 
tury took place in 1804, 1805, 1822, Feb. 1850, and May 1855 ; 
in June 1858 the upper crater sank about 195 ft. below its former 
elevation ; and on 8th Dec. 1861 an outbreak devastated Torre del 
Greco. These outbreaks were remarkable for their violence, and 
interesting from the fact that some of them were witnessed by Leo- 
pold von Buch (1805), Humboldt (1822), and other men of science. 

The most recent period of great activity began after a decade 
of comparative quiescence in January 1871 , with the emission of 
some smaller streams of lava, and culminated in the great eruption 
of 24th-30th April 1872. During these days the lava burst forth 
on every side — on the N.E. , S.W., and more particularly at the 
Atrio del Cavallo (p. 113), from which a huge stream issued with 
such suddenness on 26th April as to overtake and destroy 20 per- 
sons out of a crowd of spectators who were watching the spectacle, 
while others were injured by the stones thrown from the summit. 
The torrent descended to Massa and S. Sebastiano, which it partly 
destroyed, and ran to a distance of 3 M. in 12 hours. At the same 
time, amidst terrific thundering, the crater poured forth huge vol- 
umes of smoke mingled with red-hot stones and lava to a height of 
4000 ft., whilst clouds of ashes, rising to double that height, were 
carried by the wind as far as Cosenza, a distance of MOM. The lava 
emitted during this eruption covers an area of 2 sq. M., and aver- 
ages 13 ft. in depth. The damage was estimated at upwards of 3 mil- 
lion francs. 

Volcanic Phenomena. The cause of these phenomena is still 
to some extent a matter of mere conjecture. It is highly probable 
that they are intimately connected with the water of the sea, near 
which all the principal volcanoes are situated. There is reason to 
believe that the enormous clouds of steam generated during erup- 
tions are due to some temporary communication of the water with 
the burning liquids of the interior of the earth, and that the pre- 
monitory earthquakes are occasioned by the vapours and gases as 
they expand and endeavour to find an outlet. The red-hot fluids 
expelled from the volcano by means of these vapours are called Lava. 
When, however, they are broken by the vapours into fragments, the 
larger of these are known as Lapilli (Rapilli) or Scoria, whilst the 
minute portions form Volcanic Sand ox Ashes. If the sides of the 
cone are strong enough to resist the pressure of the molten lava, 
the latter flows out from the top of the crater ; but if not, it flows 


116 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Ascent 

out at the sides, generally in several streams. When freed from 
the pressure of the lava, the vapours rise to a height of 10,000 ft., 
resembling a pine in form , as Pliny has aptly described it, car- 
rying dense masses of rapilli and ashes along with them ; they 
are then condensed in the air, and in descending give rise to 
those formidable streams of mud (Lave d' Aequo) which proved so 
destructive to Herculaneum. Vesuvius has of late been active in 
the manner described, although to a very limited extent, ejecting 
vapours and stones with a roar resembling that of distant artillery; 
but the effects of this action have been confined to the formation 
of the cone in the crater. More serious eruptions are accompanied 
by loud subterranean noises, earthquakes, and flashes of lightning 
and peals of thunder, owing to the electricity produced by the 
unwonted pressure of the air. The temperature of the lava as it 
descends occasionally exceeds 2000° Fahr. The volume of the 
streams, as well as their velocity, depends on a variety of external 
circumstances. The surface of the lava ultimately becomes disinte- 
grated into black sand. The smoke which ascends from the 
crater is more or less dark in colour, according to the quantity 
of ashes mingled with it. The appearance of fire at night is not 
flame, but the reflection of the molten lava in the interior of 
the crater on the rising clouds of vapour and ashes. 

Of the Minerals ejected by the volcano , most of which are found in 
the older lava of Mte. Somma, as well as in that ejected during later 
eruptions, about 50 species are at present known. A small box of spe- 
cimens may be purchased for Va fr. The yellow masses, usually taken 
lor sulphur, really consist of lava coloured by chloride of iron. 

The ** Ascent of Vesuvius is unquestionably an excursion 
of extreme interest, though not unattended with fatigue, and 
it should not be undertaken in rainy or stormy weather. "When 
the mountain is covered with snow in winter the difficulty of 
the ascent is of course greater. The ascent is most interesting 
when the mountain 'works', or ejects scori* and ashes, a con- 
dition indicated by smoke during the day and a reflection of fire at 
night, which may be observed from Naples. Even if its state is that 
of perfect repose, which is not often the case, the fatigue of the 
ascent is repaid by the imposing appearance of the crater and the 
magnificent *Panorama commanded by the summit, extending as 
far as the Ponza Islands and Mte. Circello. An ascent at night is, 
of course, made only when the mountain 'works'. 

From Resina. The road to Vesuvius diverges to the left from 
the high-road immediately beyond the entrance to the excavations 
of Herculaneum (cornp. p. 109). The luxuriant vineyards here, 
which are interspersed with gardens and cottages, presenting a picture 
of teeming fertility , yield the famous 'Lacrimae Christi' wine, 
which is generally strong and heavy , and never of a very re- 
fined quality. The wine is offered for sale at marly every cottage, 
but had better not be partaken of before the ascent (usual price 

of Vesuvius. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 117 

1 fr. per bottle, bargain beforehand; change for coins larger than 
a franc is almost invariably withheld). Higher up , beyond the 
garden-walls, the beautiful view is gradually disclosed. In about 
3 /4 hr. we reach the huge dark lava-stream of 1872 , which we can 
trace down to S. Sebastiano and Massa di Somma (p. 115), and 
which the windings of the road cross several times. 

In 3/4 hr. more we reach the so-called Hermitage and the Me- 
teorological Observatory , situated 2220 ft. above the level of the 
sea and 1965 ft. above Eesina, on the shoulder of the hill which 
divides the lava-streams descending from the crater into two 
branches. The Observatory, which the railway-passengers have no 
time to visit, contains , in addition to the usual instruments , a 
'seismograph', or apparatus for recording the phenomena of earth- 
quakes. The first director of the observatory was the famous Mel- 
loni (d. 1854). His successor Palmieri published an interesting 
account of the eruption of 1872. A slab has been placed at 
the entrance of the building in memory of the travellers who 
perished in the Atrio del Cavallo in 1872 (p. 115; on which 
occasion Sign. Palmieri remained at his post in the Observatory). 
Close by is a clean inn. 

The road constructed by government ends about 1 / 4 M. beyond 
the observatory. The continuation (about l 3 /4 M.) was built in 
1879-80 by the railway - company, and since 1889 has, like the 
wire-rope railway itself, been in the possession of Messrs. Thomas 
Cook $ Son. Cook's tourists show their tickets at the office here, 
while travellers who have not come from Naples in carriages be- 
longing to Messrs. Cook, must here provide themselves with tickets 
(p. 112) or quit the road (see below). The road at first leads towards 
the S.B., and then ascends in long windings to the Stazione Infe- 
riore (about 2600 ft.), where there is a *Restaurant (dej. 4, D. 
6 fr., both incl. wine). Checks for the railway are issued on the 
arrival of the carriages (see also below), but passengers are not 
bound to proceed by the first train that starts. 

The Wire Rope Railway (Ferrovia Funieolare) is 900 yds. 
long, and the upper end is 1300 ft. higher than the lower. The 
gradient varies from 43:100 to 63:100. The ascent or descent 
in the train takes 12 minutes. At the upper station guides with 
numbers on their caps are in waiting (others should be dismissed), 
by whom the travellers are conducted by a tolerable footpath over 
ashes and slag to the (10-15 min.) summit of the crater, which 
commands a fine view. Under ordinary circumstances there is no 
danger unless one approaches the shelving brink incautiously or 
exposes oneself to the fumes of sulphur and showers of stones. A 
total stay of 3 hrs. on the mountain is allowed; those who remain 
longer do so at the risk of finding no disengaged seat in the train. 
The coachmen below are also not bound to wait longer. 

Ladies and le"s vigorrus travellers liad better engage a 'portantina' 

118 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 

or porte-chaise (10 fr. to the top and back) to carry them from the upper 
station; or avail themselves of an 'aiuto' or aid of a strap (2 fr.). Ar- 
rangements for either should be made at the lower station with Cook's 
inspector, to whom the payment is made. Those who wish to visit 
not only the crater but also the fresh lava, to which they must descend 
for about 100 yds. on the side next the Atrio del Cavallo, should also 
make a bargain with the inspector at the lower station, as the demands 
of the guides at the upper station are very extortionate. A fee of 1 fr. 
is sufficient, whether the guide is hired by a single person or by a party. 
The guides are in the habit of making impressions on the hot lava with 
copper coins (charge, 1 fr.), and inviting the traveller to make similar 
experiments. The only risk incurred in doing so is that of damaging the 
soles of one's boots. 

The thanks of tourists are certainly due to Messrs. Cook for the 
energy with which, in face of serious difficulties, they maintain order 
and discipline among the guides and others , who have been accustomed 
for generations to practise extortion upon travellers. Should, however, 
any cause of complaint arise, the coupon should be handed to the in- 
spector and not to the guide. 

Travellers ascending from Kesina on foot or on horseback, 
leave the road at the above-mentioned ticket-office , and follow 
a rough path, which brings them in 3 j i hr. to the foot of the cone, 
near the lower railway-station. They are then conducted across 
the road by the railway officials, and begin the ascent on the S. 
side of the station. The ascent of the precipitous cone, consisting 
of slag and loose ashes, takes 1 '/ 4 - 1 i/o hr. and is extremely fa- 
tiguing, but possesses considerable attraction for the robust moun- 
tain-climber. The lava by the sides of the path generally affords 
a tolerably firm foothold. An 'aiuto', or aid of a strap, may be 
obtained for 3 fr. The descent takes scarcely 10 minutes. 

From the S.W. Side. The ascent of Vesuvius on the S.W. side 
is best made from Boscotrecase, l 1 /* M. from Torre Annunziata 
(p. Ill) and 3 /,jhr's. drive from Pompeii (see below; one-horse carr. 
172-2 fr.). There is a branch of the guide-office of Torre Annun- 
ziata at Boscotrecase. The route ascends through vineyards and 
across lava, reaching the foot of the cone in 2-272 hrs. and avoid- 
ing the railway altogether. Thence to the top in ly.jhr., see above. 

The 'Monte Somma (3730 ft.) also affords a fine view, and is inter- 
esting to geologists and botanists. The ascent may be made from Massa, 
Somma, or from Ottaiano ("Locanda in the Piazza Mercato; also guides). 
The ascent is most advantageously made from Somma (no inn ; con- 
veyance from Marigliano, see p. 174, in connection with the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 
and 5th trains from and to Naples, in 40 min.; fares from Naples to Somma 
2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 40, 85 c, return-tickets 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 40 c). We 
first proceed through vineyards and a broad sunken road to the pilgrimage- 
church of S. Maria del Castello (1425 ft.), situated in a commanding po- 
sition on the verge of the Bagno del Purgalorio, a gorge diverging to 
the S. At the steps leading up to the church we descend to the right in 
the gorge, and then ascend steadily through woods of chestnut and beech 
to (l'/2 hr.) the Grace (3690 ft.), a point frequently visited by the sur- 
rounding inhabitants. The summit (3730 ft.) is attained in a few minutes 
more, and affords an imposing *View of Vesuvius and the Atrio del Ca- 
vallo to the S., and of the Abruzzi to the N. and E. The descent may 
be made to the W., by rounding the roeky pinnacles first on the N., then 
on the S., and crossing the lava of 1872 to the Observatory (p. 117), 


8. Pompeii. 

Railway to Pompeii (Stazione di Pompei), see R. 6. — The distance 
to Pompeii from Torre Annunziata, Stazione Centrale, is only li/ 4 M., so 
that the traveller may find it convenient to take one of the Castellam- 
mare trains to that station; the high-road thence to Pompeii is apt to 
be very dusty. As a rule carriages are to be found only at the Stazione 
Citta at Torre Annunziata. — Comp. p. Ill and the map. 

High Road to Pompeii, very dusty in summer, like all the roads 
near Naples. Carriage with one horse 10 , with two horses 20 fr. and 
gratuity; drive of 2-3 hrs. See p. 111. 

The Entkance to the Ruins is about 200 paces from the Pompeii 
Station, near the Hotel Diomede and Hotel Suisse. No attention should 
be paid to guides 'offering themselves outside. Admission on Sundays 
is gratis; but on that day no guides are provided and those houses in 
which collections are kept are closed. On other days tickets cost 2 fr. 
(the coupon must be retained, comp. p. 142). Visitors are provided with 
a guide , who is bound to accompany them and pilot them through the 
ruins during any number of hours between sunrise and sunset. These 
guides are about 60 in number, and each is provided with a badge (number- 
ed according to the seniority of service, No. 1 being the oldest). One of 
those who speak French or a little English will be assigned to the traveller 
on application. Implicit confidence cannot be placed in the guides for any- 
thing beyond mere technical explanations. They are forbidden to accept 
any gratuity. Complaints made to the inspector (soprastante), or better 
still to the director Ruggiero at Naples, are sure to receive attention. 

Duration of Stat. Visitors are admitted from 7 a.m. till 6 p.m. 
The time which the traveller devotes to the ruins must depend on his 
own inclination. Crowds of sight-seers, usually arriving from Naples by 
the morning-express, allow themselves to be hurried through by the guides 
in 2 hours. A superficial inspection may be accomplished in 4-5 hrs. 
L'inch should be brought, for if the ruins be quitted and re-entered, the 
entrance-money is exacted a second time. Still, too long a visit is apt to 
exhaust both mind and body, especially in hot weather. The traveller 
should if possible contrive to visit Pompeii twice, once with and once 
without a guide. 

Permission to draw, take measurements, etc., is obtained at the Segre- 
teria of the Museum at Naples (comp. p. 56) , where the applicant must 
show his passport. Artists or students who desire to make prolonged 
studies may, on application at the office and production of their passports, 
obtain a free ticket of admission. Permission to visit the ruins by moon- 
light is accorded only to persons specially introduced to the director. 

Hotels. At the entrance to Pompeii, near the railway -station, Hotel 
Diomede, R. & L. 2, B. 1, dej. 2'/ 2 , D. 3'/2 (both incl. wine), pens. 5 fr. ; 
Hotel Suisse, R., L., & A. 2, B. 1, dej. 2-2>/2, D. 3 (both incl. wine), pens. 
5 fr. (for a week 4'/2 fr. per day), well spoken of. — A little farther on, 
near the Amphitheatre, Hotel du Soleil, long frequented by scholars 
and artists, R. l'/2 fr., B. 80 c, dej. 2-21/2, D. 3 (both incl. wine), pens. 
5 fr. (for a week 41/2 fr. per day) ; no charge for use of omnibus. 

Pompeii was once a prosperous provincial town, with a popu- 
lation of 20-30,000 souls. The original Oscan inhabitants had at the 
close of the republic become completely Romanised, and after the 
earthquake of A.D. 63 the town was re-erected in the new Roman 
style composed of Greek and Italian elements. Pompeii, therefore, 
represents one definite epoch of antiquity only, but it is the most 
important andalmostthe only source of our acquaintance with ancient 
domestic life. The investigation of the various phases of this life, 
even in its minuter details, forms a pursuit of inexhaustible interest. 

Before visiting Pompeii the traveller is strongly advised to ao- 

1 20 Route 8. POMPEII. History. 

quire some previous acquaintance -with the place from boots and 
plans, f The more familiar the objects are to him, the greater will 
be his enjoyment. The enthusiasm called forth by the discovery of 
Pompeii and the fascination attaching to the name are calculated to 
raise the expectations of non - archaeologists to too high a pitch. 
The remains are simply the bare ruins of a town destroyed by fire, 
which have been extricated from the rubbish accumulated during 
seventeen centuries; in order to summon up from these mutilated 
walls an accurate picture of ancient life, frequent and prolonged 
visits and patient observation are indispensable. The evening is the 
most enjoyable time for the visit, when the lights and shadows on the 
surrounding mountains and the illumination of the ruins by the de- 
clining sun invest the place with magic fascination. 

Pompeii is mentioned in history for the first time in B.C. 310; but 
its monuments, such as the wall of the town and the so-called Greek 
Temple, clearly prove it to he of much greater antiquity. Founded by the 
Oscans, it soon became imbued with the elements of Greek civilisation, like 
the other towns of this extensive tribe. Being situated near the sea on 
an ancient volcanic eminence, it carried on extensive commerce with the 
inland Campanian towns by means of the navigable river Sarnus, and 
enjoyed an uninterrupted, though not brilliant share of prosperity. (The 
sea and river were separated from the town by subsequent convulsions of 
nature.) After the Samnite wars, in which Pompeii had also participated, 
the town became subject to Rome. It united with the other Italians in 
the Social War. The rebels were defeated in the vicinity of Pompeii by 
Sulla, who attacked the town itself, but unsuccessfully. After the termi- 
nation of the war, however, B.C. 80, a colony of Roman soldiers was sent 
thither, and the inhabitants were compelled to cede to it one-third of their 
arable land. In course of time Pompeii became thoroughly Romanised, 
and was a favourite retreat of Romans of the wealthier classes, who (e.<?. 
Cicero) purchased estates in the vicinity. It was also favoured by the em- 
perors. Tacitus records a serious conflict which took place in the amphi- 
theatre, A. D. 59, between the Pompeians and the neighbouring Nucerines, 
in 'consequence of which the former were prohibited from performing 
theatrical pieces for a period of ten years. A few years later, A.D. 63, a 
fearful earthquake occurred, evidencing the re-awakened activity of Ve- 
suvius, which had been quiescent for centuries. A great part of Pompeii, 
its temples, colonnades, theatres, and private dwellings were destroyed on 
that occasion. This disaster afforded the inhabitants an opportunity of 
carrying out still more thoroughly the alterations which they had already 
begun on their town , in a style more conformable to the improved 
architecture of imperial Rome , and it accounts for the comparatively 
modern and often unfinished character of the buildings. The new town 
had not long been completed , although it had been restored in a re- 
markably short period with the aid afforded by private liberality, when 
it was overtaken by the final catastrophe of 24th Aug. 79. The first 
premonitory symptom was a dense shower of ashes, a stratum of which 
covered ; the town to a depth of about 3 ft. , allowing the inhabitants 
time to escape. Many of them, however, returned, some doubtless to rescue 
their valuables, others paralysed with fear and uncertain what course to 
pursue. The whole number of those who perished is estimated at 2000. 
The ashes were followed by a shower of red hot rapilli, or fragments of 
pumice-stone of all sizes, which covered the town to a depth of 7-8 ft. 
and was succeeded by fresh showers of ashes and again by rapilli. The 
present superincumbent mass is about 20 ft. in thickness. Part of this 

+ Br. Furchheim's (p. 25) Bibliografin ili Pompei' (2nd ed. ; 1S92) contains 
a full list of works published on Pompeii and Herculaneum. 

Pianta normale di casa pompeiana 
(casa diPansa ). 



oi I ft' ' ricoto r d 1 ijraTfisso 

v ,2 las £ 

£-• ^3 CO 

P - £ 

auorzimrajUD:} ex 6pia}~"[B tP^A 

Typography. POMPEII. 8. Route. 121 

was formed by subsequent eruptions, but the town had already been 
completely buried by the original catastrophe, and was entirely lost to 
view. Extensive excavations, however, had been made in ancient times. 
Immediately after the calamity the survivors doubtless recovered as 
many valuables from their buried homes as they could ; and in sub- 
sequent centuries the ruins were repeatedly ransacked for the marbles 
and precious stones used in the embellishment of the temples and 
other buildings. We therefore now find the town in the condition 
in which it was consigned to oblivion some fifteen centuries ago as 
no longer containing anything of value. During the middle ages Pom- 
peii was entirely unknown. In 1592 the architect Fontana constructed 
a subterranean water-conduit in order to supply Torre Annunziata from 
the Sarno, actually intersecting the ruins, and to this day in use ; yet no 
farther investigations were then attempted. In 1748 the discovery of 
some statues and bronze utensils by a peasant attracted the attention of 
Charles III., who caused excavations to be made. The amphitheatre, the- 
atre, and other parts were then disinterred. The enthusiasm caused by the 
discovery has been the frequent theme of poetical and other compositions 
by Bulwer Lytton, Schiller, and other celebrated authors: 
What wonder this? — we ask the lymphid well, 
Earth 1 of thee — and from thy solemn womb 
What yield'st thou? — Is there life in the abyss — 
Doth a new race beneath the lava dwell ? 
Returns the Past, awakening from the tomb ? 

The earth, with faithful watch, has hoarded all 1 
Under the Bourbons the excavations were continued in a very unsatis- 
factory manner. Statues and valuables alone were extricated, whilst the 
ruins were either suffered to fall to decay or covered up again. To the 
reign of Murat, however, we are indebted for the excavation of the Forum, 
the town-walls, the Street of Tombs, and many private houses. The political 
changes of 1860 have likewise exercised a beneficial effect. Under the able 
superintendence of Sig. Fiorelli, instead of the former predatory operations, 
a regular plan has been adopted, according to which the ruins are systema- 
tically explored and carefully preserved, and highly satisfactory results thus 
obtained. The movable objects found, as well as the more important 
frescoes, have been removed to the Museum at Naples, — a very desirable 
course, as is obvious from the injury caused by exposure to those left 
behind. At Pompeii itself a museum and library have been instituted, a 
dwelling-house erected for students supported by government, and a railway 
constructed for the 'removal of the debris. The workmen employed in the 
excavations average eighty in number, but several hundred are at times 
engaged. If the works continue to progress at the same rate as at present, 
the complete excavation of the town, according to Fiorelli's calculations, 
will occupy 60 years more, and will cost about 5 million francs. A sum of 
30-40,000 fr. is realised yearly from the admission-fees of visitors. 

The town is built in the form of an irregular ellipse, extend- 
ing from E. to W. The circumference of its walls amounts to 
2843 yds. In consequence of the prolonged peace, however, the 
walls had entirely lost their importance, and towards the sea they 
had been demolished. There are eight gates. The excavated portion 
embraces not quite one-half of the town, but probably the most 
important part, including the Forum with the contiguous temples 
and public buildings, two theatres with large colonnades, the amphi- 
theatre, and a considerable number of private dwellings of more or 
less ornate character. Officially the town is divided into nine 
'Regions' (Regiones ; indicated by Roman numerals) by the four 
principal streets connecting the gates : the Cardo (central axis) and 

122 Route 8. POMPEII. Topography. 

another parallel street not yet excavated, running from N. to S., 
and the Decumanus Major and Decumanus Minor (major and minor 
transverse line), running from E. to W. Each region is subdivided 
into Insulae, or blocks of houses bounded by four streets , each 
provided with an Arabic numeral. The number of the region and 
that of the insula is written up at every corner. Each house is also 
numbered. Thus 'Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 5' means the house No. 5 in 
£he eighth insula of the sixth region. The Italian names given 
formerly to the streets, though somewhat arbitrary, are more easily 
remembered than these numerals, and they have thus been retained 
in the following description and on our map. The same remark ap- 
plies to the equally arbitrary older names of the houses; the newer 
names, generally taken from signet-rings or seals found in the 
interiors, are affixed in Latin to the doors. 

The streets, bordered by pavement, are straight and narrow, sel- 
dom above 24 ft. in breadth, the narrower lanes 14 ft. only. They 
are admirably paved with large polygonal blocks of lava. At in- 
tervals, especially at the corners, are placed high stepping-stones, 
leading from one side of the pavement to the other, intended for 
the convenience of foot-passengers in rainy weather. The waggons 
have left deep ruts in the causeways, which do not exceed 4>/ 2 ft. 
in width. At the corners of the streets are public fountains, decorated 
with the head of a god, a mask, or similar ornament. 

In the streets are frequently seen notices painted in red let- 
ters, referring generally to the election of the municipal authori- 
ties, and recommending some particular individual as aedile or 
duumvir. Trade-signs, like those of the present day, are very 
rare. On the other hand an occasional 'phallus' is seen, for the 
purpose of averting the evil eye ; and one or two large snakes, 
the emblems of the Lares, the gods of the hearth and of cross- 
ways, are very common. Stuccoed walls are often covered with 
roughly scratched drawings resembling those with which our 'Street 
Arabs' still delight to decorate blank surfaces. 

The houses are slightly built of concrete (small stones con- 
solidated with cement), brick, or brick- shaped stones, and some- 
times, particularly the facades, door-posts, or corner pillars, of blocks 
of stone. The hasty and patched character of the construction is 
everywhere discernible, owing to the interpolation of old walls in 
new buildings. The numerous well-preserved staircases prove that 
the houses must uniformly have possessed a second and perhaps also 
a third story. These upper portions, consisting chiefly of wood, 
have, with a single exception (p. 133), been destroyed by the red- 
hot scoriae of the eruption. 

The busiest streets may be identified by means of the shops 
(taberna:), which were let to merchants and shopkeepers, in the same 
way as the ground-floors of the palazzi in Naples are occupied by 
shops at the present day. These shops were generally in no way 

Architecture. POMPEII. 8. Route. 123 

connected with the hack part of the house, and presented their whole 
frontage to the street, from which they could be separated by large 
wooden doors. Many of the shop-tables, covered with marble, 
and not unfrequently fitted up with large earthen vessels for the 
sale of wine , oil , etc. , are still preserved. At the back of the 
shop or above it there was occasionally a second room, probably oc- 
cupied by the shopkeeper, or, in the case of eating-houses, used to 
accommodate the customers. The great number of these shops affords 
proof of the importance of the retail traffic at Pompeii. Where there 
are no shops, the streets are very monotonous. The absence of glass 
forms one of the chief differences between an ancient and a modern 
dwelling. The ancients therefore concentrated their domestic life in 
the interior of their houses, which presented to the street a blank wall 
with as few openings as possible, and these covered with an iron 
grating. A distinct idea of this mode of building, without parallel 
except in Oriental countries, is best obtained in the more recently 
excavated and better preserved streets between the Forum and the 
Stabian Street, and to the E. of the latter. 

The dwelling-houses of Pompeii vary greatly in size, and have 
obviously been very differently fitted up , in accordance with the 
nature of the situation, or the means and taste of their owners. Most 
of thePompeian houses of the wealthy middle class are entered from 
the street by a narrow passage (ostium) leading to the court (atri- 
um), which is surrounded by a covered passage, with the implu- 
vium, or reservoir for rain-water, in the centre. The roof sloped 
inwards and had an opening in the centre (compluvium) which 
afforded light and air to the court and the adjoining rooms. 
On each side, and sometimes in front, were cubicula or bed-rooms. 
The two open spaces at the ends of the sides were called alne or 
wings (in Rome it was the custom, among the wealthier citizens to 
preserve the statues of their ancestors). Beyond the atrium is a large 
apartment opening into it , called the tablinum. This front por- 
tion of the house was devoted to its intercourse with the external 
world ; and it was here that the patron received his clients and 
transacted business. The rest of the house was destined solely for 
the use of the family. Its centre also consisted of an open court or 
garden, enclosed by columns, and thence termed the peristylium. 
Sometimes, however, there is a flower-garden (xystus), surrounded 
by columns, beyond the peristyle. Around the peristyle are situated 
the sleeping and eating-rooms, slaves' rooms, kitchen, cellar, etc. 
The upper floor was destined principally for the slaves. Most of the 
apartments are very small , but the family worked and spent most 
of their time in the light and airy courts. 

The reconstruction of a complete house in its original form would 
he most interesting and instructive, but has not yet heen carried out. 

The wall-decorations in Pompeii lend it a peculiar charm. Marble 
is very rarely met with in the domestic architecture and not often 

124 Route 8. POMPEII. Mureum. 

in the public architecture of Pompeii, the columns being invariably 
constructed of tuffstone or bricks, cemented by mortar. The brick 
walls and columns were then covered with painted stucco. The lower 
halves of the columns are generally red or yellow, the capitals taste- 
fully painted ; the walls, too, where undecorated, are painted with 
bright, and almost glaring colours, chiefly red and yellow, harmonising 
well with the brilliancy of a southern sun. The centre of the walls 
is generally occupied by a painting unconnected with the others. 
The best of these were removed to the museum at Naples, to pro- 
tect them from exposure to the elements; many, however, of those 
left merit inspection. The scenes present a uniformly soft, erotic 
character, corresponding to the peaceful and pleasure-seeking taste 
of the age (comp. Introd., p. xlf). 

We now proceed to describe the different streets and build- 
ings , beginning with the Porta Marina , by which we enter the 
town on arriving from the ticket-office (p. 119). We shall then 
proceed to the Forum and first explore thence the streets in the 
S. of the city and the buildings in the neighbourhood of the 
Theatre. We shall then visit the Stabian Thermae (whence a digres- 
sion may be made to the Amphitheatre), and proceed by the Strada 
Stabiana and Strada di Nola to the excavations farthest to the east. 
Next we shall proceed to the W. by the streets of Fortuna and the 
Thermae, traverse the Street of Mercury and the Vicolo di Mercurio 
to the Herculaneum Gate, and inspect the Street of Tombs. 

The above is very much the route usually adopted by the guides. 
Those who desire to form a distinct idea of the topography and arrange- 
ments of the town are recommended either to adopt the following plan, 
or to frame one for themselves and name to the guide in order the places 
they desire to see. The names of the chief sights are printed in heavier 
types. These who are pressed for time had better omit the Amphitheatre. 
Travellers who intend to dine or put up at the Hotel du Soleil should 
intimate this to the guide at once, and arrange to visit the Amphi- 
theatre last. 

The street passing through the Porta Marina could scarcely have 
been used by vehicles, as it ascends at an alrupt gradient to one 
of the highest points in the city. The gate has a path for foot-pas- 
sengers on the left. Within is a vaulted passage between ancient 
magazines. On the right in this passage is the entrance to the — 

*Museum, which contains many interesting objects, though 
none of artistic value, arranged in three rooms. 

Among these are casts and models of doors, windows, shop-shutters, 
and other objects in wood. 

In glass-cases are preserved several casts of human corpses, and one 
of the body of a dog. Although the soft parts of the bodies had decayed 
in course of time, their forms frequently remained imprinted on the 
ashes, which afterwards hardened. In 1863 Fiorelli made the ingenious ex- 
periment of carefully removing the bones of a body thus imbedded, 
and filling the cavity with plaster, and he has succeeded in preserving 
the figures and attitudes of the deceased after their death-struggle On 
the point of flight, many of them had divested themselves of most of 
their clothing. Among the figures are a young girl with a ring on her 

Temple of Apollo. POMPEII. 8. Route. 125 

finger, two women, one tall and elderly, and the other younger ; a man 
lying on his face; and a man lying on his left side with remarkably well- 
preserved features. 

Immediately to the right in the second room is a handsome Table. 
There are also amphorae, vases, rain-spouts, etc., in terracotta; vessels 
in bronze; carbonised articles of food like those at Naples (p. 71); 
skulls, and skeletons of men and animals. 

The Via Marina, now named Decumanus Minor, ascends hence 
in a straight direction to the Forum, with uninteresting shops on 
the left. 

On the right at the end of the Via Marina is a side-entrance to 
the Basilica (Reg. VIII, Ins. 1), the facade of which fronts towards 
the Forum. This was used as a market and also accommodated a law- 
court. A passage round the interior consists of twenty -eight brick 
columns with capitals of tufa ; the entire space in the centre was 
roofed in, and was lighted by openings in the upper part of the side- 
walls. On the walls are half-columns, all covered with stucco, slighter 
and lower than the "brick columns, and above them was another system 
of columns and half-columns, placed tolerably far apart. The frag- 
ments of tufa-columns by the walls belonged to this upper row. 
At the end of the building was the elevated tribune, or seat of 
the presiding magistrate, which was probably approached by mov- 
able steps. In front of it is a pedestal for a statue ; below are 
vaults (perhaps a prison), reached by two staircases, and connected 
with the upper hall by means of two openings. In the year 79 
the building seems to have been in a state of ruin occasioned by 
the earthquake of the year 63. 

Also on the W. side of the Forum , to the left of the Via 
Marina, is situated the *Temple of Apollo (Keg. VII, Ins. 7), 
the god being named in an Oscan inscription on the flooring (a 
reproduction ; original now at Naples , p. 60). It is an edifice of 
very early origin, but restored after the earthquake of 63. We first 
enter a court with forty-eight columns, originally Ionic, which had 
been converted by means of stucco into Corinthian; but this coating 
has now fallen off. As the side towards the Forum was not pa- 
rallel with it, the wall, in order to prevent the eye being offended 
by this irregularity, was furnished in the interior with eight but- 
tresses at intervals, each projecting farther than the last. The 
temple itself rises in the centre of the court, on a basement 7 l /o ft. 
in height. The column to the left of the steps, with an inscription 
of the duumviri, who erected it, bore a sun-dial. Facing the steps 
stands an Altar, with an inscription of the donors, the quatuor- 
viri of the town. Against the columns of the portico are six 
bases arranged in pairs , which formerly bore six Statues : Mer- 
cury and (probably) Maia (marble hermae), Apollo and Diana 
(bronze statues), Venus and a Hermaphrodite (marble statues). The 
Mercury is still in situ, the Maia is lost, and the four others are now 
at Naples. To the left, in the corner in front of the Venus and 
Diana, are two small altars. The Temple itself, which is approached 

126 Route 8. POMPEII. Forum. 

by thirteen steps, was surrounded by a Corinthian colonnade, and 
had a facade of six columns. Within the cella the pedestal is still 
preserved, where the figure of the god stood. On the left was the 
conical Omphalos, the well-known symbol of Apollo. The large 
tripod painted on the first pilaster to the right in the portico is 
also an attribute of this deity. — A chamber for the priests, de- 
corated with paintings, adjoins a back exit, through which we may 
reach the Forum. 

The Torum forms the central point of the town (109 ft. above 
the sea-level"). On the N. side, detached, stands the temple of Ju- 
piter (see below) ; the other sides are enclosed by an arcade. -The 
open space in the centre, 515 ft. in length and 107 ft. in breadth, 
was paved with large slabs and embellished with numerous hono- 
rary statues. Twenty-two bases for the latter, five of which (four on 
the W. side, one at the S.E. corner) still bear incriptions, dedicated 
to officials of high rank, the duumviri (similar to the consuls of 
Rome) and quinquennales (censors) of the town, are preserved. The 
extensive basements on the S. side were destined for equestrian 
statues. The colonnade surrounding the Forum varies in breadth 
from 26 to 45 ft., a number of the buildings which adjoin it having 
been erected at a date prior to the construction of the Fovum. Above 
the lower columns of the Doric order rose a second series of the 
Ionic, thus constituting an upper, covered passage, approached by 
steps, several of which are still preserved. Even before the earth- 
quake of 63 the builders seem to have begun to substitute traver- 
tine columns for the older columns of tuffstone on the S. and E. 
sides, and to have been employed in carrying on the work at the 
time when the town was destroyed. Rough, unfinished portions of 
the new columns and architrave lie round the colonnade. — Six 
streets oonverge here, but the forum was protected against the tres- 
pass of riders or waggons by stone pillars round the margins, and 
could even be entirely shut off by gates. 

Passing along the W. side of the Forum, we observe, at the N. 
end of the Temple of Apollo, No. 31, a niche, in which once stood a 
stone table with the standard weights and measures (see p. 60; 
its place now occupied by a poor reproduction). Then follows a 
flight of steps, which led to the portico of the Temple of Apollo. Far- 
ther on are No. 29, a hall apparently for commercial purposes, No. 
28, a public latrina, and then No. 27, a dark building (closed) 
which appears to have been a prison or a treasury. Farther on, the 
Forum is bounded by a wall. In front of it, adjoining the Temple 
of Jupiter, is a Triumphal Arch. 

On the N. side of the Forum and in the most conspicuous 
part of it, rises the *Temple of Jupiter (Reg. VII, i ns . 8), on a 
basement 97-2 ft. in height. At the time of the eruption it was 
already in ruins. The pronaosis approached by fifteen steps. Aper- 
tures in the floor of the cella admit light to the underground 

Macellum. POMPEII. 8. Route. 127 

chambers , which were latterly used as a magazine for building 
materials, having probably been originally a treasury. The cella 
had two series of Ionic columns, eight in each, arranged one above 
the other. At the back are three chambers. At the farther end, 
to the left, a flight of steps ascends to the pedestal which bore 
the statue of the god, which the visitor should not omit to visit 
as it affords a fine panorama of Pompeii, Monte Sant' Angelo with 
the chapel of S. Miehele, Quisisana, and the Apennines. 

On the other side of the Temple of Jupiter rises a larger Trium- 
phal Arch of brick, also divested of its marble, which here forms 
the boundary of the Forum. The niches on the N. side served as 
fountain-basins. At the corner of the street of the Augustales (p. 133) 
is a relief with figures of two men carrying a wine-jar, being the 
sign of a wine-merchant. 

The most northerly building at the E. end of the Forum is the 
Macellum (formerly named the Pantheon), or hall for the sale of 
provisions, with a chapel in honour of the Emperor Augustus. In 
front of it are pedestals for statues ; on the exterior, shops pos- 
sibly occupied by money-changers. The building is entered by 
two doors (Nos. 7 and 8). The interior consists of a rectangular 
court. The walls are decorated with *Frescoes, of which those to 
the left of the entrance, representing Argus and Io, Ulysses and 
Penelope , are the best preserved. Above, on the walls, are re- 
presentations of various kinds of edibles, indicating the purpose of 
the building. The court was still unfinished when the catastrophe 
took place; it was destined to be enclosed by a colonnade, but the 
limestone masonry has been laid on the N. and W. sides only, 
while on the other sides the enclosure is formed by blocks of tufa. 
A dodecagon is formed in the centre by twelve pedestals (or al- 
tars?), on which stood columns bearing a domed roof (or perhaps 
statues). To the right are eleven chambers simply painted red, 
probably trading stalls ; at the extremity is an exit into a back 
street, with a niche indicated as the shrine of the Lares by painted 
serpents (comp. p. 122). To the left is an outlet to the Street of the 
Augustales (named after this edifice). On the E. side, opposite us 
as we enter the building, rises the shrine. On the principal pede- 
stal stood the statue of the emperor, in the side-niches probably 
Octavia, the sister of Augustus, and Marcellus, her son (here re- 
placed by copies). To the left of this shrine was another with an 
altar, which perhaps was employed in the celebration of the sa- 
crificial banquets ; the gallery by the lateral wall is believed to 
have been an orchestra. A larger apartment to the right, containing 
stands of masonry with a slight inclination , and furnished with 
gutters below to carry off blood or water, is supposed to have been a 
butoher's or fishmonger's. 

No. 3, adjacent, is the so - called Curia, where it is generally 
believed the town-council held their deliberations , though more 

128 Route 8. POMPEII. Temple of Mercury. 

probably it was used in connection -with the worship of the em- 
peror. It is a square (uncovered?) hall, 65 ft. long, 58 ft. broad, with 
an altar in the middle, a hemicyclical termination, and several 
niches. The walls and pavement were formerly covered with marble. 

We next reach No. 2, the so-called *Temple of Mercury, really 
a Temple of Augustus , 83 ft. in length and 53 ft. in breadth. 
The court had an arcade only in front. In the centre is an * Altar 
in marble with reliefs : on the front victims, on the sides the saeri- 
ficial utensils, on the back an oak-garland between two laurels, the 
symbol of Augustus. The form of this temple has been skilfully 
adapted to the irregular site on which it stands. At the back are 
three rooms formerly communicating with chambers behind the so- 
called Curia. 

Adjoining, No. 1, is situated the Building of Eumachia (Reg. 
VII, Ins. 9), erected by the priestess Eumachia, and perhaps used 
as a wool-sellers' hall. On the frieze of the portico facing the Fo- 
rum, and still more fully over the entrance in the Str. dell' Ab- 
bondanza, may be read the following inscription : 'Eumachia Lucii 
filia sacerdos publica nomine suo et M. Numistri Frontonis fili 
chalcidicum cryptam porticus Concordiae Augustae Pietati sua pe- 
cunia fecit eademque dedicavit.' The interior is separated from the 
vestibule (chalcidicum ; on the walls , copies of two inscriptions 
dedicated to Romulus and jEneas) by a number of small chambers, 
where a great number of marble slabs, destined for the completion 
of the edifice, were found. In the interior is an open court, once sur- 
rounded by fifty -four columns of white marble, of which only 
fragments are left. This colonnade (porticus) is surrounded by a 
covered passage (crypta) , which afforded protection against the 
weather. At the back of this, in a niche, stands the statue of Eu- 
machia (a copy, the original being at Naples, p. 63), erected by the 
fullers (fullones) of Pompeii. — We pass out by the back exit into 
the Strada dell' Abbondanza. On the wall at the opposite corner 
are represented the twelve gods with their attributes, almost effaced. 
Nearer the Forum, No. 8, House of the Boar Hunt, named from the 
mosaic in the passage. The border of the large mosaic in the atrium 
represents an ancient town-wall. 

On the E. side of the Forum, at the corner of the Strada dell' 
Abbondanza (p. 131), is a square hall, erroneously supposed to be 
a school. 

On the S. side of the Forum are situated the Tribunals, three 
adjacent chambers, the centre one with a rectangular, the others 
with semicircular extremities, built of good brick which was once 
covered with marble. Probably one of them (that in the centre?) 
served as the meeting-place of the town-council, while the others 
were used for administrative or judicial purposes. 

We leave the Forum by the Strada della Scuola, running to the 
S. on the left of the Tribunals. On its right side a number of 

Theatres. POMPEII. 8. Route. 129 

houses with several stories have recently been exhumed, on the site 
of the ruined walls on the slope of the hill occupied by the town. 
These (e. g. No. 16) command a fine view. In one of the lower 
stories of No. 19 is a bath-room with paintings. — We continue to 
descend, by the Vicolo del Teatri to the left to the so-called Forum 
Triangulare and the adjacent buildings, which have retained many 
of their pre-Roman characteristics. 

We enter the Forum Triangulare through a fine arcade, partly 
restored. The forum was bounded on three sides by a porticus of 
a hundred columns of the Doric order, destined chiefly for the 
use of frequenters of the theatre. On the N. side is a pedestal for 
a statue of Marcellus, nephew of Augustus, with an inscription. 
The side next the sea was open. On a basement here, approached 
by live steps, stood a Temple in the ancient Greek style, 101 ft. in 
length and 67 ft. in breadth, perhaps dedicated to Apollo. It was 
surrounded by columns, six being in front and eleven at each side, 
and in the centie was the shrine. The whole building was in the 
ancient Doric order of about the 6th cent. B.C. A few capitals, two 
broken columns, and some fragments of the wall of the cella are now 
the sole remains of this once imposing structure. It was doubtless 
overthrown before the earthquake of 63 ; and the inhabitants of the 
stuccoed buildings of the imperial age would never dream of restor- 
ing it in its massive and simple dignity. — The enclosed space in 
front of the temple was perhaps used for the slaughter of the 
victims. To the left of it are three altars. 

Beyond the temple, No. 32, is the so-called Bidental, consist- 
ing of the large embouchure of a fountain (Puteal) within a small 
circular temple, 12 ft. in diameter, with eight Doric columns. — 
On the other side of the temple is a semicircular seat, with a 

To the E. of the Bidental the visitor looks down into a portico, 
lying below the theatre and originally belonging to it, but after- 
wards fitted up as Barracks for Gladiators. It possesses seventy- 
four columns, and around it are a number of detached cells. The 
edifice had a second floor, as the imitation on the S. side shows, 
which contains the rooms of some of the custodians. In a chamber 
used as a prison were found three skeletons and iron stocks for the 
feet (now replaced by a poor wooden reproduction) , in another 
chamber some gladiatorial weapons were found. Sixty-three bodies 
in all were discovered in this building. 

Adjoining the Forum Triangulare on the N., and adapted to the 
sloping ground, is the *Great Theatre (Teatro Scoperto). It is a 
building of very early origin, but about the beginning of the Christian 
era it was restored by the architect M. Artorius, at the expense 
of M. Holconius Rufus and M. Holconius Celer. The space for the 
spectators (opening to the S.) consists of three ranks (ima, media, 
and summa cavea) ; the first contains four tiers for the chairs of 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. 9 

130 Route 8. POMPEII. Temple of Isis. 

persons of rank, the second twenty, and the third four. Corridors 
and staircases led to the different parts of the building. It is 
estimated that 5000 spectators could be accommodated. Behind the 
orchestra is the long and narrow stage, in front of which is an 
opening in the ground for the rising and falling the curtain. The 
posterior wall of the stage, once adorned with statues, is provided 
with three doors, according to the rules of the ancient drama. 
Behind these was the dressing-room. On the summit of the outer 
wall are seen the stone rings for the poles which supported an 
awning in sunny weather. Behind the theatre is a square reservoir, 
the water of which was used in hot weather for refreshing the 
spectators by means of a slight sprinkling. 

The adjacent * Small Theatre (Teatro Coperto) is better pre- 
served than the great. An inscription records that it was roofed 
in (theatrum tectum). Number of spectators 1500. The seats are 
cut out in such a way that the feet of the spectator did not incon- 
venience the person sitting on the tier below him. The building 
dates from about B.C. 75. The marble pavement of the orchestra 
was, according to an inscription, presented by M. Oculatius , a 

To the E. of the small theatre passes the Strada Stabiana 
(Cardo), which traverses the entire city from N. to S. Outside the 
ancient Stabian Oate the beginning of a street of tombs has been 
exhumed. — In the cross street in Region I., between Insula? 1 
and 2, at No. 28, is an atrium, the compluvium of which was cov- 
ered with an iron grating (restored") as a protection against thieves. 
No. 2, on the right of the same street, was a tannery. 

We continue to ascend the Stabian Street. On the left, at the 
corner of the Street of the Temple of Isis (Via Secunda), Reg. VIII, 
Ins. 8, No. 25, is the so-called *Temple of iEsculapius, the smallest 
in Pompeii , 68 ft. long, 22^2 ft- broad. The anterior court con- 
tains an archaic altar of tufa , recalling the sarcophagus of Scipio 
in the Vatican. The name of the temple is derived from a terra- 
cotta statue of Jupiter found here , which was at first taken for a 
statue of iEsculapius. As a statue of Juno and a bust of Minerva 
were also found , it is probable that these three deities were all 
worshipped here (as in the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol at 
Rome). — Farther on in the Street of the Temple of Isis, on the 
left, No. 28, rises the *Temple of Isis, which, as the copy of the 
inscription over the entrance informs us, was restored after the 
earthquake of 63 by N. Popidius Celsinus, a boy six years of age, 
at his own expense, who in recognition of this service was re- 
ceived into the rank of the decuriones. The court is surrounded by 
a porticus; between the columns are several altars, and an an- 
cient aperture for the reception of the remains of sacrifices now 
used as an air-shaft of the Sarno tunnel. On the left is a small 
shrine, the so-called Purgatorium, in which ablutions were per- 

Str. dell' Abbondanza. POMPEII. 8. Route. 131 

formed; a staircase here descended to a well ; the walls are taste- 
fully adorned with reliefs in stucco. A statuette of Isis, now in the 
Naples Museum (p. 61), was found in the portico of this temple. 
The chambers adjoining the wall on the left were occupied hy the 
priests. Several bodies were found here ; and on the altar were 
remains of sacrifices. — The next door on the left, No. 29, leads 
into the so-called Curia Jsiaca, a court surrounded by columns. 
Opposite the door is the pedestal of a statue , on which the Dory- 
phorus, now in the Naples Museum (p. 62), was found. Behind 
it is a small flight of steps, which was perhaps used for placing 
garlands on the statue; in front is a low stone plinth or table. 
The place was a palffistra of the Oscan period, and was afterwards 

We return to the Stabian Street and ascend it farther. To the 
left is a small sanctuary of the Lares; to the right, No. 5 is the Casa 
del Citarista, named after the Apollo in the style of Pasiteles found 
here (p. 68). This is one of the largest houses at Pompeii, com- 
prising two atria and three peristyles. 

At the next crossing (88 ft. above the sea-level) the Strada dell' 
Abbondanza (see below) diverges on the left, and on the right, the 
Strada dei Diadumeni towards the Porta del Sarno, which is, 
however, only excavated as far as the next street. At the corner here 
is the buttress of an aqueduct, leaden pipes from which are ob- 
served on the pavement farther on. On the left, Reg. IX, Ins. 1, 
No. 20, is the Casa dei Diadumeni, or of Epidius Rufus, with a 
sloping platform in front of the facade, and a handsome atrium 
with fourteen columns. Within it is a lararium on the right, with 
the inscription 'Genio Marci nostri et Laribus duo Diadumeni li- 
berti'. At the back is a garden, to the left of which is the vaulted 
kitchen. — The atrium of the House of Epidius Sabinus, No. 22 
(left), contains a well-preserved lararium; pretty view of two peri- 
styles. — Ascending the embankment in a straight direction, we 
reach a cart-road leading to the Amphitheatre (see p. 142). 

We now enter the broad Strada dell' Abbondanza, which 
ascends to the Forum, and was closed at both ends by means of 
stone pillars, in order to exclude carriages. About the middle 
is a fountain with a head and cornucopia of Abundantia (or rather 
Concordia), whence the name of the street. 

L., Reg. VIII, Ins. 4, No. 15, *House of Cornelius Rufus. The 
atrium contains two handsome pedestals for tables, and a bust with 
the inscription, 'C. Cornelio Rufo'. The peristyle has eighteen 

R., No. 8, is the principal entrance to the *Stabian Thermae 
(closed on Sunday). They date from the Oscan period, but were 
afterwards extended and re-decorated. We enter a spacious court, 
flanked by pillars on two sides , which was used for paltEstric exer- 
cises. Adjoining this to the right is the Men's Bath. Off a vesti- 


132 Route 8. POMPEII. Stabian Thermae. 

bule to the left was the cold hath, a circular building with four re- 
cesses and an opening in the dome ; in front were the undressing 
room with recesses for hanging up the clothes, and another entrance 
from the Stabian Street. Both here and in the vestibule the roofs are 
adorned with fine reliefs in stucco. Farther to the left are the tepid 
room (tepidarium ; with a plunge-bath, unusual in such rooms) and 
the hot room (calidarium), both heated by means of double walls 
and floors. — In the right corner of the court at the back is the 
Women's Bath. The door above leads into a vestibule , into which 
the dressing-room opens on the left; from the street are two 
separate entrances. Round the vaulted hall are niches for clothes; 
in the corner is a basin enclosed by masonry. Adjacent are the warm 
bath and the sudatory ; at one end is a marble basin, at the other 
a fountain for warm water, with a pipe connecting it with the 
stoves (visible on the outside); the walls are double. The stoves 
were between the men's and women's baths. In the wing opposite, 
which has a side-entrance from the street, are four baths for single 
bathers on the left. — In the court, opposite the entrance, is a 
herma of Mercury resembling that in the Temple of Apollo. On 
the wall on the left are stucco ornaments in relief. The first 
room to the left served for undressing; the walls still bear traces 
of the presses for hanging up the clothes. Next to this is a shallow 
basin used for washing after gymnastic exercises ; then a swim- 
ming-bath. The following room was also originally a hath, but was 
afterwards filled up and used for other purposes. 

L., Reg. VIII, Ins. 4, No. 4, the House ofHolconius, with hand- 
some peristyle, rich in paintings, but faded. In the oecus (r.) 
Ariadne and Bacchus; (1.) Hermaphrodite; in the room to the 
right, Rape of Europa ; in the room to the left, Achilles in Scyros, 
and Judgment of Paris. 

A few paces farther the Theatre Street diverges to the right, 
leading to the Forum Triangulare (p. 129), while we follow the 
Vico del Lupanahe to the right. 

R., Reg. VII, Ins. 1, No. 47, *House of Siricus. On the thresh- 
old the inscription 'Salve lucru(mf ; to the same proprietor be- 
longed the large adjacent bakehouse, No. 46. To the left of the 
atrium are two rooms with good paintings : (1.) Neptune and Apollo 
helping to build the walls of Troy ; opposite, Drunken Hercules ; 
(r.) Vulcan presenting Thetis with weapons for Achilles. In the 
centre of the peristyle is a pavilion borne by four green columns. 
A staircase leads to the left to the other part of the house, the 
principal entrance of wich (now closed) opened from the Strada 
Stabiana, another peristyle, and an atrium containing a handsome 
marble table. 

To the left on the opposite wall are large snakes, with the in- 
scription : 'Otiosis locus hie non est, discede morator'. 

To the left at the corner of the second lane, the Vicolo del 

Strada Stabiana. POMPEII. a. Route. 133 

Baloone Pensile, is Reg. VII, Ins. 12, No. 18, the Lupanare 
(closed) ; at the sides five sleeping-places ; in front, the seat of the 
hostess. The bad character of the house is sufficiently indicated by 
the paintings and inscriptions. A separate entrance from the street 
ascended direct to the upper floor, which had a gallery facing two 
streets. — In the Vicolo del Balcone Pensile, on the right (Reg. VII, 
Ins. 12, No. 28), is the *House with the Balcony [Casa del Balcone 
Pensile; opened on request). The atrium contains a fountain with 
a marble figure on the right. Three rooms of the projecting upper 
floor have been preserved by carefully replacing the charred wood- 
work by new beams — a laborious and costly undertaking. 

We return; to the Vico del Lupanare. To the right, at the first 
corner, is the shoemaker's shop of M. Nonius Campanus, a retired 
Praetorian, assigned to him by his former centurion, M. Caesius 
Blandus, the landlord. — Nearly opposite, in the street of the 
Augustales (p. 127), is the Casa delV Orso, named from a mosaic of 
a wounded bear at the entrance. 

We now turn to the right and after a few yards regain the Strada 
Stabiana, which we ascend. 

To the right (Reg. IX, Ins. 3, No. 5), the *House of Marcus 
Lucretius, once richly fitted up, though with questionable taste 
(shown at the request of the visitor). Behind the atrium is a small 
garden , laid out in terraces , with a fountain and a number of 
marble figures. The best of the paintings are preserved at Naples. 
This is one of the few houses in Pompeii of which the proprietor's 
name is known. The information was afforded by a letter painted 
on the wall with the address 'M. Lucretio Flam. Martis decurioni 

The whole of Insula 4 in Region IX is occupied by extensive 
Thermae, which were in course of construction at the time the 
city was overwhelmed. In the large court, which is accessible 
on three sides , the labourers were in the very act of making 
the gutter and laying the bases for the columns of the portico. 
The large swimming-basin, to the left, below the windows of the 
inner rooms, was also unfinished. Instead of the two swimming- 
baths, for men and women, usually found in the Thermae, there is 
here only this one, which is, however, of unwonted size, and quite 
destitute of ornamentation. Passing through an antechamber on 
the left, off which open several rooms of unknown purpose, we 
reach the dressing-room (apodyterium), containing a large bath of 
cold water (frigidarium). Next to this is the warm bath (tepida- 
rium), beyond which is the hot chamber (calidarium), with three 
basins for hot baths. To the left of the tepidarium is the laconi- 
cum, or sudatory, covered with a vaulted roof, and also connected 
with the calidarium. The three rooms last mentioned appear to 
have been heated by means of double floors and walls, traces of 
which are still visible in the laconicum. The heating- furnaces had 

134 Route 8. POMPEII. Strada di Nola. 

not yet been built. The three largest rooms are provided with 
large windows, another divergence from the ordinary plan of the 

The next crossing, where the Strada della Fortuna (p. 135) 
leads to the left and the Stkada di Nola to the right, may be 
described as the centre of the city. We follow the latter street 
which leads in 5 min. to the gate of the same name, one of the 
most ancient in the town. Here the insula 4 and 5, and part of 
6 and 7 in Keg. IX, have been excavated to the S., and the insula 
1 and part of 2, Reg. V, to the N. 

To the left, at Reg. V, Ins. 1, No. 7, is a fine capital with figures. 

The houses to the right, in the insula (IX, 5) beyond the Thermae, 
contain numerous paintings, most of which, however, are of little ar- 
tistic merit. The first house, No. 2, contains, in the room to the left 
of the tablinum, two scenes from the story of Achilles : Hephaestus 
showing Thetis the armour he had made for Achilles, and Thetis on 
a Triton taking the armour to her son. — The house No. 6, farther 
on, which contains an unusual number of pictures, is also remark- 
able for its peculiar oblong ground - plan. In the roofed room 
to the right, in front of the peristyle of No. 9, are Egyptian land- 
scapes with pygmies. The house No. 11 has representations of 
the Muses (to the right, next the tablinum). — The house in the 
S.E. angle of this insula, No. 16, seems to have been a tavern, 
and contains a room with paintings of the grossest description ; in 
the room to the right of the atrium, the Muses. 

Of the next insula (IX, 6), to the E. of the last, only one 
large house (Casa del Centenario) has been excavated. It contains 
a spacious peristyle , two covered rooms (one with decorations on a 
white ground), and a small bath, the marble flooring of which 
seems to have been removed in some ancient excavation. Adjacent 
is a room tastefully decorated with paintings , inserted in the 
walls at a later period: right, Orestes, Pylades, and Iphigenia; 
left, Theseus and the Minotaur; centre, Hermaphrodite and Sil- 
enus. The pavement also was black. 

We return to the crossing mentioned above, and turning to the 
right, follow the northern extension of the Strada Stabiana. At 
the corner to the left are a Fountain and an Altar of the Lares ; 
adjacent is a pillar of the Aqueduct. Of the houses the following 
are noticeable : — L., Reg. VI, Ins. 14, No. 20, with a mutilated 
herma erected by the arcarius (cashier) Anteros to M. Vesonius 
Primus , the master of the house , with projecting props for the 
support of wreaths. The peristyle is adorned with a fresco of Orpheus, 
over life-size. • — No. 22, a Fullonica, or fuller's workshop. The 
atrium contains a handsome impluvium and several handsome table- 
supports. In the room at the back are three basins (comp. p. 137), 
and on the wall are paintings of a banquet of fullers (fullones) and 
a scene in a court of law. — Opposite, to the right, Reg. V, Ins. 1, 

Str. della Fortuna. POMPEII. 8. Route. 135 

No. 26, the house of L. Caecilius Jucundus, the banker, where the 
receipts now preserved in the Museo Nazionale (p. 71) were discov- 
ered. In the atrium stood a herma erected to the banker by his 
freedman Felix; the pedestal, with the inscription l Oenio L(uci) 
nostri Felix l(ibertusf is still here, but the bronze bust has been 
removed to the Museo (p. 67). In the atrium, to the left, is the 
lower part of the chapel of the Lares, with a relief representing the 
N. side of the Forum. The beautiful paintings in the tablinum 
are unfortunately somewhat faded. — Farther on, No. 18 ; the last 
room to the left of the peristyle is adorned with paintings and 
Greek epigrams (to the left, Pan and Cupid wrestling). 

We again return to the crossing mentioned on p. 134 and thence 
follow the Strada della Fobtuna (Decumanus Major). 

L., at the first corner, Reg. VIII, Ins. 4, No. 48, House of the 
Chase ('C. della Caccia')- Beyond the finely-painted tablinum we 
enter the peristyle ; opposite, wild beast fights, whence the name of 
the house ; on the right, landscapes, with Polyphemus and Galatea. 

L. No. 51 , House of Ariadne ('C. di Arianna'), extending to 
the Street of the Augustales, towards which it has its atrium. From 
the Strada della Fortuna (capital with figures at the entrance) we 
first enter the garden; in the centre is the peristyle with sixteen 
columns with variegated capitals. In the centre is a fountain. A 
room to the right contains fine wall-paintings. 

L. No. 56, House of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany (PI. 2), small, 
with mosaic fountain. 

L. No. 57, Casa dei Capitelli Figurati, named after the capitals 
of the entrance-pillars , adorned with figures of Bacchantes and 
Fauns. Tasteful atrium and peristyle. From the peristyle, in 
which is a pavilion with six columns and a sun-dial, we enter a 
sugar-bakehouse, the use of which has been conjectured from the 
nature of the objects found in it. The oven is still in existence. 

L., No. 59, Casa della Pareta Nera, so called from the remarkably 
beautiful black *Wall in the exedra, behind the peristyle. 

Opposite, on the right, Keg. VI, Ins. 12, Nos. 2-5, the 
*House of the Faun, so named from the statuette of a dancing 
Faun found here (p. 67). The house occupies a whole insula, and is 
the most sumptuous in Pompeii, 262 ft. long and 125 ft. broad. 
The style of its decoration proves it to date from the republican era 
(2nd cent. B.C.). It contained beautiful mosaics , but hardly any 
mural paintings. The stucco on the walls is an imitation of in- 
crustation in coloured marble (comp. p. xliv). On the pavement in 
front of the house is the greeting 'Have'. It possesses two entrances 
and two atria. The left atrium (35 ft. by 38 ft.) is in the Tuscan 
style , i. e. the roof was borne by cross-beams without vertical 
support. Near the impluvium the statuette of the Faun was found. 
The simpler atrium on the right is an atrium tetrastylum, i. e. the 
roof-beams surrounding the impluvium were borne by four columns. 

136 Route 8. POMPEII. Str. delle Terme. 

It was used as a vestibule to the offices on the right : bath, kitchen, 
etc. The peristyle contained twenty-eight Ionic columns of tufa 
coated with stucco. At the back of the exedra, beside the red 
columns, was found the celebrated mosaic of the Battle of Alexander 
(p. 65). At the back is a garden with a Doric portico. 

A few paces farther on, the Forum Street leads to the left, the 
Mercury Street (p. 137) to the right. 

Reg. VII, Ins. 4, No. 1, at the corner of the Forum Street, 
is the Temple of Fortuna , erected according to the inscription by 
M. Tullius during the reign of Augustus. (The inscription is upon 
the architrave of the aedicula in the rear, now lying in the temple. J 
It is approached by thirteen steps. The entrance was at the top of 
the first flight of steps, and was separated from the altar which stood 
there by a railing. — ■ Hence to the Forum, see p. 127. 

From this point we follow the continuation of the Strada della 
Fortuna, called Strada delle Teems. 

On the left, is the entrance to the * Thermae (Reg. VII, Ins. 5; 
'Terme del Foro'), which occupy a whole insula. The exterior was 
surrounded by shops, which had no connection with the interior. Two 
of the six entrances admit to an elegant irregular court, with arcades 
and columns. Thence, or direct from the street (No. 2), we enter 
the chamber for undressing (apodyterium) ; surrounded by benches. 
Beyond this is the cold bath (frigidarium) ; the vault above was 
provided with a glass window. The water gushed forth from a copper 
mouth-piece opposite the entrance and was let off below the entrance. 
To the right of the undressing room is the warm bath (tepidarium). 
A frieze running round it is furnished with niches for depositing 
clothes and articles of the toilet, and is supported by figures of 
Atlas in terracotta. The vaulting was richly decorated with stucco 
figures in relief. This chamber was heated by means of the large 
brazier of bronze (to the left), which, with three bronze benches, was 
presented, according to the inscription, by M. Nigidius Vaccula, to 
whose name (vacca = cow) the cow on the brazier and the cows' heads 
on the benches are references. Adjacent is the hot-air bath (cali- 
darium or sudatorium). A niche at the end contains a marble 
basin for washing the hands and face with cold water ; it bears an 
inscription recording that it was erected at a cost of 5250 sesterces 
(39i. sterling). At the other end is the basin for warm baths. The 
apartment has double walls and floor, between which the steam 
diffused itself. From the undressing-room we reach the furnace, 
and then a small court to the left, with two columns, one of which 
probably bore a sun-dial. — No. 8, Strada delle Terme, is the Wo- 
men's Bath, simpler than the men's ; the tepidarium here also had 
double walls and floor. 

Nearly opposite to the Thermae, Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 5 is the 
* House of the Tragic Poet, one of the most elegant in Pompeii, 
so called from two representations found in the tablinum a poet 

Str. delle Terme. POMPEII. 8. Route. 137 

reading (more probably Admetus and Alcestis), and a mosaic of a 
theatrical rehearsal (which, together with beautiful paintings of sub- 
jects from the Iliad , are now in the museum at Naples). This is 
represented by Bulwer Lytton in his 'Last Days of Pompeii' (1834) 
as the dwelling of Glaucus. On the threshold was a dog in mo- 
saic, with the inscription 'Cave Canem', now at Naples (p. 58). 
The peristyle of seven columns is closed at the back by a wall, on 
which is a small shrine of the Lares. In the triclinium on the 
right, Youth and maiden looking at a nest containing Cupids 
(above, Marsyas playing the flute and Olympus), Theseus aban- 
doning Ariadne, and Diana with Orion (?). On the side-panels are 
personifications of the seasons. 

Reg. VI, Ins. 6, No. 1, beyond the cross-street, on the right, is 
the House of Pansa (Domus Cn. Allei Nigidi Mai), one of the 
largest in Pompeii, occupying a whole insula, 319 ft. long and 
124 ft. broad. It comprises sixteen shops and dwellings , facing 
two of the streets. On the threshold was found a mosaic with 
the greeting 'Salve'. This house affords a normal specimen of a 
palatial residence of the imperial epoch , complete in all its 
appointments : atrium, tablinum , peristyle , oecus (to the left, 
adjacent, the kitchen with the snakes), and lastly the garden or 
xystus. Comp. Groundplan, p. 120. 

At the picturesque corner opposite, Reg. VI , Ins. 3 , No. 20, 
is a tavern, the street to the left of which leads to the Porta di 
Ercolano (p. 140). 

We return to the Temple of Fortuna, and, turning to the left, 
follow the Stbada di Meucueio, at the entrance to which rises a 
Brick Arch, on which the pipes of a water-conduit are visible. It 
was once surmounted by the bronze statue of Caligula, mentioned 
at p. 69. 

L., Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 14, is a small Temple of the Lares. 

R. Reg. VI, Ins. 10, No. 7, House of the Anchor, named after 
an anchor in mosaic on the threshold. By the tablinum we descend 
to a peristyle, the pavement of which was higher than the garden. 
The latter, to which a staircase descends, was on the level of the 
Strada della Fortuna, and was surrounded by a cryptoporticus and 
numerous niches containing altars. 

R., No. 6, House of Pomponius, with an oil-mill to the right of 
the entrance. 

L. No. 20, the Fullonica, or fuller's establishment. The square 
pillars (on one of which were frescoes alluding to the fuller's art, 
now in Naples) supported a gallery (Solarium) for drying the 
cloth. Around are dwelling-rooms and bed-chambers, as well as 
rooms for the workmen. To the right is the kitchen, with an 
oven; and behind are four basins on different levels, destined for 
washing the cloths, which were afterwards stamped with the feet 
in the small stands to the right. One egress leads to the Strada 

138 Route 8. POMPEII. Str. di Mercurio. 

della Fullonica. Adjacent to these premises, and connected with 
them by a door, was the hexastyle atrium, No. 21. 

L. No. 22, House of the Large Fountain, at the end of which 
is a mosaic *Fountain. 

L., No. 23 , House of the Small Fountain (della piccola fon- 
tana) ; to the right of the entrance a staircase ascends to the 2nd 
floor. At the end of the house is a fountain of gaily coloured mo- 
saic, adorned with a small and graceful bronze : Boy with a goose (a 
copy, original at Naples). The walls are decorated with landscapes, 
among which is a *Harbour on the left. 

R., No. 1, a Tavern; towards the street is a table covered with 
marble and a fire-place. A door leads from the shop to the left 
into a small room adorned with various allusions to drinking : 
a waggon with a wine-skin, players and drinkers, eatables, etc. 
In the corner to the left a soldier is being served ; above him is 
scribbled : 'da fridam pusillum' (pour in some fresh water). To 
the right two other chambers; the second contains paintings of 
Polyphemus and Galatea, and Venus fishing. — In front of the ta- 
vern is a fountain with a head of Mercury, after which the street 
has been named. 

From the corner of the Vicolo di Mercurio a digression may be 
made in the adjacent street to the left to the House of the Labyrinth 
(beyond the first side-street, immediately to the left), a roomy 
dwelling with two atria; principal entrance, Reg. VI, Ins. 11, 
No. 10, second door No. 9. In the passage leading to the peri- 
style, immediately to the left and opening on the latter, is a 
window of terracotta with six small apertures, resembling pigeon- 
holes. In the room beyond the peristyle, to the left, a mosaic 
pavement : Theseus killing the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. The left 
half of the house was destined for the menage ; it contains a bake- 
house and adjoining it a bath with three rooms. 

Farther on in the Strada di Mercurio, Nos. 7 and 6 (Reg. VI, 
Ins. 9) on the left, are the House of Castor and Pollux (Domus 
Cn. Caetroni Eutychi), consisting of two distinct houses , but 
connected. No. 7 is simple and homely. It is connected with the 
neighbouring house by a large peristyle, adorned with paintings 
all round. The restored roof affords an idea of the original lighting 
of the house. In the peristyle is a basin for a fountain ; beyond 
it is a hall. On the right wall of the passage leading to the Corin- 
thian atrium of the other house is the Venus Pompeiana. Beyond 
the atrium are the tablinum and a garden with lararium. Fine 
*Frescoes in the room to the right of the tablinum : to the left, 
Birth of Adonis; on the entrance- wall , Hippolytus and Phaedra; 
in an apartment to the left of the garden, Apollo and Daphne. 

Farther on, Nos. 5-3, House of the Centaur, two different houses, 
connected by a door. No. 3 has a fine bed-room (to the right), 
adorned with imitation marble. 

Str. di Sallustio. POMPEII. 8. Route. 139 

Adjacent, No. 2, *House of Meleager. Within the doorway, to 
the right , Mercury handing a purse to Fortuna. The atrium con- 
tains a marble table, borne by griffins ; beneath, an arrangement for 
keeping viands cool by means of water. Contrary to the usual ar- 
rangement, the peristyle does not lie behind, but to the left of 
the atrium. The porticus is adorned by a graceful fountain. 
Adjoining the peristyle at the back is an cecus, enclosed on 
three sides by Corinthian columns. Among the frescoes, to the right, 
a young Satyr startling a Bacchante with a snake. To the left of the 
OBCus is a hall with frescoes : on the transverse wall to the left, the 
Judgment of Paris. 

We return along the opposite side of the street. Reg. VI, Ins. 7, 
No. 23, House of Apollo (Domus A. Herenulei Communis), named 
from the representations of that god which were found here. 
Behind the gaily-painted *Tablinum, a fountain in a grotesque style. 
At the end of the garden, to the right, is a handsome sleeping- 
chamber (for two beds) ; on the external wall is a landscape with 
a Bacchanalian, and a mosaic of Achilles in Scyros ; among the 
weapons which Ulysses offers him is a shield, on which Achilles 
and Chiron are represented. In the interior are representations of 
Apollo and Marsyas and other mythological subjects. 

No. 18, House of the Wounded Adonis (Domus M. Asellini). 
In the xystus , to the right, a fresco , above life-size , of *Adonis 
wounded, tended and bewailed by Venus and Cupids ; at the sides, 
Achilles and Chiron. In a*Room to the left, 'Toilet of the Herma- 
phrodite' . 

We here turn to the right and following the W. branch of the 
Vicolo di Mercurio, soon reach the Strada di Sallustio, which 
leads to the Porta diErcolano. This was a business-street and con- 
tained few handsome houses. Opposite the Vicolo is a house fitted 
up as a Library, containing an collection of archaeological works, 
and for the reception of students supported by government (Scuola 

Farther on, to the right, Reg. VI, Ins. 2, No. 4, is the House 
of Sallust (Domus A. Coss. Libani), with the atrium and adjacent 
rooms lined with stucco painted to imitate marble. Behind the tab- 
linum is a small irregularly-shaped garden, with a triclinium in an 
arbour in the corner. Instead of a peristyle, this house contains 
a small court enclosed by pillars, to the right of the atrium, and 
styled, though without authority, the Venereum. On the wall oppo- 
site, *Actason converted into a stag, and torn to pieces by his own 
dogs ; to the left, Europa and the bull ; to the right, Phrixus and 
Helle. In the small room to the right, Venus and Mars. 

No. 6 is a Bakehouse, with ovens and mills. The latter were 
turned by asses or slaves. — At the corner of the street is a foun- 
tain, and behind it a building erroneously described as a reservoir 
of the aqueduct. 

140 Route 8. .POMPEII. Street of Tombs. 

Some of the houses on the left, on the slope of the hill occu- 
pied by the town , had several stories , and large vaults, used as 
magazines. From this point and from the following houses a charm- 
ing glimpse is obtained of the bay with the island of Capri ; near 
the land is the picturesque rocky islet of Revigliano ; to the right 
is Torre Annunziata. 

A large, open hall to the right, Reg. VI, Ins. 1, No. 13, is 
called, without authority, a Custom House; its real character is 
unknown. — No. 10, a little farther on, to the right, is the 
House of the Surgeon , so called from a considerable number of 
surgical instruments found here. It is remarkable for its massive 
construction of limestone blocks from the river Sarno , and it is 
probably the most ancient house in the town. "We next reach 
No. 7, on the right, the extensive House of the Vestals. 

No. 3, on the left, opposite, is a large Tavern, with a phallus 
towards the street, intended to avert the evil eye. It contains two 
wine-tables, and has an entrance for waggons. — No. 2, on the 
right, is another tavern. 

The Porta di Ercolano or Herculanean Qate (135 ft. above 
the sea-level) is believed to date from the time of Augustus. It 
consists of three series of arches , of which the central and largest 
.has fallen in. The depth of the passage is 59 ft. To the right is 
the approach to the *Town Wall, which may be visited for the 
sake of the view. The wall (p. 122) consists of an outer and inner 
wall, the intervening space being filled with earth. The height of 
the external wall varies according to the ground from 25 to 33 ft., 
the internal being uniformly 8 ft. higher. Originally built of large 
blocks of tufa and limestone, it appears to have been partly de- 
stroyed in the peaceful period of the second century B.C., and to 
have been afterwards repaired chiefly with concrete (small pieces 
of lava consolidated with cement). At the same time it was 
strengthened with towers. The difference between these kinds of 
building will be observed near this gate. — (From this point on- 
wards, comp. the supplementary part of the Plan at p. 120.) 

The suburb outside this gate is perhaps the Pagus Augustus 
Felix, named thus in honour of Augustus. It consisted chiefly of one 
main street, which has been partly excavated. This is the so-called 
*Street of the Tombs (Strada deiSepolcri), part of the great military 
road from Capua to Naples, Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Reggio. The 
ancient Roman custom of burying the dead by the side of a high-road 
iswell known. It has been ascertained that rows of graves, similar 
to those discovered here, exist beyond other gates also (p. 130). 
The Street of Tombs is in point of scenery the most picturesque 
part of the town. 

On the right, No. 1, is a large tomb, apparently in the form of 
an altar, the upper part of which is destroyed ; in the tomb-cavity 
beneath several cinerary urns were found. 

Street of Tombs. POMPEII. 8. Route. 141 

On the left, No. 1, is the Tomb of Cerrinius, a recess with seats. 
It has been said that this was a sentry-box, and that here was found 
the skeleton of a sentinel who died at his post; but this is a mere 
fiction, like many other Pompeian anecdotes. 

L. No. 2, a semicircular seat with the pedestal of a statue of 
the duumvir A. Veins. 

L. No. 3, Tomb of M. Porcius, probably the builder of the am- 
phitheatre and the small theatre ; according to the inscription the 
town-council granted him a piece of ground 25 ft. square for a grave. 

L. No. 4, *Tomb of Mamia; in front a seat like the above, with 
the inscription : 'Mamiae Publii filiae sacerdoti publicae locus se- 
pulturae datus decurionum decreto' . At the back, enclosed by a low 
wall, is the tomb, with niches for cinerary urns. The view hence of 
the bay and the mountains of Castellammare is singularly beautiful. 
— On a street diverging to the right, No. 2, is the ruinous Tomb of 

Farther on, on the right, No. 6, is the Tomb of the Oarlands, 
so called from its decorations; name unknown. R. No. 9, an open 
recess and seat. 

A street, now built up, formerly diverged here to the left. On 
the corner is an inscription (copy) to the effect that Suedius Clemens, 
the tribune, on behalf of Vespasian, restored to the town of Pompeii 
certain common land that had been illegally occupied by private 
persons. — Then, Nos. 5 and 6, the so-called Villa of Cicero, again 
covered up. The buttresses still visible belong to a colonnade which 
ran parallel with the street. 

R. Nos. 10 and 11, two shops. No. 12, House of the Mosaic 
Columns, very dilapidated, probably an inn. The entrance leads 
first into a garden, in which stood a pavilion supported by four mo- 
saic columns (now at Naples, p. 58). Behind is a fountain-recess 
inlaid with mosaic ; to the left is a court with a private chapel and 
altar. Two staircases ascend to the upper floor. 

On the left, beyond the villa of Cicero, several handsome mon- 
uments will be observed : No. 16, that of Servilia. No. 17, that of 
Scaurus, with reliefs in stucco, representing gladiatorial combats, 
but in a very ruinous condition. The columbarium contains niches 
for the urns. 

On the right is a long arcade, at the back of which there were 
shops. From the skeleton of a mule found here it has been 
suggested that this was a resort of peasants on market-days. — 
To the right, in the street which is not yet excavated, are several 
ancient tombs of limestone, belonging to the remote Oscan period, 
when the dead were buried instead of being burned, and when 
painted vessels of terracotta were interred with them. 

On the right are several uncompleted tombs. 

L. No. 18, a circular monument, name unknown. 

L. No. 20, *Tomb of the Augustalis Calventius Quintus ; below 

142 Route 8. POMPEII. Street of Tombs. 

the inscription is represented the bisellium (seat of honour) ac- 
corded him in recognition of his liberality. 

R. No. 36, *Tomb of M. Alleius Luccius Libella and his son, 
of travertine, and well-preserved , with inscriptions. 

L. No. 22, *Tomb of Naevoleia Tyche, with chamber for ciner- 
ary urns. The deceased was a freedwoman , who , according to 
the inscription, destined this tomb for herself and 0. Munatius 
Faustus, chief official of this quarter of the town, and for their 
freedmen. A relief below refers to the consecration of the tomb; 
on the left side is the bisellium, or magisterial seat of Munatius, 
on the right a vessel entering the harbour, a symbol of human life. 
No. 23 was a Triclinium for banquets in honour of the dead. 

On the hill to the right are several tombs, some of them in a 
very ruinous condition. Among these are: No. 41, the tomb of 
IV. Velasius Gratus, a boy of twelve years, a small niche with one 
of the head-shaped tombstones peculiar to Pompeii ; No. 40, to the 
right, a similar tomb with no name ; farther on, tombs erected by 
the freedman M. Arrius Diomedes to himself (No. 42), his family, 
and his former mistress Arria (No. 43). The fasces or bundles of 
rods in stucco-relief, on the tomb of Diomedes (No. 42), indicate 
his dignity as a magistrate of the Pagus Augustus Felix (p. 140). 

No. 24, * Villa of Diomedes, arbitrarily so called from the 
above-mentioned tomb. The arrangement of this , like that of 
other villas , differs considerably from that of the urban dwellings. 
A flight of steps with two columns leads at once to the peristyle, 
whence the bath is entered to the left. Opposite is a terrace, with 
rooms , which rise above the lower portion of the house. The 
garden , 107 ft. square , with a basin for a fountain and a pavilion 
supported by six columns in the centre , is surrounded by a 
colonnade. From the terrace a staircase descends to the left 
(another, from the entrance from the street, to the right). Below 
this colonnade , on three sides, lies a vaulted cellar lighted by 
small apertures above , and approached by staircases descend- 
ing at each end. Eighteen bodies of women and children, who 
had provided themselves with food, and sought protection in 
this vault against the eruption, were found here. But impalpable 
ashes penetrated through the openings into the interior, and 
too late the ill-fated party endeavoured to escape. They were 
found with their heads wrapped up, half buried by the ashes. The 
impression made on the ashes by a girl's breast is now in the 
museum at Naples. The probable proprietor of the house was 
found near the garden-door (now walled up), with the key in 
Ms hand; beside him was a slave with money and valuables. 

The *Amphitheatre , situated at the S.E. end of the town, 
lies detached from the other ruins (coupon of admission ticket 
must be shown here). Those who do not reserve it for the last, 

CASTELLAMMARE. 9. Route. 143 

will And it most convenient to visit the amphitheatre immediately 
after the Stabian Thermae (p. 131), whence it may be reached via 
the Strada dei Diadumeni in about 8 minutes. Outwardly the build- 
ing looks somewhat insignificant, as a great part of it, as high as the 
second story, was excavated in the earth for the purpose of simplifying 
the construction. Round the exterior runs an uncovered gallery, 
to which stairs ascend for the use of the spectators in the upper 
places. The principal entrance descends considerably. Whole length 
148, width 114 yds. ; number of spectators 20,000. Three different 
series of seats are distinguished, the first with five, the second 
with twelve, and the third with eighteen tiers ; above these also 
ran a gallery. The seats are cut out in the same manner as in 
the small theatre. The building was begun in B.C. 70, and after- 
wards continued at intervals. For several decades before the year 79 
the amphitheatre had not been used, so that the story of the people 
having been surprised by the eruption while witnessing a gladiator 
combat here is a pure myth. 

On leaving the Amphitheatre we may return by the high-road to 
the railway-station of Pompeii in ] /4 nr 'i or proceed to the station of Torre 
Annunziata (p. 118), in 3/ 4 h r . — Or we may reach the station of Valle 
di Pompei (p. 160) in about 6 min. in the opposite direction. On this 
way there are several tombs (in the field beyond the second house), which 
lay on the ancient road from Pompeii to Nuceria (closed at present). 

9. Castellammare, Sorrento, and Capri. 

Comp. the Map. 

Railway from Naples to Castellammare, 17 M., in 3 /t-l hr. ; fares 2 fr. 25, 
1 fr. 45 c. ; ten (Sun. sixteen) trains daily. From Caserta to Castellammare, 
see p. 10. — Carriage from Castellammare to Sorrento, 10 M., in l'/ahr. ; 
tariff, see p. 144. A seat ('un posto', l-l'/2 fr.) may easily be obtained by a 
single traveller in one of the numerous carriages frequenting this road. 

Mail Steamboat from Naples across the bay to Vico Eqvense, Meta, 
and Sorrento in l 3 / 4 hr. (6 fr., 5 fr.) and thence via Massa to Capri ; comp. 
p. 152. 

Those whose time is limited should make little stay at Castellammare, 
in order to arrive at Sorrento early enough for an excursion to the Deserto 
(p. 151), or other interesting point in the environs. The night should be spent 
at Sorrento, and Capri visited next day; Naples may then be regained on the 
third , or , if necessary , on the evening of the second day. — This route 
may also be combined with the following (p. 160). The steamboat trip 
across the Bay of Naples is so beautiful in fine weather that it should be 
made once at least. 

The Castellammare train follows the main line to Salerno and 
Metaponto as far as Torre Annunziata, Stazione Centrale (see 
R. 6), where our line diverges to the right. Skirting the coast, it 
crosses the Sarno (on the right is the rocky islet of Revigliano, with 
an old castle) ; and in 12 min. it reaches the Castellammare station 
at the N. end of the town. — The line then again runs inland, 
reaching its terminus at(3M.) Gragnano, a little community, well 
known for its excellent red wine, and containing numerous manu- 
factories of maccaroni. About 2t /4 M. to the N.E. is Lettere, with 

144 Route 9. CASTELLAMMARE. From Naples 

a ruined castle. Carriage -road from Gragnano to Agerola, see 
p. 146. 

Castellammare. — Hotels. Hotel Royal, in the main street, near 
the station, R.2Vs-4, L. »/ 4 , A. "A. B - IVs, dej. 3V«, »• 5 (both incl. wine), 
pens. 8-11 fr.; Hotel Staeia, nearest the station and also on the quay, 
in the Italian' style, well spoken of, R. , L., & A. 3 , B. 1, dej. 2'/2, D. 5 
(both incl. wine), pens. 7 fr. — Beautifully situated above the town, 
on the road to Quisisana, commanding a charming view of Vesuvius 
and the bay: ,: 'H6tel Quisisana, on the left, frequented by the English, 
R 3-6 L. & A. I 1 /"- B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. (L. extra) 9-12, omnibus 
from station with "luggage I1/2 fr. ; Gean Beetagna , on the right. — 
*Geand Hotel Maegheeita, in the Villa Quisisana (p. 145), recently newly 
fitted up, 150 R., pens. 10-12 fr. — Pension Baker (Villa Calvanese), 5-7 
f r . — 'Hotel & Pension Weiss (Villa Belvedere), on the hill to the E., 
near the station, with terrace, fine garden, and view, pens. (L. extra), 6 fr. 
daily. The road hence to Quisisana passes Scanzano. 

Caffe deW Europa and Trattoria Villa di Napoli, both in the Largo 
Principe Umberto, which opens towards the sea, and where a band plays 
in the evening 1-3 times a week according to the season. — "Sail. Re- 

Carriages. There is no difference in the charge whether the carriage be 
drawn by a horse or by a donkey ; carr. with three horses same charge as with 
t w0 . — Tariff: drive in the town with one horse 35 c., with two or three 
horses 80 c. — Outside the town, not exceeding 2 kilometres (IV4 M.): first 
hour with one horse l 1 /* fr., with two horses 2V2 fr. ; each additional 
hour 1 fr. or 2 fr. 40 c. — To Quisisana 1 or 3 fr. ; to Gragnano 1 or 2 l /z fr. ; 
to Pozzano 80 c. or 2'/2 fr.; to Lettere 1 fr. 85 or 3 fr. 65 c; to Pimonte 
2 fr. 20 or 4fr. 70c; to Agerola 4 or 7 fr. ; Vico Equense IV2 or 272 fr-; 
to Meta 2 l /i or 41/2 fr. ; to Sorrento 3 or 6 fr. (after 5 p.m. 372 or 7fr.); 
to Torre Annunziata or to Pompeii l'/2 or 3 fr. — The return-fare is 
generally the same as for the hither journey; but a definite arrangement 
should be made as to halts. On the shorter drives the carriage should 
halt V4-V2 hr. , on the longer drives 1-5 hrs. without extra charge. — 
Charges V2 more at night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m. from Nov. 1st to April 30th; 
other seasons, midnight to 4 a.m.). 

Donkeys within a radius of 2 kilometres from the town, 60 c. for 
the first hr., 40 c. each hr. afterwards; to the top of Monte Coppola, 1 fr. 

British Vice-Consul, J. Ashworth, Esq. — U. S. Consular Agent, A. M. 
Wood, Esq. — English Church Service in winter. 

Castellammare, a busy trading and fishing town with 33,000 
inhabl, lies in the E. angle of the Bay of Naples, at the beginning 
of the peninsula of Sorrento, at the base and on the slope of a spur 
of Monte S. Angela. It occupies the site of the ancient Stabiae, 
which was destroyed in A.D. 79, at the same time as Pompeii, and 
thence derives its official name of Castellammare di Stabia. It was 
here that the elder Pliny perished while observing the eruption 
(p. 114). Excavations of the ruins of Stabiae, which lay to the 
left, by the entrance to the town, towards the heights, have not 
been undertaken since 1782, and several villas then laid bare have 
been again covered with rubbish. 

The town extends along the coast for upwards of 1 M., consist- 
ing of one main street and a second running parallel with it. About 
1/3 M. from the station we reach the Largo Principe Umberto, a 
small piazza embellished with flower-beds and trees , where the 
Gaffe Europa is situated. Farther on we come to the animated 
Harbour, which is protected by a molo. Adjoining it is an Arsenal 

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to Sorrento. CASTELLAMMARE. 9. Route. 145 

with a dockyard. — On the hill to the S. of the town are the ruins 
of the Castle to which the town owes its name. It was built in the 
13th cent, by Emp. Frederick II. and strengthened with towers 
and walls by Charles I. of Anjou. 

Castellammare is a favourite summer-resort of the Neapolitans. 
The attractions are sea-baths, mineral waters (impregnated with 
sulphur and carbonic acid gas"), and beautiful shady walks. In spring 
and autumn the numerous visitors are almost exclusively foreigners. 

Turning to the S. by the Largo Principe Umberto, and ascend- 
ing the Salita Caporiva (inclining to the right after 5 min.), we 
pass the Hotel Quisisana and reach a winding road, shaded by fine 
chestnut-trees higher up, which leads to the — 

Villa Quisisana (1 M.). This chateau (Casino), formerly royal, 
now municipal property, is fitted up as the Grand Hotel Margherita 
(p. 144). It occupies the site of a house erected here by Charles 
II. of Anjou about 1300, which was occupied by King Ladislaus 
and his sister Johanna II. while the plague raged at Naples. In 
1820 Ferdinand I. of Bourbon restored the building and gave it its 
present name ('one recovers health here'). Charming view from 
the terrace. 

The Bosco di Quisisana, or park belonging to the villa, which 
is open to the public, affords delightful walks. Following the road, 
we pass through a gate to the right, opposite the entrance to the 
Villa Quisisana, turn to the left at the first bifurcation (while the 
road in a straight direction goes to Pozzano, see below), and then 
pass behind the former garden of the villa , from which there is 
another entrance to the park. — Above , to the left , rises the 
* Monte Coppola, which may be ascended by beautiful wood-walks, 
winding upwards and crossing several ravines , and commanding 
admirable views of the bay and Vesuvius (there and back 2- 
2'/2 nr s. ; donkeys admitted to the park). — The traveller may 
return from Quisisana to Castellammare by the shady and pictur- 
esque route via Pozzano (V2 nr - longer; beginning indicated above), 
which passes the ruined castle of Frederick II. and the Anjou sov- 
ereigns. The monastery of S. Maria a Pozzano, founded by Gon- 
salvo da Cordova, is now unoccupied. Fine views. 

The ascent of "Monte Paito (guide convenient) is an attractive excur- 
sion. The summit, reached in li/2-2hrs- via Quisisana and the Campo 
della Cepparica, commands a beautiful view of the dark olive-clad 
peninsula of Sorrento stretching into the sea , the islands of the Sirens 
(p. 173), and Capri. The Monte Sant' Angelo may be ascended in 2 : /z hrs. 
from the Monte Faito. 

"Monte Sant' Angelo, 4735 ft. above the sea-level, the highest point 
near the bay, commands a noble prospect , embracing the bays of G-aeta, 
Naples, and Salerno, and stretching from Monte Circello to the Punta 
Licosa and to the Abruzzi. The mountain is clothed to the summit 
with wood, chiefly chestnut-trees , and offers various points of interest to 
botanists. Fragments of pumice-stone (rapilli) from eruptions of Vesuvius 
are observed almost all the way to the top. — The ascent, which should 
not be attempted without a guide, requires 4-5 hrs. from Castellammare 

Baedekeb. Italy III. 11th Edition. 10 

146 Route 9. VICO EQUENSE. From Naples 

(on donkey-back 3 hrs. ; donkey and guide 5 fr.; provisions advisable). 
The guides should be expressly directed to conduct the traveller to the 
highest peak crowned by the ruined chapel of St. Michael , which com- 
mands an uninterrupted panorama. Otherwise they ascend another peak, 
the view from which is partly intercepted by the higher summit. The 
last 1 /z hr. must be accomplished on foot. The descent to Castellammare, 
either by the epols of Monte Coppola (see p. 145) , or via Pimonte (see 
below), or to Vico Equense (see below), takes 3 brs. The traveller should 
start early, so as to return to Castellammare before dusk. The excursion 
may also be made from Agerola, from Vico Equense, or from Sorrento. 

From Gkagnano to Agekola, about 7'/2M., carriage-road. Gragnano, 
terminus of the railway from Naples and Castellammare to Gragnano, 
see p. 143. Carriages meet the trains (same charge as from Castellammare, 
see p. 144; 2 l /4-2 1 /2 hrs.). • — The road gradually ascends, winding round 
the Monte Pendolo, amid a luxuriant growth of vines, fig-trees, peach-trees, 
walnut-trees, and chestnut-trees. Higher up there are chestnut-woods alone. 
Beautiful retrospect of the Bay of Naples , Vesuvius and Monte Somma, 
and the plain as far as Nola. The iirst village of any size is (2'/2 M.) 
Pimonte (carr. from Castellammare, p. 144), whence we may visit the (20 
min.) suppressed Dominican monastery of Belvedere (1770 ft.) or ascend 
to the 0/2 hr.) top of Monte Pendolo, which commands fine views. To 
the S. is the Monte S. Angelo (see p. 145). From Pimonte the road ascends 
between Monte Cretaro and Monte Lattaro (the ancient Monies Lactarii). 
The ascent to the top of the pass is obviated by a tunnel (V2 M.) through 
the crest of the mountain, lighted with lamps and often very muddy in 
wet weather. From the other end of the tunnel the road descends, amidst 
a flora gradually increasing in luxuriance as we advance, to Agerola. 
Beautiful views. 

Agerola (about 2300 ft.) is a mountain hamlet, consisting of several 
'frazionf or groups of houses. In the frazione of 8. Lazzaro (comp. the 
map, p. 164) is the "Albergo del Risorgimento (18 beds; pens. 6-8 fr.), with 
a view terrace. Various shady foot-paths are now being made; e. g. to 
the ruined Casiello Avitabile , which commands a splendid view of the 
Bay of Salerno and (to the W.) of Monte Solaro on Capri and the Punta 
di Campanella (p. 150); Salerno itself, Amalfi, and the places on the coast 
are not visible. A longer excursion is that to (IV2 hr.) Montepertuso, 
situated on a steep rock above Positano (p. 173), to which we may descend 
in s/ 4 hr. From S. Lazzaro we may descend, keeping always to the left, 
to (2 hrs.) Amalfi (p. 169), by foot-paths which reach the coast road from 
Positano to Amalfi (p. 173) at Vettica Minore. 

The *Road prom Castellammake to Sorrento (10 M. ; on 
foot recommended; by carriage in l 1 /^ hrs., tariff, p. 144) is one 
of the most beautiful excursions in this delightful district. We pass 
below the monastery of S. Maria a Pozzano (see p. 145) to the Capo 
d' Orlando (Osteria)., Splendid *View. The three rocks on the 
coast are called / Tre Fratelli. We next reach (3 M.) — 

Vico Equense (Hot.-Pens. d'Orient, R., L., & A. 2l/ 2 , iej. 2% 
D. 3, both incl. wine, pens. 6-7, 2 pers. 10 fr.), a town with 12,000 
inhab., situated on a rocky eminence, the ancient Vicus JEquenm. 
Vico was erected by Charles II. on the ruins of the ancient village, 
and was frequently visited by him. The Cathedral contains the tomb 
of the celebrated jurist Gaetano Filangieri (d. 1788). In the Villa 
Giusso are several modern works of art. 

Beyond Vico the deep cutting of the river Arco is crossed by a 
bridge. On the right we next observe Marina di Equa, a village 
with a handsome campanile, beyond which the road ascends between 
vineyards and olive plantations on the slope of the Punta di Scutolo 

to Sorrento. SORRENTO. 9. Route. 147 

or Punta Oradelle. After having rounded this promontory, the road 
descends towards Meta, and the view changes. Before us stretches 
the famous Piano di Sorrento, a plain sheltered hy the surround- 
ing mountains, and intersected hy numerous ravines, remarkable 
for its salubrity and its luxuriant vegetation. Orange and olive 
groves, mulberry-trees, pomegranates, tigs, and aloes are beauti- 
fully intermingled. This has been a favourite retreat of the noble 
and the wealthy from a very early period. Augustus, M. Agrippa, 
Antoninus Pius, and others frequently resided here, and at the 
present day visitors of all nationalities are met with. The space is 
limited, and the villages are neither large nor handsome, but the 
district generally is pervaded with an air of peaceful enjoyment. 

Meta (Trattoria Villa di Sorrento) is a town of 8000 inhab., 
with two small harbours. The modern church of the Madonna del 
Lauro, on the high-road, occupies the site of a temple of Minerva. 
(Route to Camaldoli di Meta, see p. 152.) The next part of the 
road is mostly shut in with walls (carriages easily obtained). 
The Ponte Maggiore leads across the deep ravine of Meta. We 
next reach Carotto, a large village, extending in nearly a straight 
line from the hills on the left to the Marina di Cazzano on the 
right. Then Pozzopiano, surrounded by beautiful orange-gardens, 
and lastly Sant' Agnello. Here, a little to the right of the road, 
Y4M. from Sorrento , is situated the Albergo della Cocumella on 
the beach (see below). The road then passes the (1.) Villa Guarra- 
cino and (r.) the Villa Rubinacci or Rotonda, traverses the long 
suburb, and soon reaches the Piazza of Sorrento. 

Sorrento. — Hotels. !! La Sieena , Tramontano & Tasso, all three 
belonging to Signor Tramontano, situated between the small and the large 
Marina, on an abrupt rock rising from the sea; "Vittoria , charmingly 
situated above the small Marina (cabletramway), entered from the market- 
place, E. 3-4, (2 pers. 6-8), L. & A. I1/2, B. l'/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-12 fr. 
— A little more to the E. of the small Marina, 'Hotel d'Angleterre (Villa 
Nardi), E., L., & A. 3, B. I1/4, dej. 2 l /2, D. 4 (both. incl. wine), pens. 
7 fr. (for a stay of some time 6 fr.); 400 yds from the market-place, "Hotel 
Grande Beetagne (Mrs. Lawrence), in the Villa Majo, E., L., & A. 2'/2, 
B. I1/4, dej. 2fr. 80, D. 4 fr. 80 c. (both incl. wine), pens. 6-8 fr.; a little 
farther on, Hot. -Pens. Lorelei (Villa Piccola Sirena), E., L. , & A. 2V2, 
B. 1, dej. 2V2, D. 3V2, (both incl. wine), pens. 7 fr. (for more than 2 days 
6 fr.); Hotel Bristol (Villa S. Severina) closed at present. All these 
hotels , situated in gardens, have private stairs descending to the sea and 
small bathing-establishments (also warm baths), and command magnificent 
views of the bay. Previous enquiry as to charges had better be made. In 
summer a room towards the N. with a balcony and unimpeded view should 
be obtained if possible. — To the E. of the town, "Alb. della Cocumella 
(see above) in a quiet and picturesque situation, with good beach for 
bathing, pens. 6 fr. Villa di Sorrento, Piazza Municipio, E. 2, B. H/2 
fr., well spoken of. — In the E. suburb: Villa Eobinaoci, Eosa Magra, 
both unpretending (rooms only at these). — Whole villas and furnished 
apartments may also be procured for a prolonged stay. (Information at 
the larger hotels.) 

Restaurants. Villa di Sorrento in the Piazza (also rooms, pension 
5-6 fr.); Unione, in the E. suburb, on the road to Meta, unpretending. — 
Gaffk Europa, in the Piazza; Oafe'-Reslaur. Be Martino, Corso del Duomo, 
200 paces from the Piazza. — In the Piazza is also the Circe'.o di Sorrento, 


148 Route 9. SORRENTO. From Naples 

a club with reading-room, etc., to which strangers are admitted gratis for 
a week (tickets at the hotels), per month 5 fr. 

Sea-Baths on the Piccola Marina, 3 /4 31. distant, 1/2 fr. — Physicians, 
Dr. Luigi del Majo, Dr. L. Galano (enquire at the Farmacia Finizio, Corso 
Duomo). Farmacia Astarita. 

Carriages. The tariff for the morning is lower than that for the 
afternoon, so that charges should always be arranged before starting. — 
To Massalubrense with one horse lVi-2, with two horses 2-3, there and 
back 2-3 or 3-4 fr. ; to S. Agata via Massalubrense, twice as much; to 
Meta, V4-IV4 or l»/ 4 -2»/ 4 ; to Vico Equense, l»/4-2 3 /4 or 3*lz-&U, to Castel- 
lammare, 3-4</2 or 6-9 fr. — Two- horse carr. may be hired for 2 fr. the first 
hr. , and l'/2 fr. each additional hour. — To Prajano (p. 173; about 
3 hrs\ drive), one-horse carr. 6-10, two-horse 10-15 fr. (more if hired at a 
hotel). Fees are in every case extra. 

Donkey generally 1 fr. per hour; for excursions of 2-3 hrs. 2-272 fr., 
and trifling fee to attendant. 

Boats (mostly at the Piccola Marina) I-I72 fr. per hour ; to Capri 
with 2 rowers 6-8, 3-4 rowers 12, 5-8 rowers 16 fr. ; to Castellammare about 
the same. 

English Church Seevice, at the Hotel delle Sirena. 

Bankek. A. Falangola (wine and fruit dealer, branch in Naples). 

Silk Wares (in imitation of the Roman), Inlaid Wood ('tarsia'), and 
Wood Carving, are good and cheap at Sorrento. The tarsia work has 
lately become one of the staple products of the place ; and to encourage 
the industry a government Scuola a" Arte has been established in the old 
convent of S. Antonino, where orders of all kinds are executed. Other 
depots of these articles, which are well adapted for souvenirs and presents, 
are kept by Luigi Oargiulo & Figlio (also silk wares), in the Corso 
Principe Umberto; Michel Grandville, Strada del Tasso; Gius. Oargiulo 
& Co., in the same street. The oldest firm of silkmercers is Casola, in 
the Piazza; other good houses are the Fratelli Miccio, Strada del Tasso, 
Maresca ('Aux deux Passages'), on the road to Massa, etc. 

Sorrento, surnamed l La Gentile 1 , the ancient Surrentum and 
still called by the peasants Surient, a small town with 7500 inhab., 
and the residence of a bishop , lies amid luxuriant lemon and 
orange-gardens on rocks rising precipitously from the sea, and is 
enclosed on the other sides by deep ravines which popular super- 
stition has peopled with dwarfs (monacelli). The E. ravine, by 
which the traveller arriving from Meta crosses from the suburb to 
the Piazza, terminates in the Piccola Marina, or small harbour. 
The W. ravine opens into the Marina Grande, or large harbour, 
where there are numerous fishing-boats and a ship-building yard. 
During the middle ages Sorrento carried on a considerable trade, 
but its walls and towers have long since fallen to decay. Nothing 
remains of the Roman Surrentum, once rich in temples and villas, 
except some subterranean cisterns , with excellent spring-water, 
which have defied the lapse of time, and a few fragments and sub- 
structures, which have been dignified with pretentious names. 

Torquato Tasso, the poet (b. 1544, d. at Rome 1595), was a 
native of Sorrento. A marble statue of the poet has been erected 
in the Piazza. The house in which he was born, with the rock on 
which it stood, has been swallowed up by the sea. The residence of 
his attached sister Cornelia, however, is still pointed out (Pal. Ser- 
sale, .Strada S. Nicola), where, after a glorious but chequered career, 
he was received by her, disguised as a shepherd, in 1592. 

to Sorrento. SORRENTO. 9. Route. 149 

In winter, spring, and autumn, Sorrento is visited almost ex- 
clusively by foreigners, chiefly Americans and English. Its cool 
northern aspect admirably adapts it for a summer-residence, and 
it is then frequented by both Italians and foreigners during the 
bathing -season. Visitors generally bathe in the morning, devote 
the hot part of the day to the 'dolce-far-niente' , make short 
excursions in the beautiful environs late in the afternoon , and 
after sunset lounge in the Piazza listening to the band. — An 
aqueduct, opened in 1892, supplies the town with excellent drinking- 
water. — The small Giardino Pubblico, opposite the Hotel Tra- 
montano, commands an unimpeded view of the sea. — A walk in 
the fine avenue beside the old city -wall is recommended. We 
reach the avenue by turning to the le.ft at the end of the straight 
street leading from the piazza past the Cathedral, at the entrance 
of which are several ancient bas-reliefs and inscriptions. — As 
most of the neighbouring roads run between high garden walls, 
and are very dusty in summer, there is a great lack of walks. 

Excursions by Boat are very pleasant. Thus (there and back in 
172-2 hrs., with one rower 3 fr.) to the Punta di Sorrento, at the 
W. end of the bay, opposite the Punta di Scutolo (p. 146) to the 
S.W., passing between cliffs where remains of Roman masonry, 
baths, and a so-called temple of Hercules are visible. The traveller 
should not omit to row into the large ancient piscina , now called 
Bagno delta Regina Oiovanna. The name of the adjacent hamlet of 
Marina di Puolo recalls the magnificent Villa of Pollius Felix, 
described by Statius , the poet. A trip by boat to Meta (p. 147), 
where there are several fine grottoes in the lofty cliffs of the coast 
(il Pecoriello, la Piccola Azzurra, etc.), may be made in the same 
time and at the same cost. 

The **Road to Massalubkknse (2 1 / 2 M.) , like that from 
Castellammare , of which it is a continuation , commands a series 
of beautiful views. It is frequented in the evening by numerous 
carriages, riders, and walkers. A few hundred yards beyond the 
last houses of Sorrento it crosses the ravine of La Conca by a 
bridge. To the left, ^4 M- farther, the 'Strada Capodimonte', a 
paved bridle-path, ascends to the left; we diverge to the right at 
the second bend and in 7 min. reach the Capodimonte , a famous 
point of view. The road, however, which skirts the base of the 
Capodimonte, commands retrospectively nearly the same prospect. 
The road then ascends to the Capo di Sorrento, whence we may de- 
scend in 10-12 min. to the Punta di Sorrento, or in about the same 
time to the Bagno della Rpgina Giovanna (see above). About l 3 / 4 M. 
from Sorrento we reach Villnzzano , a group of houses at the foot of 
the telegraph hill (p. 151), which the road makes a bend to 
avoid. A magnificent view towards Capri is now suddenly dis- 
closed. On the right is the rocky islet of Vervece. About 3 / 4 M. 
farther we reach — 

150 Route 9. SORRENTO. Punta di Campanella. 

Massalubrense [Alb ergo di Massa, tolerable ; Restaurant Minerva, 
at the entrance, well spoken of, a small town of 8500 inhab., over- 
shadowed by the castle of S. Maria, to which the Via Pozzillo ascends 
(a boy had better be hired as guide]. The key of the view-tower is 
obtained at one of the houses (small fee). On the coast are the 
remains of a Roman aqueduct and other antiquities ; but no traces 
now remain of the temple of the Sirens , which enjoyed a wide 
reputation in antiquity. The church of S. Francesco is said to 
occupy the site of a temple of Juno. On 15th Aug. a festival which 
attracts the inhabitants of the whole neighbourhood is celebrated 
here annually. • — Boats and carriages for the return to Sorrento 
are generally to be found here; also boats for the passage to Capri 
(cheaper than at Sorrento). — The road, making a curve round the 
Monte S. Nicola, ascends to S. Agata (about 272 M. ; see p. 151). 

From Massalubrense we may proceed in 3 /* hr. by S. Maria to the village 
of Termini (Osteria), at the foot of the Monte S. Costanzo (1470 ft.), the highest 
point of the outer part of the peninsula (a fine point of view ; ascent somewhat 
fatiguing ; a hermit at the top). Beyond Termini the road gradually des- 
cends to the Punta di Campanella (155 ft.), the extremity of the peninsula, 
l 3 /4 hr. from Massalubrense. This was the ancient Cape of Minerva, sonamed 
after a temple said to have been erected here by Ulysses in honour of 
that goddess. The promontory owes its modern name to the bells of one 
of the watch-towers erected along the coast by Charles V. as a pro- 
tection against pirates. So lately as the beginning of the 19th cent, numerous 
inhabitants of the Italian coast were carried off as slaves by the Barbary 
pirates. From this bare and lonely rock, which is crowned with a Lighthouse 
and overgrown with olives and myrtles, we enjoy a magnificent distant 
view of the sea, the coast, and the island of Capri, 3 M. distant. Beyond 
the lighthouse are considerable remains of a Roman villa. (Donkey 
from Massa for the entire excursion about 5 fr. — Those who make the 
excursion from Sorrento to the Punta Campanella should allow for it 
7-8 hrs. in all.) 

From Termini the traveller may descend to the S. to Nerano and the 
Marina del Canlone, whence the ruins of Crapolla, 2 M. to the E., may 
be visited by boat. On this trip we obtain a beautiful view of the three 
Islands of the Sirens, also called 1 Galli (p. 173). At the landing-place 
of Crapolla we observe remains of a wall with a fountain in the centre, 
and traces of an aqueduct; higher up the hill are the ruins of the monastery 
and early-Romanesque basilica of S. Pietro, the eight marble and granite 
columns of which are probably derived from some ancient temple. Good 
walkers may ascend from this point to S. Agata (see p. 151) and return 
thence to Sorrento. 

The Heights above Sorrento afford many fine points of view, 
the paths to which are generally steep, narrow, and viewless, and 
most conveniently reached on donkey-back. Walking is, however, 
not unpleasant in the cool season. 

A very favourite point is the Deserto , I74-IV2 hr. from the 
Piazza of Sorrento. The carriage - road leads by Massalubrense and 
S. Agata (see p. 151 ; carriages, p. 148). Walkers and riders leave 
the Massa road, and ascend to the left by the Strada Capodi- 
monte (p. 149). Beyond the second bend we hold to the left (to 
the right to Opodimonte, see p. 149). Farther on (10 min.) we 
avoid the ('rocoviaroad to the left and go straight on between garden- 
walls. In y t hr. we turn to the left to Priora, which we reach after an 

Telegrafo. SORRENTO. 9. Route. 151 

ascent of 5-10 min. , we now pass through a vaulted passage, go 
straight on across the Largo Priora, the small piazza in front of the 
church , turn to the right opposite the Campanile (and again to the 
right), and follow the paved path. The red building on the hill be- 
fore us is the Deserto, 35-40 min. from Priora. — The *Deserto is 
a suppressed monastery , in which an establishment for destitute 
children has recently been fitted up by monks. In return for the re- 
freshments offered to visitors, a contribution to the funds of the in- 
stitution is expected. The roof of the building commands a charming 
prospect of both bays, and the island of Capri ; in front of the latter 
rises the hill of S. Costanzo p. (150), to the left of which is the 
solitary little church of 8. Maria della Neve. — From the Deserto 
we may return by the village of S. Agata (*Pens. Bourbon-Brand- 
meyer, 6 fr., with restaurant), a picturesque summer-resort, 3 / 4 M. 
to the S.E. The church contains a high- altar of inlaid marble. 
An important festival is celebrated here on August 15th. A new 
carriage-road, commanding fine views, leads from S. Agata to 
Massalubrense (p. 150). The descent to Sorrento through the 
beautiful chestnut wood of La Tigliana is very steep. 

Another interesting excursion is to the Telegrafo (785 ft.), a 
somewhat steep hill, on which there used to be an optic telegraph 
communicating with Capri, 2y 2 M. to the W., and which com- 
mands an admirable view. We may ascend either from Villazzano 
in 20-25 min. (p. 149; 2y 2 M. from Sorrento; boy as guide through 
the woods 40-50 c), or by following the route to the Deserto as far 
as the point where the road to Priora diverges to the left ( 1 / 2 hr.). 
From that point we proceed in a straight direction to (10 min.) 
a guard-house of the Uffizio Daziario of Massalubrense, about 
30 paces beyond which we enter the second gate on the right leading 
through the yard of a cottage (2-3 soldi). In 6 min. more the path 
leads in a straight direction to the telegraph. — At the foot of the 
hill lies the *Valle delle Pigne, which derives its name from a 
number of handsome pines. The view of Capri hence is justly 
celebrated. Quails are captured here and in other parts of the 
peninsula of Sorrento, and in the island of Capri, in large numbers 
in May, June, September, and October, affording considerable 
profit to the inhabitants. 

An admirable survey of the Piano di Sorrento is afforded by the 
*Piccolo S. Angelo (1460 ft.), iy 2 hr. to the S.E. of Sorrento. 
The route ascends from the Piazza of Sorrento along the E. margin 
of the E. ravine, passing Cesarano and Baranica. At the top is a 
deserted oottage. From this point we ascend slightly to the S., then 
follow the footpath leading through woods to the right, along the 
slope of the Tore di Sorrento, to (I-IV2 nr -) S. Agata (see above). 
Picturesque views below us all the way. 

The Conti delle Fontanelle, a chain of hills adjoining the Piccolo 
S. Angelo to the S.E. and commanding a survey of the bays of Naples and 
Salerno, may be reached from Sorrento in l ] /2 hr. by a path which diverges 

152 Route 9. CAPRI. Steamboats. 

to the right from the Meta road at the white summer-house of the Villa 
Cacace , between the villages of Pozzopiano and Carotto. We may ascend 
to the W. to the Telegrafo di Marecoccola , which is an admirable point 
of view. 

Above Meta (p. 147) lies the suppressed monastery of Camaldoli di 
Meta, now a country-seat of the Conte Giusso, commanding an excellent 
view. It is reached in 2 1 /t hrs. from Sorrento: dusty road to Meta 31/4 ST. 
(carriage in 20-25 min., 3 / t fr.). At a large red house we turn to the left 
into the lane called Vico Albert and ascend to an olive-grove and (1 M.) the 
church of Alberi. Then we turn to the right and reach ('/a M.) the Villa 
Oivsso-Aslapiana, where the best point of view is the rondel in the E. part of 
the park, about '/* ^- from the entrance. As the view is finest towards 
sunset, the excursion should not be made at too early an hoar (gardener 
Vz-l fr.). 

A fatiguing but interesting excursion is the ascent of the Vico Alvano 
(2105 ft.) , the path to which also diverges from the Sleta road by the 
Villa Cacace (see above). It then crosses the heights of the Conti di Gere- 
menita. (From Sorrento, there and back, 6-7 hrs., with guide.) 

We may also walk in 2 hrs. via, Meta, Arbore. Fornacelle, and Preazzano 
to the village of S. Maria a Castello, where from a projecting rock a 
view is obtained of Positano , 2000 ft. below , to which a path descends 
in steps. On 15th Aug., the occasion of a great festival at Positano (comp. 
p. 173), many visitors ascend from Sorrento to S. Maria for the sake 
of seeing the illumination below. 


Comp. Map, p. 144. 

As the trips of the steamer are neither very regular nor punctual 
(the weather, number of passengers, etc., often deciding the question), 
enquiry on this subject should be made at the hotels, or, better still, at 
the shipping offices. It should also be observed that when the wind 
is in the E. or N. the Blue Grotto is not accessible — a fact, however, 
which the captain of the steamer is careful not to mention. On windy 
days, moreover, the roughness of the water is apt to occasion sea-sickness. 
— Unless the traveller is much pressed for time, he should not attempt 
to crowd the excursion into one day, as, in addition to the Blue Grotto, 
he will barely have time to visit the Villa of Tiberius. The view from 
the latter, moreover, is far less attractive in the middle of the day than 
by evening light. One whole day at least should be devoted to the island, 
and besides the above two chief attractions, the Punta Tragara, Anacapri, 
and Slonie Solaro should be visited, or a sail taken round the island. 

From Naples to Capri. JIail Steamer (via Vico Equense, Meta, 
Sorrento, and Massalubrense) of the Societa Napoletana di Navigazione (office, 
Marina Nuova 14) ply to Capri daily, weather permitting, leaving the 
Immacolatella (PI. G, 5; p. 38) at 3.30 p.m. (in winter 2 p.m.), and 
returning from Capri early in the morning. Another Steamboat of the 
same company leaves the harbour beside the Castel dell' Ovo (PI. F, 7; 
p. 34) daily at 9 a.m., touches at Sorrento (l 3 /4 hr.), and proceeds direct 
to the Blue Grotto, weather permitting. After visiting the latter, the 
passengers are conveyed to the Marina of Capri, arriving about 12 or 12.30. 
The vessel starts again about 3 p.m. and reaches Naples about 6 p.m. Fare 
to Capri 6 fr. (from Sorrento 5 fr.); return -ticket, available for three 
months , 10 fr. Embarcation and landing at Naples and at Capri 20 c. each 
person; boat into the Blue Grotto, see p. 153. — A small Local Steamee 
(Con-tere di Capri) also plies between Naples and Capri when the 
weather allows, leaving Capri on Mon. & Frid. at 10 a.m. and Naples 
(Immacolatella; PI. G, 5) on Tues. & Sat. at 2 p.m. (single fare 3 fr. first- 
class, return available for a week, 5 fr.). 

From Sorrento to Capri. Mail Steamee, see above. By Small Boat 
the passage takes 2-2V2 hrs. (fares, see p. 148). A four-o;red boat for the 
excursion to Capri and Amalfi costs 30-40 fr., the night being spent at 
Capri. Fom Massalubnnse to Capri, see p. 150. Boat from Capri to 

Hotels. CAPRI. 9. Route. 153 

Amalfl (4-5 hrs.), with 2 rowers 12, 4 rowers 18, 6 rowers 25 fr. (bargaining 
necessary). Fine weather is indispensable, but a perfect calm is neither 
necessary nor desirable. 

The Marina Grande (p. 154), or chief landing place, is on the N. side 
of the island ; when a strong N- wind is blowing, steamers anchor at the 
Marina Piccola (p. 155) on the S. side. The ascent from the latter can only 
be made on foot. Order is now tolerably well maintained at the landing- 
place at Capri. Boat from steamer to landing-place 20 c. One soldo is 
sufficient payment for assistance rendered to passengers on landing ; a few 
coppers may also be thrown into the water fer the boys to dive for. 

Hotels in Capri (often very full, so that is advisable to secure rooms 
beforehand). On the Marina: "^Hotel Bristol, dependance of the Quisi- 
sana, at the quay, R. 2-3, L. l /-z, A. i/ 2 , B. iy 4 , dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 6-9 fr.; 
Grande Bretagne, with terrace and sea-baths, R., L., & A. 2Vz, B. 1, dej. 
2'/2, D- 4 (both inel. wine), pens. 6 fr. ; Bellevue, R., L., & A. 2, B. 3 A, 
dej. 2V2, D. 3 (both incl. wine), pens. 6 fr. ; these two also close to the 
landing-place. — Admirably situated a little to the W. of the landing-place, 
with terraces: *Grotte Bleue, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4 (both 
incl wine), pens. 6 fr., with sea-baths; Louvre, Berliner Hof, R,L., & 
A. 2-3, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4'/2 (both incl. wine), pens. 6-7 fr. — Higher still, 
on the road to Capri: 'Schweizerhof, dependance of the Quisisana (see 
below), same charges as Hotel Bristol. — In the Town of Capri: "Quisisana 
(omnibus at the quay), on the way to the Certosa (see p. 155), R. 2-3, L. 1/2, 
A. 1/2, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 472, omn. 3 /i (with luggage IV4) fr. ; Pagano, on 
the road to Quisisana, frequented by Germans, plain, pens. 6, for less 
than three days, 7 fr. (numerous reminiscences of artist-guests ; the garden 
contains a handsome palm-tree); Continental, R., L., & A. V/2, B. 1^4, 
dej. 3, D. 4>/2 (both incl. wine), pens. 6-8 fr. ; *H6tel de France, to the 
left of the Piazza, on the way to the Tiberio, with S. aspect and small 
garden, R., L., & A. 2, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 3 (both incl. wine), pens. 6 fr. (less 
than three days 7, from June to Dec. 5 1 /2-6 1 /2fr.), well spoken of; Faraglioni, 
in a side-street to the right of the road to the Tiberio, near the Hot. de 
Frrnce, R. 2 l /z, B. 1, dej. 2>/2, D. 31/2 (both incl. wine), pens, for a week or 
more 6-7 fr. daily. — "Busetti (with Restaurant), Corso Tiberio, unpretending. 

Cafe-Restaurants. "Cafi Hidigeigei, good and moderate (German beer, 
groceries, paper, etc.; agency for furnished rooms; propr. Morgano); Caffl 
al Vermouth di Torino, in the Piazza, a favourite resort. — Confectioner: 
Pasiicceria Califano, in the Piazza (English spoken). — Furnished Apart- 
ments numerous and cheap (from 30 fr. per month, including breakfast) both 
in Capvi and Anacapri. — Physicians : Dr. J. Cerio, Dr. Oiov. Masotino, speak 
English and French; physicians at Anacapri see p. 157. 

Carriages. From the Marina: to the town of Capri with one horse 
l'/2 fr., there and back, with stay of 1 hr., 2 ! /2 fr. ; with two horses, 3 and 
4 fr. ; to Anacapri, with one horse, 3 fr., there and back, 4 fr., with two 
horses, 5 and 6 fr. From the town of Capri to Anacapri, with one horse, 
IV2 fr., there and back, 2 1 /? fr., with two horses, 3 and 4 fr. 

Donkey from the Marina to the town of Capri 1, Horse I1/4 fr., in 
the reverse direction 3 /4 or 1 fr. ; to the Villa di Tiberio and back 2'/2 
or 3 fr. ; to Anacapri and back 2 ! /2 and 3 fr. ; to the top of the Solaro 
4'/2 fr. ; from the town to Anacapri and back l'/2 and 2 fr. — Guides are 
quite unnecessary unless time is very limited. A boy to show the way 
may be engaged for several hours for V2-I fr- 

Boats (bargaining necessary) about IV2 fr. per hour ; trip to the Blue 
Grotto, see p. 15S ; 'giro', or tour of the island (p. 159), 6-8 fr. To Sorrento, 
see p. 148; the hotels Quisisana and Pagano possess in common a very 
comfortable boat for 8 pers., which is hired for the trip to Sorrento with 
six rowers for 14 fr. ; boats with four rowers for smaller parties are also 
provided (8fr.). — Boat from the Marina Piccola, on the S. side of the 
island (see p. 155), to the Grotta del Arsenale or the Green Grotto and 
round the E. end of the island to the Marina, 4-5 fr. 

English Church Service in winter. 

Distances in Capri. From either Marina to the town, 20-c0 min.; 
from the Piazza in the town to the Villa di libtrio , 3 /i hr. ; from the 

154 Route 9. CAPRI. History. 

Piazza to the Punia Tragara, 20 min. ; thence by the E. coast to the Area 
Naturale , 50 min. ; thence to the Villa of Tiberius, 50 min. The whole 
circuit from the Piazza to the Punta Tragara, Arco Naturale and the 
Villa, and back to the Piazza takes thus about 3hrs.. besides halts. The 
visit to Anacapri and Monte Solaro takes 3-4 hrs., there and back. All the 
different walks (upwards of 40) are described in Dr. Alan Wallers' little 
Handbook lo Capri (Naples, Furchheim, 1893). 

Capri, the ancient Capreae, is a small, mountainous island of 
oblong form. Its picturesque outline forms one of the most charming 
points in the view of the Bay of Naples. The highest point is the 
Monte Solaro on the "W. side, 1920 ft. above the sea-level ; towards the 
E. huge cliffs, about 900 ft. in height, rise abruptly from the sea. 
The island, which contains about 4700 inhab. and the two small 
towns of Capri and Anacapri, yields fruit, oil, and excellent 
red and white wines in abundance. The indigenous flora comprises 
300 species. The inhabitants support themselves partly by the pro- 
duction of oil and wine and by fishing, but by far the largest source 
of income is afforded by the strangers who visit the island yearly 
to the number of 30,000. The men frequently emigrate to South 
America, but generally return to Capri again. The women, who 
wear a tasteful veil of black lace , employ themselves mainly with 
weaving. Interesting popular festivals are held on the feast of S. 
Costanzo, the patron-saint of the island (May 14th), on the day 
of S. Antonio (June 13th; at Anacapri"), and on the 7th and 8th 
Sept. (in honour of the Virgin; on the Tiberio and Solaro). 

The island first came into notice under Augustus, who showed a great 
partiality for it, and founded palaces, baths, and aqueducts here. Tiberius 
erected twelve villas, in honour of the twelve gods, in the principal parts 
of the island, the largest of which was the Villa Jovis (Tacit. Ann. iv. 
37), after he had surrendered the reins of government to Sejanus and 
retired hither (A.D. 27). He remained here almost uninterruptedly till 
his death in 37, even after the fall of Sejanus in 31. Exaggerated accounts 
are given of the cruelty and profligacy of the emperor, even towards the 
close of his career. The tranquillity and inaccessibility of the island, as 
well as the geniality of the climate, were the attractions which induced 
him to spend so many years in it. Considerable remains of the buildings 
of Tiberius are still extant. In 1803 , during the Napoleonic wars , Capri 
was captured by the English under Sir Sidney Smith, fortified, and con- 
verted into a miniature Gibraltar. Sir Hudson Lowe was afterwards the 
commandant. In Oct. 1808, however, the island was recaptured by the 
French under Lamarque by a brilliant coup-de-main. 

During the last 20-30 years Capri has become one of the chief attrac- 
tions to visitors to the Bay of Naples, not only in spring and autumn but 
also in summer, when many permanent foreign residents of Naples take 
up their temporary abode here. The island , indeed , is not seen in its 
full beauty except in summer. 

From the Marina Orande , on the N. side of the island, where 
there are several hotels (p. 153), two routes ascend to the small town 
of Capri. Both are destitute of shade and are far from pleasant in 
the middle of the day. The shorter, but steeper path to the left 
(E.) ascends in steps. The winding carriage-road to the right (W.) 
passes 5. Cottan-.o, one of the oldest churches in S. Italy, with 
antique columns. It is a relic of the old town, abandoned in the 
15th cent, on account of repeated inroads of pirates. Only a few 

Punta Tragara. CAPRI. 9. Route. 155 

other ruins recall the existence of this town, which occupied the site 
of the Marina. 

Capri (460 ft.), the capital of the island, with 2800 inhah., 
lies on the saddle which connects the E. heights of the island (Lo 
Capo) with the western (Mte. Solaro), and is commanded by two 
lower hills (S. Michele and Castiglione), the first crowned with an- 
cient ruins, the second with a dilapidated castle. The road from the 
Marina Grande unites with that from Anacapri, and shortly afterwards 
comes to an end in the small Piazza , with the Municipio , the post 
and telegraph office , and the chemist's. A flight of steps ascends 
to the church of 5. Stefano. A small collection of paintings and 
sketches by artists living in Capri may be seen in the town (adm. 
25c). — The route to the Marina Piccolo, is as follows: from the 
Piazza we follow the road to Anacapri for 7 min. , descend some 
steps to the right by the last house on the right, pass under the road 
by the arch to the left, and descend the stony path to the shore 
(1/4 hr.), where there are some fishers' huts (wine). 

To reach the Castiglione (boy as guide and to obtain the consent of 
the owner), we ascend from the Piazza by the steps leading to the church 
(see above) and proceed in a straight direction to the Hotel Tiberio. Here 
we pass through the hotel and enter a vaulted passage to the right, lead- 
ing to the wall of the fortress. Beyond the church of S. Teresa we pass 
through another vaulted passage and then follow the path to (20 min.) a 
precipitous rocky slope below the castle. Splendid view of Capri and 
the Piccola Marina (still more extensive from the tower of the castle). 
The Orotta del Castiglione, on the S. side, is reached by a fatiguing series 
of stone steps. — For the ascent of the S. Michele a perrnesso must be 
obtained from its owner, Principe Caracciolo , who lives in the Villa 
Catarina, adjoining the Hotel Quisisana (easily obtained through the land- 
lord). The entrance is beside the little church of La Croce, on the way to 
the Tiberio. We here turn to the right and follow an ancient road, which 
formerly led to a Villa of Tiberius on the top of the hill. Extensive sub- 
structure sand vaults still exist below the vineyards. Magnificent view 
of the Marina Grande, the Solaro, the Gulf of Capri, and the Peninsula 
of Sorrento. At the foot of the S. Michele is another stalactite cavern; the 
keeper demands 1-2 fr. for torches, but a bargain should bemade. 

Leaving the Piazza by a vaulted passage beyond the flight of 
steps ascending to the church of S. Stefano , then turning to the 
right, passing the Hotel Pagano, turning to the left again just be- 
fore reaching the Hotel Quisisana (the path straight on leads to the 
Certosa, founded in 1363, now a barrack), and skirting the sub- 
stantial Roman masonry of Le Camerelle (probably connected with 
the construction of a road through the valley), we are led by a path 
which ascends sligthly to the left about 400 yds. from the Quisi- 
sana to the (10 min. more) *Punta Tragara (Restaurant), the 
S.E. promontory. This point commands a picturesque view of Capri 
and the S. coast, with three precipitous cliffs called the Faraglioni. 
On the summit of II Monacone ('Great Monk'), farther to the E., 
are remains of a Roman tomb, and near the Punta are the remains 
of a Roman house exhumed in 1885. 

A path leads hence to the Arco Naturale. From the Punta Tragara we 
descend the steps to the right of the 'Villa Tragara', and follow the good 

156 Route 9. CAPRI. Villa di Tib erio. 

Footpath (stone seats at intervals) along the slope, enjoying "Views of 
the Faraglioni and of the Polyphemus rock. The path , proceeding some- 
times by flights of steps, undulates round the Telegrafo or Tuoro Grande, 
a hill with an old optic telegraph and the remains of a villa of Tiberius 
on the top. At the gorge descending on the N. from this bill towards 
the sea , we turn inland , and in 50 min. from the Punta, at a group of 
houses, reach the path descending on the other side of the valley to the 
Arco Naturale (see below). The view of the E. coast from this path is still 
finer than that from the arch itself. 

The N.E. promontory , called Lo Capo, is supposed to have 
been the site of the Villa Jovis, to which Tiberius retired for 
nine months after the fall of Sejanus ( 3 / 4 hr. from the town of 
Capri). The path cannot be mistaken. From the Piazza we pass 
to the left through the archway bearing the sign of the Hotel de 
France and follow first the Corso di Tiberio, the narrow main street 
of Capri , and then a paved track to (8 min.) a large ruined house 
from which a tall agave grows picturesquely (to the right the path 
to the Arco Naturale and the 'Telegrafo', see below). Our path 
passes between this ruin and the picturesque little church of S. Mi- 
chele, continues at the same level or slightly ascending, with a view 
of the chapel at the Villa of Tiberius above and of the old light- 
house, and at length skirts the slope to the right. On the right, 
a few minutes before reaching the last hill, we pass a clean tavern 
[good Capri 1^4 lr. per bottle) called 'Salto di Tiberio', after the 
rock (745 ft. above the sea) from which, according to a purely 
mythical story, the tyrant precipitated his victims. A projecting 
platform with a railing affords a view of the sea below. A good 
idea of the height of these rocks may be gained by dropping a stone 
over the railing and noting the time it takes to fall into the sea. — 
To the right are the remains of an ancient Lighthouse (View). 
The Tarantella dancers who usually present themselves here expect 
Vo-l fr. for their exhibition. 

After a slight ascent we reach the *VilIa di Tiberio (pronounc- 
ed Timlerio by the natives), part of the extensive ruins of which 
are now used as a cow-house. They consist of a number of vault- 
ed chambers and corridors , the uses of which cannot now be as- 
certained. On the highest point is the small chapel of S. Maria 
del Soccorso (1050 ft.), with the cell of a hermit, who offers 
wine and for a trifling donation allows the visitor to inscribe his 
'testimonium prjesentiae'. This point commands a noble prospect 
of the island and the blue sea, of the barren Punta di Campanella 
opposite, and the two bays; even Peestum and the Ponza Islands 
(to the N."W.) are visible in clear weather. 

In returning we take the path which diverges to the right by the 
ruined house with the agave (see above; 20 min. from the Salto di Tibe- 
rio) ; we then cross gardens and fields in the same direction as the tele- 
graph wires. In 10 min., at a group of houses, we reach the upper end 
of the gor^e mentioned ;ibove, in which ends the path from the Punta 
Tragara round the E. side of the Telegrafo. To the left in this valley, 
8 min. farther, and reached by a path which is rather rough towards the 
end, rises the "Ar^o Naturale, a magnificent natural archway in the rock, 

Anacapri. CAPRI. 9. Route. 157 

where we obtain a striking view of the imposing and ragged cliffs. A 
visit to the Qrotta di Micromania, to which 180 steps descend, may be 
combined with this excursion (we retrace our steps for 4 min. , then 
descend to the left to the steps, passing through some small gardens). This 
grotto contained a shrine of Mithras, the 'unconquered god of the sun', 
whose cult was introduced to Rome from the East, and in the time of the 
later emperors spread through all the provinces of the empire. Roman 
remains may be seen in the cave. — Returning to the above-mentioned 
group of houses , we may thence reach the Punta Tragara by the foot- 
path mentioned on p. 156. 

From Capri to Anacapri (20 minutes' drive ; s / i hr. on foot). 
A road in long windings hewn in the rock, constructed in 1871, 
now supersedes the flight of 535 steps (to the foot of which 249 
more ascended from the Marina) which used to form the chief ap- 
proach to the higher parts of the island. This road commands 
beautiful views. Above it rise the ruins of the mediaeval Castello 
di Barbarossa, named after the pirate who destroyed it in the 
16th century. 

Anacapri. — Hotels. Hotel Eden, a new house, opened in summer 
1893, pens, with R. 10 fr., omnibus 1 fr. ; Pakadiso, in the Piazza, near the 
church, R. l-l'/2, B. 1 fe, dej. 2, D. 2 both incl. wine), pens. 5 fr., with 
garden and view, unpretending; Convento, in a suppressed monastery, 
saidto be comfortable and to command line views, but not much frequented. 
— Trattoria, with the sign ReHaurant-Bottiglieria, at the beginning of the 
village. — Furnished Booms in several houses. 

Psysicians, Dr. 6reen; Dr. Cuomo; Dr. Axel Munthe, a Swede. 

Anacapri (880 ft.) , the second little town in the island , with 
2000 inhab., is scattered over the lofty plain which slopes towards 
the W., and has recently become a favourite summer residence for 
German visitors and others. The first house on the road, to the 
left , outside thevillage, is the Villa Molaro,now converted into a 
hotel (Eden Hotel, see above). On the right side of the street, in 
the village, adjoining the house of the wine-merchant Moll, is an 
old convent (now an hotel, see above), with a handsome court and 
the church of 8. Michele, containing a majolica pavement of the 
17th century. The tower of the church of S. Sofia commands a fine 
view. — Adjoining Anacapri is thepleasant village of Caprile. 

A beautiful walk may be taken to the "Migliera. We follow the lane 
to the E. of the Paradiso Hotel for 250 paces, towards Jlonte Solaro, the 
base of which is skirted by a dry path leading in '/s hr. to the S. verge 
of the plateau (fine view). About 200 paces higher up, the view is open 
as far as the Faraglioni. On the return we enjoy a good survey of the 
picturesque villages of Anacapri and Caprile, whose houses have almost 
an Oriental appearance. — There are Roman ruins at the village of 
Damecuta, on the N.W. side of the plateau, where a villa of Tiberius 
once stood. 

The * Ascent op Monte Solaro (1 hr.) is recommended to toler- 
able walkers. The route is easily found. We quit the road imme- 
diately beyond the garden of the Villa Molaro (see above), and 
follow the lane on the left (as we come from Capri) past the Villa 
Massimo to the Villa Qiulia. (Here is the junction of a path from 
the Restaurant-Bottiglieria, see above.) We turn to the left and 
ascend for 30 paces to the right, by the wall of the villa-garden, to the 

158 Route 9. CAPRI. Blue Grotto. 

iath along the slope, which we follow towards the S.E. Farther 
m we pass through a hollow and ascend by steps supported by 
nasonry to (_ l /.> hr.) a saddle with a shrine of the Madonna (lefc). 
from this point we may proceed to the right direct to the summit, 
vhich we reach after a fatiguing ascent of 15-20 min. over deTms. 
)r we may go on in a straight direction for min. and then turn to 
he left to (2 min.) the white wall of the -Hermitage (1625 ft.), where 
projecting platform commands a most picturesque view of the 
own of Capri and the whole of the beautiful island. From the Her- 
nitage there are also 15-20 min. to the summit of the *Monte 
iolaro (1920 ft.), which rises abruptly from the sea, on the S. side 
if the island, and is crowned by a ruined fort. The view is superb, 
unbracing Naples with the whole of its bay, as well as that of 
lalerno as far as Paestum. Towards the N. the Bay of Gaeta is 
isible , and towards the W. the group of the Ponza Islands. The 
pectator also obtains a survey of the chain of the Apennines, bound- 
ng theCampanianplaininawide curve fromTerracina, theAbruzzi, 
he Matese Mts. (p. 10), and a long vista of sea and land extend- 
ng to the S. to the hills of Calabria. Capri itself and the pen- 
asula of Sorrento lie in prominent relief at the spectator's feet. 
?he charm of this view is at its highest by moonlight or at sunrise. 

BlUB GkottO. — A visit to the Blue Grotto from the Marina at 
iapri occupies l 3 /*"2 hrs. If the wind blows strongly from the E. or N., 
ccess to the grotto is impossible. The skiffs are not allowed to take 
lore than three passengers. The official tariff of the Municipio of Capri 
xes the charges as follows : a. Boat from the steamer into the grotto and 
ack, l'/4 fr. each person; 5. From the Banehina di Capri (Marina Grande) 
nd back, 1 pers. 2'A, 2 pers. 3 3 /4, 3 pers. 4'/4 fr., 5 or more pers. l'/2 fr- 
ach. The hire of the small skiff entering the grotta is included in these 
harges ('Nei suddetti prezzi e compreso il noleggio del piccolo battello 
er Tentrata alia Grotta Azzurra, che percio andra a carico dei barca- 
loli'). The stay in the grotto is limited to l /t hr., and an extra charge 
f 30 c. is made for every 1 /t hr. additional. When a boat is hired at the 
Carina the boatman should at once be referred to the tariff, as it is a 
ivourite practice to endeavour to make the traveller pay, in addition to 
le tariff-price, the charge of l*/4 fr. per head required by the manager at 
he grotto , when the large boat is exchanged for the skiffs entering the 
rotto. That extra charge is to be paid, as stated above, by the boatman 
■om the Marina. Most travellers, however, must be prepared to bestow 
onsiderable gratuities. 

The Blue Grotto is situated on the N. side of the island, about 
l /t M. from the landingrplace of Capri. The row along the base 
f the precipitous rocky shore is exceedingly beautiful ; the sur- 
ice of the water swarms with gaily-coloured sea-stars and jelly-fish, 
n l /i hr. we reach the ruins of the Baths of Tiberius, where a frag- 
lent of an ancient wall and partof a column in the water are to 
e seen, and in !/ 2 hr. more we arrive at the entrance of the **Blue 
■rotto (Grotta Azzurra), which is scarcely 3 ft. in height. Visitors 
lust here leave the larger boat and enter one of the small skiffs 
rat are usually waiting at midday. In the interior the roof rises 

Grotta Verde. CAPRI. 9. Route. 159 

to a height of 41 ft.; the water is 8 fathoms deep. Length of the 
grotto 175ft., greatest width 100 ft. The effect of the blue refraction 
of the light on every object is indescribable, and at first completely 
dazzles the eye. The best light is between 11 and 1 o'clock; sum- 
mer is the bestseason. Objects in the water assume a beautiful silvery 
appearance. A boy usually offers to bathe in order to show this 
effect, and is sufficiently rewarded with 1 fr., although he generally 
makes the exorbitant demand of 2-3 fr. The visitor may then repeat 
the experiment with his own arm. Near the middle of the grotto, 
to the right, is a kind of landing-place, leading to a passage with 
broken steps, but closed at the upper end, once probably an ap- 
proach from the land to the grotto, which was perhaps connected 
with the villa of Tiberius at Damecuta. The grotto, which was 
known to the ancients, fell into oblivion in the middle ages, but 
since 1826, when it was re-discovered, it has justly been a favourite 

Anacapri is reached by a tolerable path, beginning near the Blue 

The Blue Grotto is the most celebrated of the caverns with 
which the rocky shores of Capri abound, but some of the others 
are also well worth visiting. The *Giro , or Voyage round the 
Island, occupies 3-4 hrs. (boats, see p. 153). Steering from the 
Marina towards the E., we first reach a charming spot on the beach, 
called by the boatmen Caterla. Close by is the Orotta del Bove 
Marino, one of the most spacious caves in Capri. Farther on are 
two curiously shaped rocks in the sea, called II Fucile ('the mus- 
ket') and La Ricotta ('the whey-milk cheese'). Beyond Capo Tiberio 
we visit the Grotta delle Stalattite or Orotta Bianca , with its sta- 
lactite formations. The most striking part of the trip is at the 
Faraglioni (p. 155), which rise majestically from the water. The 
central clilr is undermined by an imposing archway, through which 
the boat passes, but not visible from the land. Rounding the 
Punta Tragara (p. 155), we next pass the Marina Piccola(p. 155) 
and in 25 min. more reach the Orotta Verde, at the base of the Monte 
Solaro, a cavern of a beautiful emerald-green colour, and the most 
interesting after the Blue Grotto (best light about noon). The 
voyage hence round the W. side of the island, past the lighthouse 
on the S.W. promontory and some old British fortifications , to 
the Blue Grotto is less attractive , but this cavern may now be 
visited as an appropriate termination to the excursion (in which 
.case a skiff for the grotto should be previously ordered to meet the 

10. The Gulf of Salerno. 

Comp. Map, p. 164. 

The Bat of Salerno cannot indeed compete with the Bay of Naples ; 

towards the S. its shores are flat and monotonous ; but the N. side, where 

the mountains of the Sorrentine peninsula rise abruptly some thousands 

of feet from the sea, is full of beauty and grandeur. Here are situated 

160 Route 10. NOCERA. Gulf of 

he towns of Salerno and Amalfi , conspicuous in the pages of mediaeval 
listory, and still containing a few monuments of their former greatness, 
farther S., in a barren, desolate situation, are the temples of Paestum, 
lsually the extreme point of the Italian peninsula visited by northern 
xavellers. All these recall the golden period of Greek history and art 
nore forcibly than any other localities in Italy. 

This route may conveniently be combined with the preceding (p. 143) 
is follows: First Day: Morning-train to Cava dei Tirreni; excursion to 
jorpo di Cava (not recommended in cold weather); in the afternoon to 
Salerno. Second Day: Morning-train to Paestum; return to Salerno and 
irive to Amalfi (in this case the carr. must be ordered beforehand; if 
he return be made to Vietri, a carr. is always to be found at the station). 
Third Day: Amalfi; excursion to Eavello. Fourth Day: By boat to 
Prajano and drive (carr. ordered beforehand) across the hills to Sorrento 
the road to Prajano, however, will probably be completed about the end 
)f 1892). Fifth Day: By boat at noon to Capri. Sixth Day: Back to 
Naples by steamer in the afternoon. It need scarcely be added that most of 
hese places, especially Amalfi and Capri, will repay a longer visit. 

Railway from Naples to Cava dei Tirreni, 28 M., in I1/4-274 brs. ; fares 
) fr. 10, 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 30 c. ; to Salerno, 34 M., in 11/2-21/2 hrs.; fa T es 6 fr. 
.5, 4 fr. 30 , 2 fr. 75 c. (Vietri is the station for Amalfi) ; to Battipaglia, 
=5 M., in 2-33/4 hrs.; fares 8 fr. 25, 5 fr. 85, 3 fr. 75 c. 

From Naples to Pompeii, 15 M., see R. 6. The train, after 
ruitting the Bay of Naples, traverses the fertile plain of the 
Sarno. Maize and tobacco are extensively cultivated here , and 
:otton is also grown. 15 M. Voile di Pompei (Hot. -Restaur. Nuova 
Pompei, in the piazza, dej. l 1 /^, D. 2 , / 2 -3 1 / 2 fr., bothincl. wine; 
Trattoria Lamberti, at the station), a community that has suddenly 
sprung up within thelast twenty years around the church of 8. Maria 
lei Rosario, with, its conspicuous coloured dome. The church con- 
;ains a miraculous image of the Virgin, which is visited annually 
jy 100,000 pilgrims. — 17 M. Scafati, with manufactories. Festi- 
val of the Madonna del Bagno on Ascension Day (see p. 28). 

19^2 M. Angri, with large factories and the chateau and park of 
Principe dAngri. Teias, the last king of the Goths, was defeated by 
Sarses near Angri in 523, after having descended from Lettere on 
VIonte Sant' Angelo to the plain. A new mountain-road is being 
riade from Angri to Amalfi. — The district gradually becomes more 
mountainous, and the scenery is picturesque the whole way. 

21 M. Pagani, with 13,000 inhabitants. In the church of 
3. Michele, below the altar of a chapel to the left of the choir, 
ire preserved (under glass) the relics of Alphonso de' Liguori, born 
it Naples in 1696, bishop of S. Agata in 1762, and founder of the 
>rder of the Redemptorists, who died at Pagani in 1787 and was 
;anonised by Gregory XVI. in 1839. 

From Pagani to Amalfi. From Pagani a bridle-path ascends the W. 
lope of the Monte di Chiunzo. Shortly before Torre di Chiunzo (2250 ft.), 
-n ancient fortress erected by Raimondo Orsini , the road forks. To the 
eft a new road leads through the Val Tramonti 'between the mountains', 
'ia Figlino and Patemo to Majori (p. 168); 5-6 hrs. in all. 

22y 2 M. No c era de' Pagani, a town of some importance with 
arge new manufactories, near the ancient Nuceria Alfaterna, where 
Iugo de' Pagani , founder of the order of the Templars, and the 

Salerno. CAVA DEI TIRRENI. JO. Route. 161 

painter Francesco Solimena were born, and where Paulus Jovius, 
the historian, was bishop. To the left of the line, above the exten- 
sive Capuchin monastery, rise the ruins of the ancient Castello in 
Parco, the scene of the death of Helena , widow of King Manfred, 
after the battle of Benevento (1266). At the close of the 14th cent, 
the castle was one of the principal strongholds of the house of 
Anjou. Fine view from the summit. Mater Domini, a pilgrimage- 
resort near Nocera, is the scene of an important festival on 15th 
August. — Nocera is connected with Codola (p. 175) by a branch 
railway (3 M., in about i/ 4 hr.; fares 60, 40, 30 c). 

On the right, shortly before the train reaches the small village 
of (25 M.) Nocera Superiore, we observe the ancient baptismal church 
of 8. Maria Maggiore, similar to S. Stefano in Rome. The basin in 
the centre is surrounded by eight granite columns, enclosed by 
a circular passage with sixteen pairs of handsome columns of pavo- 
nazzetto with rich capitals, all antique. The walls are decorated 
with frescoes of the 14th century. 

Beyond S. Clemente the line ascends considerably. On emerg- 
ing from a cutting the train reaches — 

28M. Cava dei Tirreni. — Hotels. "Hotel de Londkes, well-man- 
aged but not faultlessly clean, often crowded in summer, though rather 
inconveniently situated, R. 3-5, L. 3 /t, A. 1, B. I'/ij, doj. 3, D. 5, pens. 
(L. extra) in spring and autumn 10-12, in summer 6-8 fr. ; "Hot. Vittoeia, 
R., L., & A. 3'/2, B. 1, d<Sj. 3, D. 4 (both incl. wine), pens. 8, omn. 1 fr. ; 
Hotel de Geneve, R., L., & A. 3, dej. 2 l /z, D. 3'/2 (both incl. wine), pens. 
6 fr. ; "Pension Suisse, 5-6 fr. per day. — Good furnished lodgings. 

Carriages. With one horse : drive in the town 50, first hr. 90, each 
hr. additional 65 c. (after 10 p.m., 90 c, 1 fr. 40, 80 c); with two horses 
1 fr., 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 30 c. (after 10 p.m. 1 fr. 80, 2 fr. 80, 1 fr. 80 c). — To 
Corpo di Cava, with one horse 2, there and back 3 fr. ; two horses, 3 and 
5 fr. ; three horses, 5 and 6 fr. ; these fares include halt of 1 hr. ; for longer 
halt, one-horse carr. 1/2, two-horse 1 fr. per hr. — Donkey to Corpo di 
Cava IV2-2 fr., there and back 2-3 fr. 

Cava dei Tirreni (980 ft. above the sea-level), situated among 
green hills dotted with villages, is a favourite resort of foreigners 
in spring and autumn and in summer of the Neapolitans, and a 
good centre for excursions to Amalft, Paestum, Pompeii, etc. The 
town (21,000 inhab., including the suburbs) mainly consists of a 
street i/ a M. long, with arcades, leading from the station to the Piazza, 
where a church and a large fountain are situated. Adjoining is the 
Villa Pubblica (public garden), where a band plays on summer even- 
ings. — The best view of the town and its environs is obtained from 
the Monte Castello to the S. W. (there and back 1 hr.). From La 
Valle, a little farther on, Salerno and its bay are visible. — The 
slender round towers on the hills about Cava are erected for the 
capture of wild pigeons, which fly over the valley in huge flocks 
in October. As the flocks pass the towers, small white stones are 
thrown out, which the pigeons mistake for food; as they stoop to 
follow the supposed grains, they are caught by nets. 

The attractive *Excursion to Corpo di Cava, l'/ 4 hr. to the 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. H 

162 Route 10. . CORPO DI CAVA. Gulf of 

S.W., takes Y2 day either on foot or by carriage. Leaving the Piazza 
we ascend the road to the left by the church. After 5 min., when 
the road turns to the right round the public garden, we ascend by 
the shorter path to the left by a church, and farther on between 
walls, past the red-painted tobacco manufactory, to the church and 
houses of 8. Arcangelo. Here we again quit the road, which goes 
to the right to Passiano, and follow the path to the left. It de- 
scends, crosses a ravine by a bridge, and again gradually ascends to 
the right, enclosed by walls, but a view is soon obtained of Cava 
dei Tirreni and of the Bay of Salerno. In Y2 hr. (from S. Arcan- 
gelo) we arrive at the church of Pietra Santa, so called from a rock 
in front of the high-altar, on which Pope Urban II. dismounted in 
1095, when he consecrated the convent of La Cava; the church 
itself dates from the 17th century. Pine view. Beyond Pietra Santa 
we skirt the wood for 8 min. and reach the high-road, which soon 
afterwards crosses the viaduct to Corpo di Cava. Here the road di- 
vides, leading to the right to the village, and to the left (5 min.) 
to the monastery. 

The village of Corpo di Cava (*Albergo Scapolatiello, with gar- 
den, pens. 5 fr. ; Albergo Adinolfi, both rustic) stands on the rock 
against which the monastery is built, above a beautiful narrow 
valley with several mills. The air is pure and the situation beauti- 
ful, so that visitors often make a prolonged stay here. 

The famous Benedictine abbey of *La Trinita della Cava was 
founded in 1011 , in the time of Guaimar III. of Salerno, by St. 
Alferius, a member of a noble Lombard family, and stands above 
the cavern which the saint had previously occupied. It is now 
national property and is maintained like Monte Cassino, the abbot 
being keeper of the Archives. It contains a lyceum and boarding- 
school, patronised by the upper classes. The present buildings, 
dating from the 18th cent., stand partly on the old foundations. 

Visitors are admitted in the forenoon and receive a guide, who 
first shows the rooms of the old convent, containing ancient mural 
paintings, the tomb of the anti-pope Gregory VIII. (1118-21), the skulls 
of numerous Lombard and Norman princes who were buried in the 
abbey, and the cave of S. Alferius. The Church (with two marble urns 
and the tomb of Queen Sibilla at the entrance) contains three large sarco- 
phagi of coloured marble with the remains of the first three abbots (chapel 
to the right of the highaltar) and a reliquary with the pectoral cross of 
Urban II. (see above). The pulpit with its mosaics (12th cent.) belonged to 
the old church. The organ is one of the best in Italy. — The Archives of 
the monastery (shown in the forenoon only) are of great value, and contain 
a number of important documents on parchment in uninterrupted succes- 
sion; the catalogue comprises 8 vols. Among the valuable MSS. are the 
Codex Legum Longobardorum of 1004, a prayer-book with miniatures of 
the school of Fra Angelico da Fiesole, the Latin Biblia Vnlgata of the 
7th cent., etc. The small Pinacoteca, or picture-gallery, contains two fine 
altar-piece3 of the early Umbrian school (Resurrection and Adoration of 
the Magi), revealing the influence of Raphael. 

"We may return by the Bonea, a grotto with a small waterfall. 

A pleasant afternoon excursion may be made to the top of Monte 
S. Liberatore (1516 ft.), to the S.E. of Cava dei Tirreni, which com- 

Salerno. SALERNO. 10. Route. 163 

mands a magnificent *View. A road leads to a group of houses (Cafe') near 
the foot of the hill (carr. to this point and hack 5 fr.; bargaining necessary), 
whence we ascend, passing a venerable evergreen oak, to the summit, the 
last part of the way in zig 

The train now traverses a beautiful district, and soon affoids a 
view of the Bay of Salerno ; in 10 min. it reaches — 

30!/2 M. Vietri (Loc. Rosa , plain) , charmingly situated , with 
several villas. Pop. 9000. Above the town a promenade, com- 
manding beautiful views, has lately been constructed. 

Passengers may alight here and take a carriage (drive of ■/« nr -) down 
to Salerno (2 fr. , single seat 1/2 fr.). The road descends, commanding a 
view of the sea, and aftords a pleasant walk. High above, along the rocks 
of Monte S. IAberatore to the left, runs the railway. Carriage to Amalfi 
(p. 169) less expensive here than at Salerno (a drive of 2-2V2 hrs. ; with 
one horse 3-4, with two 5-6, with three 9-10 fr., and fee of 1 fr.; one-horse 
carr. to Amalfi and thence to Salerno 6 fr. and fee of 1 fr.) ; diligence from 
yietri to Amalfi twice daily (forenoon and evening, returning early in the 
morning and at noon). 

The railway, supported by galleries, and passing through four 
tunnels, the last of which penetrates the castle-hill, descends ra- 
pidly hence to Salerno. 

34 M. Salerno. — The Railway Station lies at the E. end of the 
town, a considerable way from the principal hotels. 

Hotels. "Hotel d'Inghilterra, Corso Garibaldi 34, with view of the 
bay, B., L., & A. 3y 2 , B. I1/4, dej. 3, D. 5 (both incl. wine), pens. 8-10 fr. ; 
Vittokia, Via Indipendenza 31, at the W. end of the town, some distance 
from the station, similar prices. — Albeego & Trattoria del Vesuvio, 
E. 3, pens. 5-6 fr. 

Trattorie. "Genlrale, Corso Garibaldi 96, frequented by officers; 
Gontinentale, Corso Garibaldi 11; Roma, Corso Garibaldi 8, unpretending 
and moderate, good red wine. — Cafes. Several on the Corso Garibaldi. 

Sea-Baths near the Marina, similar to those at Naples (p. 24). 

Carriages. From the railway to the town with one horse 50 c, with 
two horses 1 fr. ; at night 70 c. or IV2 fr. ; one hour 1 or 2 fr., at night 
IY2 or 2'/2 fr. — For drives in the neighbourhood a previous agreement 
should always be made. To Amalfi with one horse 6-8, with two horses 
8-10 fr. — Single travellers may avail themselves of one of the swift but 
•uncomfortable corricoli (two-wheeled , rustic vehicles ; the driver stands 
behind the passenger) , but a stipulation should be made that no second 
passenger be taken up by the way; to Amalfi (tutto compreso), according 
to circumstances 2>/2-4 fr. 

Rowing or Sailing Boat (according to bargain) 1-1 1/2 fr. per hour; to 
Amalfi 8-10 fr., according to the number of rowers. 

English Vice-Consul, Signor Pio Consiglio. 

Popular Festival on the eve and day of St. Matthew, 20th-21st Sept., 
with fireworks and illumination, which are best seen irom a boat (4-5 fr.). 

Salerno , the ancient Salernum , delightfully situated at the 
N. extremity of the bay, and bounded on the E. by fertile 
plains, is the seat of the local government and of an archbishop, 
and the chief residence of the numerous local aristocracy. Pop. 
20,000, of the commune 31,200. The old town, rising on the 
slope of the so-called Apennine, with narrow and irregular streets, 
recalls the 9th and 10th centuries, when the Lombards occupied 
it, the 11th cent, when it belonged to the Normans, and lastly 
the period when the houses of Hohenstaufen and Anjou were 


164 Route 10. SALERNO. Gulf of 

masters of the place , and when Salerno enjoyed the reputation 
of being the greatest medical school in Europe. 

The quay, l'^lVL in length, called the Corso Garibaldi, affords 
a beautiful walk. Here is a large Theatre, with some flower-beds 
and clusters of trees adjacent. At the "W. end is the Harbour, 
recently protected against the encroaching sand by a large but 
deserted Molo. To the E. of the theatre is the post-office and the 
monument of Carlo Pisacana, Duke of S. Giovanni, 'precursore di 
Garibaldi', a Genoese, who participated in the attempts to revolu- 
tionise Italy in 1857, landed in Calabria, and perished while en- 
deavouring to escape. The large building between the two sentry- 
boxes, about 100 paces farther, is the Prefettura, past which a 
narrow street to the left leads to the — 

*Cattbdbale S. Matteo, erected in 1084 by Robert Guiscard. 
The restoration of 1768 has deprived the edifice of much of its 
simple grandeur, but it still merits a visit. The steps ascend to 
an atrium, surrounded by twenty- eight antique columns from 
Psestum. In the centre formerly stood a granite basin which is 
now in the Villa Nazionale at Naples (p. 32). Along the walls 
are ranged fourteen ancient Sarcopkagi, which were used by the 
Normans and their successors as Christian burying -places. The 
bronze doors adorned in niello , executed at Constantinople, were 
given by Landolfo Butromile in 1099. 

Inteeioe. Above the door is a large mosaic of St. Matthew, .of the Nor- 
man period. The Nave contains two ambones or reading-desks, and an archi- 
episcopal throne, richly decorated with mosaic by Giovanni of Procida, the 
foe of Charles of Adjou. In the N. aisle is the *Tomb of Margaret of Anjou 
(d. 1412), wife of Charles of Durazzo and mother of Ladislaus and Johanna II., 
by Baooccio da Piperno, with the painting almost intact. Opposite is the 
tomb of Bishop Nic. Piscicelli (d. 1471). The Cappella del Sacramento, at the 
end of this aisle, contains a Pieta by Andrea da Salerno, the composition 
of which is open to criticism. — On a large table in the Sacristy (in the 
N. transept) : Scenes from the Old and New Testament, on numerous carv- 
ed ivory tablets, perhaps of early-Christian workmanship. — The Choir con- 
tains a pavement and balustrade of Norman mosaic and two columns of 
verde antico. — In the South Aisle, at the end, is the tomb of Hildebrand, 
afterwards Pope Gregory VII., who died here on 25th May, 1085, after he had 
been banished from Rome by Henry IV. The monument was restored in 1578 
by Archbishop Colonna; the statue and the frescoes are modern, and the 
mosaic in the dome has been restored. To the left is the monument of Arch- 
oishop Caraffa, adorned with a relief from Psestum : Rape of Proserpine. 
Farther on in the same aisle are tombs of a bishop and a knight, antique 
sarcophagi with Bacchanalian representations. — Here, beside an ancient 
relief representing a ship discharging its cargo , steps descend to the 
richly decorated Crypt , which is said to contain the remains of the 
Evangelist St. Matthew, brought from the East in 930. In front of a 
side-altar is the stump of a column, on which three saints are said to 
have been beheaded. 

In S. Lorenzo some frescoes recently discovered under the 
whitewash are also ascribed to Andrea (Sabbatini) of Salerno, 
the most eminent Renaissance painter in S. Italy. Authentic 
works by this master, whose style reflects the influence of Raphael, 
may be seen in the churches of 8. Giorgio (Madonna with saints 

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Salerno. PAESTUM. 10. Route. 165 

and donors, dated 1523 ; 2nd altar on the right) and S. Agostino 
(Madonna with two saints, 2nd altar to the left; the SS. Augustine 
and Paul at the sides of the high-altar are school-pieces). Both these 
churches are situated between the Prefettura and the cathedral. 

On the hill (900 ft.) lie the ruins of the ancient Castle of the 
Lombard princes, which was taken by Robert Guiscard after a siege 
of eight months. The view repays the ascent. Passing the cathedral 
we take the 'Salita del Castello' and turn to the right a little above 
the Carceri (prison) ; farther up, the path becomes steep ; at the top, 
3 /4 hr., is a cottage (fee,of a few soldi.) 

A pleasant drive (2 hrs., carr. 4-5 fr.; railway in progress) may be 
taken from Salerno through the Irno Valley to S. Severino (p. 175), with 
which a visit to Monte Vergine (p. 175) may be combined. On the way 
we pass Fratte , the largest Swiss colony in Italy , with extensive manu- 
factories, and Baronisi, the scene of Fra Diavolo's capture. 

The train as it proceeds affords a charming view of the bay and 
Capri to the right, and of the mountains to the left. — 39 M. Ponte-; 44 M. Montecorvino. 

45^2 M. Battipaglia, junction of the railway to Paestum and 
Pisciotta, see below. 


The expedition to Paestum is most conveniently made from Cava dei 
Tirreni (p. 161) or Salerno, where the night before should be spent. It 
may also be accomplished from Naples in a single day, but the long and 
fatiguing railway- journey is a drawback in this case. In the interval 
between the arrival of the train from Naples (about noon) and the depart- 
ure of the next train in the opposite direction, the solemn stillness which 
usually hangs over the temples is rudely disturbed by numerous tourists. 
Those who desire to see the ruins under more favourable conditions, to 
examine details, and to make the circuit of the ancient town-wall, must 
either arrive by an earlier train or depart by a later one, it being ad- 
visable in the latter case to secure night-quarters at Cava or Salerno be- 
forei-and. — Admission to the temples on week-days 1 fr., Sun. free 
(ticket-office near the temple of Neptune). During the chief tourist- 
season, there is a fair buffet at the station, where also night-quarters 
may be obtained. It is better, however, to bring provisions, and lunch 
at the temples, on the town-walls, or on the beach. 

Railway Fares. From Naples to Paestum, express - fares 11 fr. 55, 
8 fr. 15, 5 fr. 30, ordinary fares 10 fr. 70, 7 fr. 50, 4 fr. 85 c, return-tickets 
16 fr. 5, 11 fr. 30, 7 fr. 30 c. (on holidays, 12 fr. 5, 8 fr. 55, 6 fr. 5 a). 
From Cava dei Tirreni to Paestum, express 6 fr. 20, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 80 c, 
ordinary 5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 55 c; from Cava dei Tirreni to Batti- 
paglia, return -ticket, 4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 20 c. — From Salerno to 
Psestum, express 4 fr. 80, 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 20 c, ordinary 4 fr. 55, 3 fr. 20, 
1 fr. 10 C; return-ticket from Salerno to Battipaglia, 6 fr. 85, 4 fr. 80, 
1 fr. 65 c. No return tickets are issued between Cava dei Tirreni or 
Salerno and Psestum; but travellers have time to secure one from Batti- 
paglia to Paestum for 3 fr. 65, 1 fr. 70, 1 fr. 5. 

Battipaglia (se eabove) is reached by railway from Cava dei Tirreni 
in I-IV2 nr -> from Salerno in ^-^hr., from Naples in 2 3 /4-3 3 / 4 hrs. 
— The Railway pbom Battipaglia to Ptestum traverses marshy 
plains, enlivened only by a few herds of buffaloes and other cattle. 
Agriculture , however, has been making some progress here of late 

166 Route 10. P^ESTUM. History. 

years, and the malaria is diminishing in consequence. — Beyond 
(3i/ 2 M.) 8. Niccolo Varco , the line crosses the impetuous river 
Sele, the ancient Silarus. Before the railway was built, this used 
to be considered the most dangerous part of the road, especially 
in 1860-70 , when the neighbourhood was haunted by the daring 
brigand Manzi. — 8'/2 M. Albanella; 11 M. Capaccio. — Shortly 
before reaching (13 M.) Paestum (Ital. Pesto), we catch sight of the 
corner of the old town-wall and of the temples behind. — The 
railway goes on to (16 M.) Ogliastro , the village of which name 
lies at a considerable distance to the left on the hill, (I8Y2 M.) 
Agropoli, and (42 M.) Pisciotta, whence the line is to be continued 
via Castrocucco (p. 207) to Gioia Tauro (p. 221). 

Psestum, according to Strabo, was founded by Greeks from Sybaris 
about the year B.C. 600, and its ancient name of Poseidonia (city of 
Neptune) sufficiently indicates its Greek origin. In the 4th cent, the 
town was in possession of the Lucanians, who oppressed the inhabit- 
ants ; and at that period the citizens used to celebrate a festival an- 
nually in memory of their Greek origin and their former prosperity. 
After the defeat of Pyrrhus , Poseidonia fell into the hands of the 
Romans, who in B. O. 273 founded the colony of Paestum here. In 
the war against Hannibal the town remained faithful to Rome. At 
a later period it gradually fell to decay, and as early as the reign of 
Augustus was notorious for its malarious air. Christianity took root 
here at an early period. When the Saracens devastated Paestum in 
the 9th cent., the inhabitants fled with their bishop to the neigh- 
bouring heights, and there founded Capaccio Vecchio. In the 11th 
cent, the deserted town was despoiled by Robert Guiscard of its 
monuments and sculptures, and remained in this desolate condition 
for many centuries , till in modern times attention was again 
directed to the antiquities still remaining. Those who appreciate 
the simple majesty of Greek architecture should endeavour , if 
possible, before quitting Naples, to pay a visit to the temples at 
Paestum, which are, with the single exception of those at Athens, 
the finest existing monuments of the kind. 

The railway - station is situated immediately to the E. of the 
ancient town. In the neighbourhood are the remains of an aqueduct 
and fragments of ancient paving. "We enter the town, which was 
surrounded by massive walls, through the Porta delta Sirena, so 
called from the small relief of a siren on the outer keystone of the 
archway. On the inner keystone is a scarcely recognizable relief of 
a dolphin. Proceeding thence along the wall enclosing the Villa 
Salati we reach the high road in 8 min., which traverses the an- 
cient town from N. to S. Here suddenly opens the view of the ruins : 
to the left are the temple of Neptune and the so-called Basilica, 
and to the right the temple of Ceres. The keeper awaits the visitors 
at the temple of Neptune (adm. see p. 165). 

The largest and most beautiful of the three temples is the so- 

Temple of Neptune. VJE8TWI. 10. Route. 1 67 

called **TempIe of Neptune, 63 yds. in length, and 28 yds. in width. 
At each end are six massive, fluted Doric columns, 28 ft. in height; 
on each side twelve, in all thirty-six columns of 7^2 ft. in dia- 
meter, all well-preserved. In the interior of the Cella are two series 
of seven columns each (about 6 ft. in diameter), with a second row 
of smaller columns above, which supported the roof. On the S. side 
5, and on the N. side 3 columns are still standing. The stone is a 
kind of travertine, to which age has imparted a mellow tone. It con- 
tains fossil reeds and aquatic plants. The whole was once covered 
with stucco, in order to conceal the imperfections of the stone. The 
proportions of the symmetrically tapering columns, whether viewed 
from the vicinity or from a distance, are perfect. This temple, as 
its whole character betokens , is one of the most ancient specimens 
of Greek art. Photographs and models of it are frequently seen 
(comp. Introd., p. xxix). A stone basis in front of the E. facade 
probably belonged to a large sacrificial altar. 

A little to the S. rises the second temple, the so-called *Basi- 
lica (a misnomer), of more reoent origin, but also of great an- 
tiquity. It is 60 yds. in length, and 26^2 yds. in width, and its 
fifty columns are each 6!^ ft. in diameter, but its proportions and 
colouring are less imposing than those of the temple of Neptune. 
At each end are nine columns , and on each side sixteen, all of 
travertine stone. The shafts of the columns taper upwards in a 
curve ; the capitals are of a peculiar form not elsewhere met with. 
A series of columns in the centre, by a singular arrangement, di- 
vided the temple into two halves, so that it contained two 'cellae'. 

In front of these temples probably extended the Forum of 
the ancient town , basements for altars or statues being still 
distinguishable here. 

Farther N. stands the small * Temple of Ceres, or of Vesta 
according to others, with a peristyle of thirty-four columns, six 
at each end, and eleven on each side. Length 35 yds., width 
15 yds. ; columns 5 ft. in diameter, tapering upwards in straight 
lines. The columns of the vestibule are distinguished from those 
of the principal part of the structure by the difference of the fluting. 
This temple is of somewhat later date than the others, but is also a 
fine example of the simple and majestic Greek style. 

The temples are overgrown with a luxuriant crop of ferns and 
acanthus, enlivened by grasshoppers, lizards, and a few snakes. 

Between the Temple of Ceres and that of Neptune a few frag- 
ments of Roman building have been discovered, a Theatre and 
Amphitheatre, it is believed. The latter is intersected by the road. 
A Roman Temple was also discovered here in 1830. Concealed 
among the underwood near it are two metopae, adorned with high 
reliefs. These remains, however, are insignificant compared with the 
ruins above mentioned. — Of the 'rose-gardens' of Paestum, so 
much extolled by Roman poets, no traces now exist. 

168 Route 10. MAJORI. Gulf of 

Without the N. gate, the so-called Porta Aurea, was a Street 
of Tombs. Several of those which have been opened contained 
Greek weapons ; and in one of them, examined in 1854, were found 
the fine mural paintings mentioned at p. 59. 

A walk on the ancient Town-Walls , about 3 M. in circum- 
ference, formed of blocks of travertine and preserved almost entire, 
will enable the traveller, better than a close inspection, to form 
an idea of the imposing grandeur of these venerable ruins. The 
finest general * View of the temples is obtained from the terrace of 
the tower to the E. of the Porta delta Giustizia , on the S. side of 
the town-wall. 


Comp. Map, p. 164. 

From Salerno to Amalfi, about 12 l /2 M., carriage by the high-road 
in 2'/2-3 hrs. From Vietri, about 9'/2 or 10 M., carriage in 2-2>/ 2 hrs. 
Recommended also to walkers. 

Between Naples and Amain service is maintained from Oct. to March 
by the steamer of the Florio-Rubattino Company plying once a week from 
Naples to Messina (leaving the Immacolatella at Naples on Thurs. at 5 p.m., 
reaching Amalfi at 9 p.m. ; leaving Amalfi on the return voyage on Wed. 
at 6 a.m., and reaching Naples at 10 a.m.). 

The ** High Koad from Salbrno to Amalfi, completed in 
1852, is still more attractive than that from Oastellammare to 
Sorrento (p. 147). It is nearly the whole way hewn in the cliffs of 
the coast, and frequently supported by galleries and vast viaducts 
100-500 ft. above the sea-level. The slopes are generally somewhat 
bare, but are in many places laid out in terraces, and planted with 
vines, olives, lemons, and fruit-trees. The massive square watch- 
towers , erected under Charles V. as a protection against pirates, 
are now partly converted into dwellings. 

From Salerno the road ascends, and near Vietri (p. 163) crosses 
the valley by a stone bridge. To the left in the sea rise two 
conical rocks, / Due Fratelli. On the hill to the right is Raito. 
The next place (jM/^M.) is the picturesquely situated fishing-village 
of Cetara, extending along the bottom of a narrow ravine ; it is 
frequently mentioned in the history of the invasions of the Sara- 
cens, and was the first place where they settled. The road now 
ascends to the Capo Tumolo, whence a beautiful prospect of the 
coast on both sides is enjoyed, and descends thence by the Capo 
d'Orso, where the fleet of Charles V. was defeated by Filippino 
Doria. On the right opens the valley of S. Maria, in which a foot- 
path ascends to the ruined monastery of Camaldoli dell' Avvocata, 
founded in 1485. We soon reach (8 M.) the small town of — 

Majori, with terraced lemon-plantations and the ancient church 
of 8. Maria a Mare , at the mouth of the Val Tramonti, which is 
ascended by a carriage-road to Chiunzi (p. 160 j splendid view of 
the Bay of Naples). On the right in this valley lies the ancient 
ruined castle of S. Nicola , of which the Piccolomini were the last 

Salerno. AMALFI. 10. Route. 169 

proprietors. On the coast near Major! is the interesting grotto of 
Pandone , resemhling the Blue Grotto at Capri. In a picturesque 
sheltered situation above the high-road , halfway to Minori, is the 
*Hdtel Torre (R., L., & A. 3, B. 1% dej. 3, D. 5 (both incl. wine), 
pens. 8-10 fr.), an excellent quiet resort and a good centre for 

Minori, a clean little village, with lemon-gardens, most beau- 
tifully situated, once the arsenal of Amain, lies at the mouth of 
the sometimes turbulent Beginolo. — The road to Ravello mentioned 
at p. 171, diverges to. the right near Atrani. 

Atrani lies at the entrance to a ravine, on each side of which 
the houses rise picturesquely. The church of S. Salvatore di 
Biretto, on the Marina, contains handsome bronze doors , of Byzan- 
tine workmanship of the 11th cent., monuments of the Doges of 
Amalfl, and others of the Saracenic period. Midnight mass is per- 
formed here on Christmas Eve, when the town and hills are illumin- 
ated. Above Atrani is the village of Pontone, halfway to which is 
a house in which Masaniello is said to have been born (but comp. 
p. 39). 

A lofty rocky eminence , bearing the extensive ruins of the 
castle of Pontone, separates Atrani from (2^4 M.) Amalfl. 

Amalfl. — Hotels (frequently crowded in the season; rooms should 
be secured In advance). *Gr. Albergo Cappuccini-Convento , in the old 
Capuchin monastery (p. 170) above the town, with fine view, frequented 
by English and Americans, R., L., & A. 51/2, B. l'/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 
12 fr. (for a stay of a week or more; L. extra); "Cappuccini alla Marina 
(same proprietors), at the harbour, R., L., & A. 5, B. l'/2, dej. 3, D. 5, 
pens. 8 fr. (L. extra). — * Albergo della Luna, formerly a monastery, 
with picturesque cloisters , at the E. end of the town , 1 / 1 M. from the 
harbour, somewhat poorly fitted up, R., L., & A. 2 1 / 2 , B. l'/i, dej. 2>/2, 
D. 4, pens. 8 1 /* fr. (all incl. wine). — "Alb. d'Italia, near the harbour, R., L., 
& A. l'/2fr., B.60c, dej., incl. wine, 2, D.2'/2, pens.6fr., wine included. — 
Saccardi, Piazza del Duomo, unpretending. 

Boats l'/2-2 fr. per hour (an expedition to the above-mentioned Grotta 
Pandone takes about 2'/2 hrs. there and back; the Grotta di S. Andrea 
lies only 10-15 min. from Amalfl); to Prajano with 4 rowers, IV2 hr., 
8-10 fr. arc demanded, but a bargain may be made for less; to Capri in 
about 6 hrs. with 4-6 rowers 20-30 fr.; to Salerno with 2 rowers 6-8 fr. 

Carriages may be obtained from a hirer residing immediately beyond 
the Piazza on the way to the mill-valley (p. 171); carr. and pair to Ra- 
vello, 5-6 fr., fee extra. — Donket, 1-1 1 /t fr. per hr. — Guide unnecessary. 
— The beggars, especially the children, are more importunate at Amalfl 
than at any other spot near Naples. 

Amalfl, a small but lively town with 7000 inhab., whose chief 
occupations are the manufacture of paper, soap, and maccaroni, is 
situated at the entrance of a deep ravine, surrounded by imposing 
mountains and rocks of the most picturesque forms. In the early 
part of the middle ages , it was a prosperous seaport , rivalling 
Pisa and Genoa, and numbered 50,000 inhabitants. 

Amalfl is mentioned for the first time in the 6th cent. , when it enjoyed the 
protection of the Eastern emperors ; it afterwards became an independent 
state, under the presidency of a 'doge'. The town was continually at 
variance with the neighbouring princes of Salerno, and even defied the 

170 Route 10. AMALFL Gulf of 

Norman sovereigns of Naples, till King Roger reduced the place in 1131. 
United with the royal forces, Amain carried on a war with the Pisans ; 
and it was during this struggle that the celebrated MS. of the Pandects of 
Justinian, now one of the principal treasures of the Laurentian library at 
Florence, fell into the hands of the Pisans. The place then became subject 
to the kings of the houses of Anjou and Aragon. In the 12th cent, the 
sea began gradually to undermine the lower part of the town, and a ter- 
rible inundation in 1343 proved still more disastrous. After that period 
Amain steadily declined. The town boasts of having given birth to 
Flavio Gioja, who is said to have invented the compass here in 1302. 
The Tavole Amalfitane were recognised for centuries as the maritime law 
of the Mediterranean. — The Cavaliere Camera possesses rich collections 
illustrating the history of Amalfl, and also an admirable cabinet of coins, 
which he very obligingly shows to interested visitors. 

From the Marina a short street leads past the Albergo dei 
Cappuccini to the small Piazza, on the right side of which rises 
the cathedral, approached by a broad flight of steps. 

The *Cattedralb S. Andrea is still, in spite of modern alte- 
rations, an interesting structure of the 11th cent., in the Lombard 
Norman style. The portal, built of alternate courses of black and 
white stone , was re-erected in 1865. The facade has also been 
recently restored. The campanile, adorned with columns from Paes r 
tum, dates from 1276. 

The Bronze Doors, executed by Byzantine masters in the 11th cent., 
bear two inscriptions in silver letters, one of which runs thus : 'Hoc 
opus fieri jussit pro redemptione animse suae Pantaleo Alius Mauri de 
Pantaleone de Mauro de Maurone Comite'. 

The "Inteeioe consists of a nave and two aisles, with a series of 
chapels on each side. Behind the, chapels on the N. side is a third aisle, 
really a small independent church, connected with the N. aisle by several 
entrances. In the first chapel to the left is an ancient vase of porphyry, 
formerly used as a font. Near this, to the left, in the first passage to the 
outer aisle, are two ancient sarcophagi with sculptures, unfortunately 
damaged, supposed to represent the Rape of Proserpine, and the Nuptials 
of Peleus and Thetis (according to others , the marriage of Theseus and 
Ariadne); a third bears the inscription: 'Hie intus homo verus certus.op- 
tumus recumbo Publius Octavius Rufus decurio\ — The choir contains 
ancient columns decorated with mosaic from Psestum. — From the S. 
aisle a flight of steps descends to the Ckypx (generally open ; when closed, 
verger 20 c), where the body of the apostle St. Andrew is said to have 
reposed since the 13th cent, when it was brought hither from Constan- 
tinople. The relics, from which an oily matter (manna di S. Andrea) of 
miraculous power is said to exude , attract numerous devotees. The 
colossal "Statue of the saint by Michael Angelo Maccarino was presented by 
Philip III. of Spain. The altar was executed from a design by Domenico 
Fontana. — The Cloisters, entered from the left aisle, contain a relief of 
the Twelve Apostles of the 14th cent., and a Madonna of more recent date, 
besides remains of several ancient columns from Psestum which supported 
the portal before the restoration in 1865 (see above). — Solemn processions 
on St. Andrew's Day (Nov. 30th). 

The church of 8. Maria Dolorata , 300 yds. to the N. of the 
cathedral, also contains ancient columns from Paestum. 

On the steep slope above Amalfl on the W. the old *Capuchin 
Monastery is conspicuous. It was founded in 1212 by Cardinal 
Pietro Capuano for the Cistercians, but came into possession of the 
Capuchins in 1583, and is now fitted up as a hotel. The building, 
which stands in the hollow of a rock which rises abruptly from the 

Salerno. RAVELLO. 10. Route. 171 

sea to a height of 230 ft., contains fine cloisters, a charming veran- 
dah, and magnificent points of view. A large grotto to the left was 
formerly used as a Calvary. Itis most conveniently reached hy a flight 
of steps ascending from the new road; 15 min. from the harbour. 

On the slopes above the town to the E. appears the arcade of 
the Cemetery of Amalfl. The solitary round tower on the hill above 
belongs to the Castello Pontone (p. 169). 

A cool and pleasant Walk may be taken in the narrow Valle 
de' Molini, or mill-valley, at the back of Amalfl, which contains 16 
paper-mills driven by the brook. (From the Piazza we follow the 
main street, which ends in 4 min.; we then go straight on through 
the Porta dell' Ospedale, a covered passage opposite the fountain.) 
On the right rise lofty cliffs. Perhaps the most picturesque point 
is at the (1 hr.)' Molino Rovinato. — To Amalfl belong the villages 
of Pogerola, Pastina, Lone, Vettica Minore, and Tovere, all situated 
to the W. of the town in a district yielding wine , oil, and fruit in 
abundance. The coast is overgrown with the aloe and cactus opuntia. 
— A pleasant excursion may also be made via Pastina and Vettica 
Minore to the old fort of S. Lazzaro , with a splendid view of the 
entire coast. 

From Amalfi to Ravello, an ascent of I-IV2 hr. (carr. p. 169), 
a most attractive excursion, affording beautiful views, and interest- 
ing also to the student of art, particularly if as yet unacquainted 
with Moorish architecture. The new road begins at the Villa Proto 
(3/ 4 M. from the Alb. Luna at Amalfl), to the E. of Atrani (p. 169), 
ascends to the left in long windings, and then enters the beautiful 
Valley of Atrani , the bottom of which forms a continuous orange- 
grove. It follows the valley until three mills are reached, and then 
again ascends to the right in windings (road to Scala to the left, 
at the third bend; see p. 172) toRavello. 

Walkers have an alternative route aa follows, although the longer 
carriage-road is in many respects preferable. Quitting the road at Atrani, 
we ascend the broad flight of steps on the left beside the church of S. 
Maria Maddalena (7 min. from the Alb. della Luna) and cross the little 
Largo Maddalena. We then ascend the steps on the right and continue 
straight on, through vaulted lanes and up steep flights of stairs (or in 
some cases descending) to the valley of Atrani, where we rejoin the 
carriage-road. Beyond the three mills footpaths again cut off the windings 
of the road. 

Ravello. — Hotels. *H6t.-Pens. Palcmbo, in the old episcopal palace, 
R. 3-5, L. 1/2, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4-5, pens. 8-9 fr.; Alb. del Toko, in the 
former Palazzo d'Afflitto , R., L., & A. i% fr., B. 60 c, dej. 1 fr. 80 c, 
D. 272 (both iucl. wine), pens. incl. wine 7 fr. (for a week or more 
6 fr.), well spoken of. 

Ravello (1150ft.), founded under the Normans, in the zenith 
of its prosperity under the house of Anjou in the 13th cent, pos- 
sessed thirteen churches, four monasteries , numerous palaces, and 
36,000 inhabitants (now 2000 only). 

The Romanesque *Cathedral (St. Pantaleone) , founded in the 
11th cent., is almost entirely modernised. The bronze doors, by 

172 Route 10. EAVELLO. 

Barisanus of Trani (1179"), with numerous figures of saints, are 
opened from the inside by the verger; on the outside they are 
concealed by wooden doors. The magnificent *Ambo, in marble, 
embellished with mosaics , was presented in 1272 ; it rests on six 
columns supported by lions ; inscription, 'Nicolaus de Fogia mar- 
morarius hoc opus fecit'. The fine bust on the arch is said to be a 
portrait of Sigilgaita Rufolo. Opposite to it is the pulpit, in a simpler 
style, with a representation of Jonah being swallowed by the whale. 
In the choir is the episcopal throne, adorned with mosaics. The 
Cappella di S. Pantaleone (left) contains the blood of the saint. 
In the Sacristy are a beautiful but sadly damaged Madonna, a St. 
Sebastian, and an Assumption, said to be by Andrea da Salerno. 

Turning to the left on leaving the cathedral , passing the foun- 
tain , and walking for 100 paces between garden-walls , we reach 
the entrance to the ^Palazzo Rufalo (visitors ring at the second 
gateway on the right), now the property of a Mr. Reid. This edi- 
fice, built in the Saracenic style and dating from the 12th cent., 
was once occupied by Pope Adrian IV., King Charles II., and Robert 
the Wise. In the centre is a small, fantastic court with a colon- 
nade. One of the gateways has a Saracenic dome. A verandah in 
the garden (1115 ft. above the sea-level) commands a delightful 
view (gardener ^2 &•)• 

Returning to the piazza and ascending a lane to the left of the 
cathedral, we come in 5 min. to the church of 8. Giovanni del Toro, 
a modernised basilica borne by columns , and containing a fine 
old pulpit. The adjacent garden affords a fine view of the valley 
of Minori, of the small town of that name at its mouth, and of 
the more distant Majori and the Capo d'Orso beyond it (fee of a 
few soldi ; refreshments to be had). — S. Maria Immacolata is a 
picturesque little church, also Romanesque. 

Another point commanding a very extensive view is the *Bel- 
vedere Cembrone. Passing in front of the cathedral, towards the S., 
we go straight through a gateway, pass (8 min.) the portal of the 
church of 8. Chiara to the right , reach a door on the left (visitors 
knock), and traverse the garden to the belvedere. 

The excursion to Amain may be pleasantly extended by 1-2 hrs. by 
visiting Scala (p. 171 ; Caffe della Rosa), a village with a large church 
containing the tombs of the Coppola family; the church of SS.Annunzlata, 
an old basilica with ten large ancient columns and some old frescoes (to 
the right the ruined castle of Scaletla); and Pontone. From the last we 
descend (steep) to the mill-valley. This is an interesting, but fatiguing 
walk. A donkey should not be taken farther than the church of SS. 
Annunziata, as riding is scarcely practicable beyond it. 

From Amalfi to Sobeento, at present by boat to Prajano (see 
p. 173) and thence drive to Sorrento ; best light in the morning. — 
The continuation of the coast-road to the W. of Amalfl will pro- 
bably not be practicable for carriages until the end of 1892, al- 
though already open to peedestrians. It leads below the Capuchin 
monastery and pierces a small headland by means of a short tunnel. 

POSITANO. 10. Route. 173 

Near Vettica Minore it is joined by the path (mentioned on p. 146) 
from Agerola, a visit to which is a pleasant excursion from Amalfi. 
The road then rounds the Capo di Conca, skirts the precipitous 
cliffs of Furore, and reaches (5-5!/2 M. from Amain) Prajano. — 
Travellers with luggage proceed at present by rowing-boat (p. 169) 
along the picturesque coast to (1-1 '/^hr.) the Marina della Praja, 
above which the road leads. Here they are met by carriages, which 
should be ordered by telegraph from Sorrento (p. 147; drive to 
Sorrento, about 3 hrs.). Travellers in the opposite direction will 
also probably find it prudent to order a boat beforehand from Amalfi, 
though one is generally to be obtained at the Marina della Praja. 

At the beginning of Prajano, near the spot where we join the 
road, is the Stella d'Oro Inn (R. 2, B. 1, de'j. 2 l / 2 , D. 4, both incl. 
wine, pens. 6 fr. ; dearer in spring), well spoken of. Prajano and 
Vettica Maggiore, which adjoins it beyond Capo Soitile, aTe noted for 
their abundant wine and oil. The road skirts the coast, passing 
the Punta S. Pietro (chapel) and the ravine of the Arienzo, descending 
from Monte S. Angelo. High above is Montepertuso (p. 146). In 
1 hr. (4V 2 M. from the Marina della Praja) carriages reach — 

Positano, picturesquely situated on the mountain-slopes, with 
3000 inhab., an important harbour under the Anjou dynasty. Many 
of the natives leave their homes and travel through Southern Italy 
as hawkers. They assemble at their native place annually to cele- 
brate their principal church-festival (15th Aug. ; excursion-steamer 
from Naples), and finally return thither in later life to spend their 
declining years. 

The road skirts the highest houses of the town, descends again to 
the coast, along which it proceeds for about 2l/ 2 M., and then begins 
to ascend inland. Fine view of the Isles of the Sirens, usually called 
/ Oalli, which were fortified in the middle ages. The highest point 
of the road is a drive of fully 3/4 hr. from Positano ; walkers must 
allow double that time. The descent through luxuriant orange and 
lemon-groves to Meta is picturesque, though distant views are seldom 
obtained. At the Madonna del Lauro at Meta (p. 147), IOI/2 M. or 
2Y-2 hrs. drive from Prajano, we reach the road from OastellammaTe to 
Sorrento, at a point nearly 3 M. (i/^hr-'s drive) from Sorrento (p. 147). 

11. From Naples to Benevento via, Nola and Avellino. 

From Cancello, a station on the Naples and Rome railway, a branch- 
line runs to Nola, and skirts the Apennines to Avellino. From Naples to 
Nola in I-I1/2 hr. (fares 3 fr. 10, 1 fr. 95 c, 1 fr.) ; to Avellino in 3-4 hrs. 
(fares 8fr. 60, 5 fr. 40, 2 fr. 70 c.) ; to Benevento in 4"/ 2 -5 hrs. (fares 12 fr., 
7 fr. 80, 4 fr. 25 c.). — Railway from Naples to Baiano via Nola, see p. 174. 

From Naples to Cancello, 13 M., see p. 10. 

201/2 M. Nola, with 12,000 inhab., an ancient Campanian city, 
was almost the only one which successfully resisted the attacks of 
Hannibal after the battle of Cannae , B.C. 216 ; and the following 

174 Route 11. NOLA. From Naples 

year its inhabitants under the command of the brave M. Marcellus 
succeeded in repulsing the invader. The Emperor Augustus died 
here on 19th Aug. A.D. 14, in his 76th year, in the same house 
and apartment where his father Octavius had breathed his last. In 
ancient times Nola was not less important than Pompeii. It is now 
an insignificant place and devoid of interest. In the 5th cent., 
St. Paulinus, an accomplished poet and Bishop of Nola (b. at Bor- 
deaux in 354, d. 431), is said to have invented church-bells at this 
Campanian town , whence the word 'campana' is derived. On 
26th June a great festival is celebrated in his honour ; eight lofty 
and gaily adorned towers of light wood-work (so-called 'Lilies') and 
a ship bearing the image of the saint are drawn through the streets 
in procession. The free-thinker Giordano Bruno, who on 17th Feb. 
1600, terminated his eventful career at the stake in Rome , was 
born at Nola, where a monument, renewed in 1888, has been erected 
to his memory. Oiovanni Merliano, the sculptor of Naples, known 
as Oiovanni da Nola, was also born here in 1488. 

Nola is celebrated as an ancient cradle of the plastic art. The 
magnificent vases with shining black glazing and skilfully drawn 
red figures, which form the principal ornaments of the museums 
of Naples and of other places, were made here. Numerous coins 
of Nola with Greek inscriptions have also been found. 

About 1/2 M. to the N.E. of the town is situated the Seminary, where 
several Latin inscriptions and the so-called Oippus Abellanus, a remarkable 
inscription in the Oscan language found near Ahella, are preserved. Above 
the seminary (5 min.) is the Franciscan monastery of S. Angelo, command- 
ing a view of the fertile and luxuriant plain ; to the left is Monte Somma, 
behind which Vesuvius is concealed; to the right rise the mountains of 
Maddaloni. A little to the E. is a Capuchin monastery, above which the 
ruined castle of Cicala picturesquely crowns an eminence. 

Nola is connected with Naples by a Local Railway as well as by the 
main line (I6V2 M., in I-I.1/4 hr.; fares 2 fr. 45, 1 fr. 55, 80 c. ; return-tickets 
at a reduction of 25 per cent, available till the first train of the follow- 
ing day or for three days on the eve of a festival). The train starts at 
Naples from the Nola-Baiano Station (PI. H, 2, 3; p. 49). The line tra- 
verses Campania, offering numerous picturesque views. Stations: l 1 /* M. 
Poggioreale; 6 M. Casalnuovo; 8 M. Pomigliano d'Arco; 10 M. Castello di 
Cistema; IOV2M. Brusciano; 11 M. Mariglianella ; I21/2M. Marigliano (car- 
riages to Somma, see p. 118); 13 M. S. Vitaliano-Casaferro; 13V2 M. Scis- 
ciano ; 15^2 M. Saviano; 16>/2 31. Nola. — Beyond Nola the railway contin- 
ues to : I71/2 M. Cimilile, I872 M. Camposano, 19 M. Cicciano, 2OV2 M. Rocca- 
rainola, 23 M. Avella-Sperone, and 23'/2 M. Baiano. From Baiano carriages 
ply to Avellino and back in connection with the 1st, 2nd, and 5th trains 
from and to Naples (through-fares 4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 10 c; return 7 fr. 
20, 5 fr. 25, 3 fr. 65 c). — Avella is the classic Abella, near which are exten- 
sive plantations of hazel-nut, the 'nuces Avellanae 1 of antiquity. The 
aqueduct of the new Neapolitan water-works (p. 32) passes in the vicinity. 

25^2 M. Palma, picturesquely situated on the slopes of the 
Apennines opposite Ottaiano , with 7500 inhab. and an ancient 
chateau, is commanded by an extensive ruined castle on a height. 

30!/ 2 M. Sarno, a town with 16,500 inhab., lies on the Sarno, 
which flows hence towards Scafati and Pompeii. Above it towers a 

to Benevento. AVELLINO. 11. Route. 1 7E 

ruined stronghold of Count Francesco Coppola, -who took an im- 
portant part in the conspiracy against Ferdinand of Arragon (1485) 

The view now becomes more limited. Tunnel. 35 M. Codola 
branch-line to Nocera, see p. 161. — 37 M. Castel San Giorgio. — 
4CH/2 M. Mercato SanSeverino (/nn, poor), on the road from Avellim 
to Salerno. The principal church contains the tombs of Tommaso d< 
San Severino, high-constable of the kingdom of Naples in 1353, an< 
of several princes of Salerno. A road leads from S. Severino t< 
Salerno (about 10 M.) ; railway in progress, comp. p. 165. — Thi 
line now turns to the N. 43i/ 2 M. Montoro; 5272 M. Solofra 
541/2 M. Serino. 

59 M. Avellino (Albergo Centrale , well spoken of, obliging 
landlord , who provides guides for Mte. Vergine ; Albergo dell 
Puglie), with 23,000 inhab., the capital of a province, situated 01 
the old post-road from Naples to Foggia. The name is derived fron 
the ancient Abellinum, the ruins of which are 2^2 M. distant, nea 
the village of Atripalda. Another road leads hence to (14 M. 
Montesarchio and Benevento (p. 204). 

From Avellino we may visit Monte Vergine, a famous resort of pil 
grims (donkey 4-5 fr. and fee; provisions should be brought from Ave] 
lino). There are two routes to the convent. 1. We follow the Road t< 
the W. end of the town and then ascend the bye-road to the right. A 
O/2 M.) the cross-roads we proceed to the left to (1 31.) Loreto, wher 
the abbot and older monks live in a large octagonal building designed b; 
Vanvitelli. The convent archives and 'spezieria* are also here. — 2. Foot 
path. We proceed from the Municipio through the Via Mancini to th 
prison and on between the gymnasium (left) and the barracks (right) t 
a villa , the gateway of which we enter. The path to the left, by th 
brook, ascends through gardens and fields to Loreto. Thence to Met 
cogliano , where donkeys may be procured (l 1 ^ fr.), */4 hr. more. A tracl 
leading to the right here at the Piazza Michele Santangelo, and soon cross 
ing the road, leads to the stony bridle-path (partly provided with steps 
and through wood to (2 hrs.) the convent of Monte Vergine, founded ii 
1119 on the ruins of a temple of Cybele , some remains of which ar 
shown in the convent. The Church contains a miraculous picture of th 
Virgin, and the tombs of Catherine of Valois, who caused the pictur 
to be brought hither, and of her son Louis of Taranto, second husbani 
of Johanna I. Their effigies repose on a Roman sarcophagus. On th 
left side of the high-altar is the chapel erected for himself by King Man 
fred, which, when that monarch fell at Benevento, was given by Charle 
of Anjou to one of his French attendants. At Whitsuntide (comp. p. 2? 
and on Sept. 7th about 70-80,000 pilgrims visit the convent , many of th 
penitents ascending barefoot and crawling on their hands and knees froi 
the church-door to the altar. 

From the convent we may ascend to the (1/2 hr.) top of the mountai 
(4290 ft.), commanding a magnificent survey of the bays and the exten 
sive mountainous district. 

641/2 M. Prata Pratola ; 66l/ 2 M. Tufo. — 68'M. Altavilla Ir 
pino. — 70 M. Chianehe; 76 M. Benevento P.R. — 77 l / 2 M. Bene 
vento (p. 204). 


These parts of Italy have, until recently, been beyond the reach of the 
ordinary traveller. The W. coast is, moreover, by far the richer and more 
picturesque, as well as more replete with historical interest. The E. 
districts can boast of no such names as those of Florence , Rome, and 
Naples, but they are not devoid of attraction, and have been endowed by 
nature with a considerable share of the gifts she has so bounteously 
lavished on other parts of Italy. 

The Apennines , rising at a short distance from the coast, send forth 
a series of parallel ramifications, forming a corresponding number of par- 
allel valleys, whose communication with the external world is maintained 
by means of the coast to which they descend. To the S. of Ancona, from 
about the 43rd to the 42nd degree of N. latitude, stretch the Central 
Apennines, embracing the three provinces of the Abruzzi (Chieti, Teramo, 
and Aquila) , the ancient Samnium. They culminate in the Montagna 
delta Sibilla (8120 ft.), the Oran Sasso a" Italia (9585 ft.), and the Maiella 
(9170 ft.) , groups which are connected by continuous ranges , and which 
are clad with snow down to the month of July. These mountains abound 
in fine scenery (RR. 12-14) , but until recently they have been well-nigh 
inaccessible owing to the defectiveness of the means of communication 
and the badness of the inns. The mountains to the S. of 42° N. lat., 
receding gradually from the sea, are called the Neapolitan Apennines. The 
only spur which projects into the sea is the Mte. Oargano (3465 ft.), which, 
however, is separated from the chief range by a considerable plain. Beyond 
this stretches the Apulian plain, an extensive tract of pasture and arable 
land, bounded by an undulating district on the S. About the 41st degree of 
N. latitude the Apennines divide; the main chain, extending towards the S., 
forms the peninsula of Calabria; the lower chain, to the E., that of Apulia. 

The Coast (Provinces of Ancona, the Abruzzi, Capitanata, Terra di 
Sari, and Terra d'Otranto) is flat and monotonous, and destitute of good 
harbours. The estuaries of the small rivers afford but scanty protection 
to the vessels of the coasting trade. Even at Ancona the prominent 
M. Conero (1880 ft.) alone renders the anchorage tolerable. The villages 
and towns, in which local peculiarities often prevail in a marked degree, 
are generally situated on the heights, and conspicuous at a great distance. 
Farther to the S., however, in the ancient Apulia and Calabria (p. 200), 
the coast scenery improves, and there are three important harbours, those 
of Sari, Brindisi, and Otranto. Since the construction of the railway the 
most direct route between Western and Central Europe and the East has 
passed this way. 

Of the Southeen Peovinces, the former Sasilicata (now the province 
of Potenza), the ancient Lucania, is less interesting than most other 
parts of Italy, whereas Calabria is replete with striking scenery, though 
civilization here still lags wofully behind. The shores of the Gnlf 
of Taranto , whose waters bound both of these provinces , were once 
studded with numerous flourishing Greek colonies, and the whole district 
bore the name of Magna Oraecia; but the traces of that prosperous epoch 
are now scanty. The period of decline began with the Roman supremacy. 
The art and culture of the middle ages never penetrated to these remote 
regions. The fields once extolled by Sophocles for their richness and 
fertility are now sought for in vain, and the malaria exercises its dismal 
sway throughout the whole of this neglected district. The soil belongs 

RIETI. 12. Route. 177 

to the nobility , who let it to a miserably poor and ignorant class ot 
farmers. The custom of carrying 'weapons is universally prevalent here 
(comp., however, p. xiv), and brigandage was carried on until the year 1870 
The villages are generally wretched and filthy beyond description. No one 
should therefore attempt to explore the remoter parts of this country unless 
provided with letters of introduction to some of the principal inhabitants. 
Information may usually be best obtained in the chemists' shops (farmaeitta). 
Tolerable inns are to be found only in the larger towns. In smaller 
localities, the traveller should insist upon having a room to himself or 
he may have to share his bedroom with other travellers, according to' the 
custom of the country. The hotel omnibuses generally carry passengers 
even when the latter are not staying in the hotel. 

12. From Terni to Solmona through the Abruzzi. 

102 M. Railway in 6>/ 2 -7 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 55, 13 fr., 8fr.35 c). 

Terni, and thence via (51/2 M.) Stroncone and (10 M.) Marmore, 
the station for the fine waterfall of the Velino, to (11 M.) Piediluco, 
see Baedeker's Central Italy. 

Beyond Piediluco the line follows the course of the Velino, 
crossing the winding stream several times. 1 6 1/2 M. Greccio ; 20i/ 2 M. 

2b l / 2 M. Rieti (*Croce Bianca; Campana), on the right bank 
of the Velino (16,800 inhab.], the ancient Beate, was once the 
capital of the Sabines , but no traces of the ancient city remain 
save a few inscriptions preserved in the town-hall. The Cathedral, 
dating from 1456, contains a S. Barbara by Bernini, and the mon- 
ument of Isabella Alfani by Thorvaldsen ; fine view in front of the 

Excursions may be made from Rieti to the picturesque mountain scenery 
of the Central Apennines, though not unattended by difficulties on account 
of the indifferent character of the inns and roads. Thus to Leonessa, 151/3 jf. 
distant, erected in a lofty mountain ravine about the year 1252 ; thence to 
(121/2 M.) Cascia, said to be the ancient seat of the Casci, or aborigines of 
the district ; 71/2 M. farther to Norcia, the ancient Nursia, nearly destroyed 
by an earthquake in 1857, with walls of great antiquity, birthplace of 
Vespasia Pollia, mother of the emperor Vespasian, whose family monu- 
ments were situated at Vespasia, 71/2 M. distant. St. Benedict and his sister 
Scholastica were also natives of Nursia. 

From Rieti the line proceeds through a picturesque district in 
the valley of the Velino. The mountains are clothed with forest, 
and their lower slopes with vineyards and olives. 31 M. Citta- 
ducale, founded in 1308 by Robert, Duke of Calabria, was formerly 
the frontier-town of the Neapolitan dominions. 3672 M. Castel 
S. Angelo. About 1 M. to the "W. are the Sulphur Baths of Pa- 
terno, the ancient Aquae Cutiliae, which were regularly frequented 
by Vespasian, and where he died in A.D. 79. The Pozzo di La- 
tignano , the ancient Lacus Cutiliae, was regarded by Varro as the 
central point ('umbilicus') of Italy. 

4OY2M. Antrodoco-Borgo-Velino. Antrodoco, the Lat. Intero- 
crea, beautifully situated on the Velino, at a little distance from 
the station, is commanded on the N. E. by the lofty Monte Calvo; 
on the hill is the ruined castle of the Vitelli. — 45'/ 2 M. Rocca 

Baedekek. Italy III. 11th Edition. 12 

178 Route 12. AQUILA. From Terni 

di Fondi; 49'^ M. Rocca di Corno ; 53 M. Sella di Corno. — We 
next reach, the watershed between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adri- 
atic. The railway then descends into the valley of the Aterno. — 
55^2 M. Vigliano; 59y 2 M. Sassa-Tomimparte, on the site of the 
ancient Foruli. 

62 M. Aquila. — The Station, (Rail. Restaurant, unpretending) lies 
i ] /4 M. from the town; omnibus up to the town 50 c, down to the sta- 
tion 40 c. 

Hotels. * Sole, Piazza del Palazzo, with a frequented trattoria ; Italia, 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele ; Aquila Neea, near the Piazza del Duomo, E. at 
each 1-2 fr. Hotel -omnibuses meet the trains. 

Trattorie. Esposizione , Corso Vitt. Emanuele ; Rosetta , Via del Guas- 
tatore; Grand Caffi Ristorante, Piazza dei Quattro Cantoni. 

Carriages at Berardfs, Corso Vitt. Emanuele, and Morone's, adjoining 
the Alb. del Sole; carr. with two horses to Paganica (p. 180) 6 fr., to 
Assergi 10 fr. — Post Office in the Piazza del Palazzo. 

Aquila, called degli Abruzzi, founded by Emp. Frederick II. 
about 1240 as a check on papal encroachments, destroyed by Man- 
fred in 1259, and rebuilt by Charles I., maintained itself as an 
almost entirely independent republic , supported by the free pea- 
santry of the district, until it was finally subdued by the Spaniards 
in 1521. In point of constitutional history, industry, and art it oc- 
cupied a unique position. It is now the prosperous capital of the 
province of the same name, with 18,500 inhab., spacious streets, 
handsome palaces , and churches with interesting facades. It en- 
joys a pure and healthy atmosphere owing to its lofty situation 
(2360 ft.) , and is consequently a favourite summer-resort of the 
Italians. To the N.E. is the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (p. 180), which 
rises abruptly on this side. 

From the Piazza del Palazzo the Strada del Princ. TJmberto to 
the right leads to the Corso, which we follow in a straight direction 
to the church of S. Bebnabdino di Sibna. The *Facade was executed 
with great artistic taste in 1525-42 by Cola dell' Amatriee. In the 
interior, on the right, is the *Monument of the saint, decorated 
with arabesques and sculpture , executed by Silvestro da Arsicola 
in 1505. A fine marble tomb near the high-altar is by the same 
artist. The interesting wooden statue of Pompeo dell' Aquila dates 
from the 16th century. The 1st Chapel on the right contains a 
Coronation of the Virgin and a Resurrection by della Robbia. 

From S. Bernardino we descend to the piazza, cross the latter 
towards the left, pass through the Porta di Collemaggio, and reach 
the monastery of S. Mabia di Collemaggio (in the popular dialect 
Collemezzo). The Romanesque *Facade , inlaid with coloured 
marble , consists of three portals and three corresponding rose- 
windows. Contiguous to the church is an ancient and remarkably 
small clock-tower. Interior gaudily modernised. To the left is the 
Chapel of Celestine V. (keys at the Municipio), containing his tomb 
(d. 1296), a work in the Renaissance style. His life and acts 
and those of other saints are represented in a series of fantastic 

to Solmona. AQUILA. 12. Route. 179 

pictures by the Celestinian monk Ruter, a pupil of Rubens. — We 
now leturn through, the new street, which leads from the church 
straight to the S.W. end of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele. 

The Via della Prefettura leads hence to the left to a small piazza 
in which rises the little church of S. Marca, with a Romanesque 
facade. — The Via di Bazzano diverging to the right from the Corso 
a little farther on brings lis to the church of 8. Giusta, also with a 
Romanesque facade and an ancient painting above the entrance. ■ — ■ 
No. 18, on the left farther along in the line of the Corso, is the 
Palazzo Dragonetti containing pictures of the 16th cent, (the best 
by Pompeo dell' Aquila). 

We now return to the Corso, on the left of which is the Piazza 
del Duomo or Piazza Maggiore. Turning to the right past the cathe- 
dral (opposite the Corso) we see immediately to our left the *Palazzo 
Torres containing a picture-gallery with an admirable *Portrait of 
Cardinal Torres by Domenichino ; Stoning of St. Stephen by the 
same master, on copper; Eucharist, by Titian, on marble. ■ — 
Farther on are the churches of S. Marciano and 8. Maria di Roio, 
both with Romanesque facades. Beside the latter is the Palazzo 
Persiohetti with a collection of paintings by old masters and other 
works of art. 

Farther up the Corso, on the left, is the handsome Town Hall, 
which contains, in the passage and on the walls of the staircase, 
a valuable collection of Roman inscriptions. On the upper floor is 
a picture-gallery in several rooms (apply to one of the officials). The 
Sala dei Gonfaloni contains several interesting paintings of the old 
Aquilan school; in another room are numerous examples of Ruter, 
the animal-painter (see above); in the Sala del Consiglio are portraits 
of prominent natives of Aquila in the 13-17th cent.; and another room 
contains some unimportant antiquities, MSS. of the 15th cent., and 
good miniatures. 

From the Corso, farther on, the Via Leosini leads to the left to 
8. Maria di Paganica, with a Romanesque facade and side-portal, 
and the Via del Carmine to the right to 8. Maria del Carmine, with 
a Romanesque facade and an ancient painting over the entrance. 

At the upper end of the Corso lies the Piazza Margherita. We 
turn to the right into the Via Garibaldi, then to the right into the 
Via del Guasto, on the right side of which stands the early-Renais- 
sance church of S. Maria della Misericordia, adorned on the outside 
with paintings of 1545. — Farther on, beside the hospital, is a 
small church with a Romanesque facade and a curious painted portal, 
shewing the Madonna and saints in the tympanum, with praying 
angels above (15th cent.). — The Via Garibaldi proceeds to the 
church of 8. Silvestro, with Romanesque facade and side -portal. 
Opposite the church is the Via delle Streghe, leading to the left to 
the Via Principe Umberto, to the left of which is the Piazza del 
.Palazzo (p. 178). 


180 Route 12. AQUILA. From Terni 

If we turn to the right (not through the gate) from the Piazza 
Margherita (p. 179) we reach the Citadel, a massive square edifice 
with low round towers, constructed by the Spaniards in 1543 under 
Charles V., surrounded by a moat. This point affords the best 
*View of the Gran Sasso, the town, and the mountainous environs. 
(Application for admission must be made to an officer.) 

Outside the Porta del Castello is the interesting early-Renaissance 
burial church of the Madonna del Soccorso, with a facade of red and 
white marble. In the interior are two tombs by Arsicola (above one 
of which is an earlier Pieta) and some works by Silvestro. 

Near Aquila, Braccio Fortebraccio da Montone, the dreaded rival 
of Sforza, was defeated by the united armies of Queen Johanna II. 
of Naples, Pope Martin V., and the Duke of Milan, commanded by 
Jacopo Caldora, on 2nd June, 1424. 

About 3 M. to the N.W., (excursion of 3-4 hrs., two-horse carr. 5 fr.), 
on the road to Teramo (p. 190), is the village of S. Vittorino on the Aterno, 
occupying the site of the celebrated ancient Sabine town of Amiternum, 
where the historian Sallust was born. On an eminence which was once 
crowned by the ancient Arx, or citadel, stands an old tower with inscrip- 
tions and sculptures built into the walls. At the foot of the hill are 
remains of a theatre, an amphitheatre, and other buildings of the imperial 
epoch, where antiquities are frequently found. 

The Ascent of the Gran Sasso d'Italia , 1-2 days there and back, 
is most conveniently undertaken from Aquila. (Letters of introduction from 
members of the Italian Alpine Club desirable.) An excellent special 
map of the district has been issued by the Roman section of the club. 
The best season for this expedition is summer or autumn; in spring the 
snow is a great hindrance (so that a very early start should be made from 
the refuge-hut). Provisions should be taken from Assergi. We drive via, 
Paganica (OsteriadeVecchis, with rooms) and Camarda (PompiliaMoscardi's 
Inn), where the sindaco keeps the key of the Rifugio on the Campo Pericoli, 
in 2 hrs. to Assergi (2935 ft. ; provisions obtainable from Francesco Sacca), 
finely situated at the foot of the Gran Sasso. Mule (here known as vet- 
lure) from this point to the station of Paganica (p. 181) 2-3 fr. ; to the 
Rifugio and back 5 fr. per day; two-wheeled car (sciarraba) to Paganica 
2-3 fr., for a party l-l'/2 fr. each. Giovanni Acitelli, his brother, and 
Franco di Nicola are good guides. The two former, here only from May to 
Nov., possess a key to the Rifugio. Tariff: to the Rifugio in summer, one 
day 5, two days 7 fr., in winter 7 and 10 fr.; to the summit, spending a 
night in the Rifugio, 10 and 16 fr. ; with descent to Pietracamela 15 and 
20 fr. ; each addit. day 4 and 6 fr. — From Assergi we walk or ride (mule 
4-5 fr.) in about 4'/2 hrs. by a miserable path to the Pusso delta Portella 
(7400 ft.), a narrow saddle between the Pizzo Cefaloneand the Monte Portella 
(see below), whence we survey the N. slopes of the Apennines as far as Ascoli. 
Thence we descend in 1 hr. to the Campo Pericoli, inhabited by shep- 
herds, where a well-equipped refuge-hut (7220 ft.) was built by the Ital- 
ian Alpine Club in 1886. An ascent of about 3 hrs. more, on foot, brings 
us to the summit. The "Gran Sasso d'ltalia, or Monto Corno (9585 ft.), is 
the highest peak of the Apennines. In formation it resembles the limestone 
Alps of the Tyrol. The view is strikingly grand, embracing the Tyrr- 
henian Sea, the Adriatic, the rocky Dalmatian coast, and the whole of 
Central Italy. The other chief summits of the Gran Sasso group are the 
Pizzo d' Intermesole (8680 ft.), the Corno Piccolo (8650 ft.) , the Pizzo Cefa- 
lone (8305 ft.), and the Monte delta Portella (7835 ft.). 

The ascent of the Gran Sasso from Teramo (p. ISO) is not so conven- 
ient. We drive by the Aquila road via Montorio up the valley of the 
Vomano to &/i hrs.) a point shortly before Fano Adriano (p. 190), where 
we turn to the left, by a bridle-path crossing high above the mountain- 

to Solmona. FONTECCHIO. 12. Route. 181 

stream of the Arno, and ascend to (1 hr.) Pielracamela (3295 ft.; no inn, 
rfmts., at Luigi deLuca, the shoemaker's). The sindaco here also has a 
key of the Rifugio on the Campo Pericoli (see p. 180; guides, Domenico 
Rossi and Pietro Venanzo). We ascend to the latter in 5-6 hrs. 

For full instruction and details see the 'Guida al Gran Sasso d'ltalia 1 , 
by Dr. Enrico Abbate (5 fr.; Rome, 1888). 

From Aqetla to Avezzano, ca. 31 M., diligence daily in 7 hrs. (8 hrs. 
in the reverse direction). The road descends into the Aterno Valley, 
crosses the railway, and ascends slowly through vineyards. Beyond Ocre 
it passes through an oak-plantation. Fine retrospect of Aquila and the 
Gran Sasso; farther on, view to the S.E. of the Maiella. Numerous villages 
and hamlets lie on the surrounding slopes. 15'/2 M. (4!/2 hrs'. drive from 
Aquila) Rocca di Mezzo, a wretched village on the plateau, where horses 
are changed. About 1 hr. beyond Rocca, near Ovindoli with its pictur- 
esque ruin, we reach the top of the pass and begin to descend rapidly 
on the other side. 'View of the plain of the Lago di Fucino (p. 182). The 
castle of Celano and then the village itself soon come into sight and are 
reached in 3 f\ hr. more. Thence to Avezzano, see p. 182. 

As the train proceeds we obtain a pretty retrospective view of 
Aquila. The scenery of the valley is very striking ; to the N. the 
Gran Sasso d'ltalia. 69 M. Paganica, 2 1 /^ M. from the village of 
that name (see p. 180); 74 M. S. Demetrlo ne' Vestini ; 771/2 M. Fa- 
gnano-Alto Campana; 80y 2 M. Fontecchio, the village of which is 
perched high up on the rocks. The valley of the Aterno, which the 
railway descends, contracts. — 84 M. Beffi, with a large castle to 
the left. — The train now descends a steep gradient. — 87 M. 
Acciano ; 90 M. Molina. Then three long tunnels ; part of the line lies 
high above the river. — 95 M. Rajano (p . 1 84). Here the railway leaves 
the Aterno, which flows to the N.E. to Popoli, and begins to ascend 
the luxuriant valley of Solmona, watered by the Oizio, a tributary 
of the Aterno. To the E. is the Majella chain, and to the W. the 
hills enclosing the Lago di Fucino. 102 M. Solmona, see p. 188. 

13. From Rome to Castellammare Adriatico 
vi& Avezzano and Solmona. 

149 M. Railwat (no express-trains) in 91/4-HV2 hrs. (fares 27 fr. 15, 
19 fr., 12 fr. 25 c). 

From Rome to Mandela via Tivoli, see Baedeker's Central Italy. 
Beyond Mandela the train follows the ancient Via Valeria and 
the Teverone. — 36 M. Cineto - Romano (diligence to Subiaco); 
38 M. Roviano. The railway now leaves the valley of the Teverone 
and ascends a steep incline to (41 M.) Arsoli, prettily situated on 
a hill, with a castle of the Massimi. Tunnel. — 42y 2 M. Riofreddo, 
situated on the tributary of the Teverone of that name. 

Near (43y 2 M.) Cavaliere lay the iEquian town of Carseoli, the 
ruins of which were used in the middle ages to build Arsoli (see 
above) and CaTsoli. High up on a hill (3410 ft.) to the S.E. lie 
the church and convent of 8. Maria dei Bisognosi , with paintings 
dating from 1488 and a wonder-working crucifix (visited on Sun. 
by many pilgrims from the surrounding district). — 47 M. Carsoli 
(Loc. Stella, tolerable), commanded by a picturesque ruined castle. 

182 Route 13. AVEZZANO. From Rome 

The railway now ascends the narrow valley to (50V2 M.) Colli, 
beyond which we reach the tunnel of Monte Bove, the longest on the 
railway (more than 3 M.). 54 1 / 2 M. Sante Marie. We then descend 
to (57 M.) Tagliacozeo, a small town at the mouth of a deep ravine, 
in which rises the Imele, the Himella of antiquity. The sources of 
the Liris lie 4!/ 2 M. to the S., near Cappadocia. 

The train now enters the fertile Campi Palentini, the most 
beautiful part of the territory of the Marsi , surrounded by lofty 
mountains, the highest of which, the double-peaked Monte Velino 
(8160 ft.), to the N.E., is visible as far as Rome. Here, on 26th Aug., 
1268, the young Conradin of Hohenstaufen , the last scion of that 
illustrious imperial house , was defeated, notwithstanding the bra- 
very of his knights, by Charles I. of Anjou , who had placed a part 
of his army in ambush. — 62 M. Scurcola , dominated by an old 
castle of the Orsini, with a fine view. In the church of S. Maria 
is an old carved wooden figure of the Virgin, from the adjacent 
convent of S. Maria (see below), executed by order of Charles of 

The train next crosses the Salto, passing on the left the ruins 
of the abbey of S. Maria della Vittoria, which was built by Charles 
of Anjou in commemoration of his victory over Conradin (see above). 
The building , the architect of which was Niccolo Pisano , was, 
however, soon destroyed. — 63 M. Cappelle Magliano. 

67 M. Avezzano (Alb. Vittoria, clean, R., L., & A. 2^4, omn. 
Y2 f*. ; omnibus from the station to the town 25 c, at night 35 c), 
a town of 7400 inhab., with a chateau built by the Colonnas and 
now belonging totheBarberini, is a good starting-point for a number 
of excursions. The estate-office of Prince Torlonia, at which a 
permesso to see the reclamation- works at the Lago di Fucino is 
obtained (gratis), contains a collection of objects found in the lake 
(see below). — From Avezzano to Aquila, see p. 181. 

About 4 M. to the N.E. of Avezzano, at the base of Monte Velino 
(see below), lies the village of Albe , the ancient Alba Fucentia, reached 
from Antrosano (one-horse carr. to this point and back 3-4 fr.) by a walk 
of 3 /4 hr. It lay on the confines of the territories of the Vestini, Marsi, 
and iEqui, and having received a Roman colony of 6000 souls, B.C. 
303, it became the most powerful Roman stronghold in the interior of 
Italy. Three summits (that to the N.E. occupied by the present village) 
were strongly fortified and connected by a massive polygonal wall. In 
ascending from Antrosanto we pass extensive remains of this wall , and 
the castle of the Orsini, in Albe, incorporates some of the masonry of 
the ancient fortifications. On the S.W. hill is a Temple, which has been 
converted into a church of S. Pietro, with eight Corinthian columns of 
marble in the interior (key obtained from the Arciprete or from the Conte 
Pace in Albe). On the Colle di Pettorino, or S.E. hill, are large polygonal 
walls. Fine view of the valley. 

The Ascent of Monte Velino (8160 ft.) from Avezzano takes 1-2 days. 
The night is passed at Magliano or Massa d'Albe, whence the top is reached 
in 6 hrs., with guide. 

The now drained Lago di Fucino (2180 ft.), the ancient Lacus 
Fucinus , was once 37 M. in circumference and 65 ft. in depth. 

to Castellammare. LAGO DI FUCINO. 13. Route. 183 

Owing to the want of an outlet, the level of the lake was subject 
to great variations which were frequently fraught with disastrous 
results to the inhabitants of the banks. Attempts were therefore 
made to drain the lake in ancient times , but it was only very re- 
cently (in 1875) that this object was finally accomplished. 

The earliest sufferers from the inundations were the ancient Marsi, in 
consequence of whose complaints Csesar formed the project of affording a 
permanent remedy for the evil , but the work was not begun till the 
reign of the Emp. Claudius. The bottom of the lake lies about 80 ft. 
above the level of the Liris at Capistrello, and the plan was to con- 
struct a tunnel, or emissarius , through the intervening Monte Salviano. 
No fewer than 30,000 men were employed in the execution of the work 
during eleven years. This was the most gigantic undertaking of the 
kind ever known before the construction of the Mont Cenis tunnel. The 
length of the passage was upwards of 3'/2 M., and for about i 3 /t M. of that 
distance it was hewn in the solid rock. The transverse measurement of 
the tunnel varied from 4 to 16 sq. yds., and in other respects also the 
work was entirely destitute of uniformity. The greatest depth of the 
tunnel below the surface of the earth was 298 ft., and 33 shafts were 
constructed for the admission of air and the removal of rubbish. With 
a view to inaugurate the completion of the work, A.D. 52, Claudius 
arranged a sanguinary gladiatorial naval contest, which was attended by 
a vast concourse of spectators, but it was found necessary to deepen the 
tunnel, and it was again opened with renewed festivities, as Tacitus re- 
cords (Ann. xii. 57). Ancient writers stigmatise the work as an entire 
failure, but their strictures are not altogether well founded, for it was 
obviously never intended to drain the whole lake, but merely to reduce 
it to one-third of its original size. Serious errors had, however, been 
committed in the construction of the tunnel, and especially in that of the 
channel which conducted the water to the emissarius. Claudius died in 
54, and nothing farther was done in the matter. Trajan and Hadrian 
partially remedied the defects, but the channel and the emissarius itself 
afterwards became choked up. Frederick II. attempted to re-open the 
tunnel, but the task was far beyond the reach of mediaeval skill. After 
the year 1783 the lake rose steadily, and by 1810 it had risen upwards 
of 30 ft. Efforts were now made under the superintendence of Rivera to 
restore the Roman emissarius, but under the Bourbon regime there seemed 
little prospect that the task would ever be completed. In 1852 the govern- 
ment was accordingly induced to make a grant of the lake to a company 
on condition that they would undertake to drain it, and the sole privilege was 
soon afterwards purchased from them by Prince Torlonia of Rome (d. 1886). 
M. de Montricher, a Swiss, the constructor of the aqueduct of Marseilles (d. 
at Naples in 1858), and his pupil Bermont (d. 1870), and subsequently 
M. Brisse conducted the works. The difficulties encountered were pro- 
digious, and the natives were frequently heard to indulge in the jest, 'o 
Torlonia secca il Fucino, o il Fucino secca Torlonia'. In 1862, however, 
the emissarius was at length re-opened. It is an extension of the 
Roman work, but longer and wider, and constructed with the utmost 
care. It is nearly 4 M. long, and a transverse section measures about 21 sq. 
yds. The beginning of it is marked by a huge lock, erected in a massive 
style. This is the outlet of the channel which is intended to keep the 
lowest portions of the basin drained. A broad road, about 35 M. in length, 
runs round the reclaimed land (36,000 acres in extent) , which is con- 
verted into a vast model farm, colonised by families from the prince's 
different estates. 

An excursion to Luco, about 6 M. from Avezzano, will afford the traveller 
a good opportunity of inspecting the drainage operations (permesso ne- 
cessary, see p. 182). He should drive to the entrance of the new outlet 
(Ineile) , and get the custodian to conduct him thence to the ancient 
emissarius. — Luco, now an uninteresting place, was the Lucus Angitiae 
of the ancients, and was called after a temple of the goddess of that name. 

184 Route 13. SOLMONA. From Rome 

The site of the temple is now occupied by the venerable Benedictine church 
of S. Maria di Luco, situated on the N. side of the village, and dating from 
the 6th or 7th century. Extensive remains of walls in the polygonal style 
mark the boundary of the Temenos , or sacred precincts of the temple. 
Fine view hence, as well as from all the hills around the lake. 

70 M. Paterno. — 73 M. Celano, a town with 7000 inhab., is 
beautifully situated on a Mil, and from it the Lago di Fucino is 
sometimes called Lago di Celano. The Castle (*View), erected in 
1450, was once occupied by the unfortunate Countess Covella, who 
was taken prisoner by her son Rugierotto. Celano was the birth- 
place of Thomas of Celano (d. 1253), the supposed author of the 
celebrated Latin requiem, 'Dies irae, dies ilia'. 

The train skirts the N. side of theformer lake, andbeyond [75 M.J 
Ajelli begins to ascend. 77 M. Cerchio. Tunnel. 79 M. Collarmele, 
in the narrow valley of the Oiovenco. — 82 M. Pescina, the seat of 
a bishop and birthplace of Card. Mazarin (1602-1661). The village 
of S. Benedetto , 2^2 M. to the S.W., occupies the site of Marru- 
vium, the capital of the Marsi, remains of which are still visible. — 
85 M. Carrito Ortona, picturesquely perched on an isolated rock. 

On quitting the (iiovenco valley the train penetrates the central 
ridge of the Abruzzi by the tunnel of Monte Curro (2!/ 5 M.) , the 
second in length on the line. Beyond (89 M.) Cocullo, in a sequester- 
ed upland valley, we thread the tunnel of Monte Luparo (1 M. long) 
and cross the watershed between the valleys of Fucino and Sol- 
mona. 92 M. Ooriano-Sicoli. — Beyond the following tunnel we 
obtain a splendid **View of the valley of Solmona. Nearly 1000 ft. 
below us lies Rajano Inferiore ; farther off , Pentima with the soli- 
tary cathedral of S. Pelino (p. 186); in the middle distance, the 
isolated hill of S. Cosmo (2210 ft.) ; in the background the im- 
posing mass of the Majella. — 93 1 /2 M. Rajano Superiore , nearly 
3 M. from Rajano Inferiore, which is a station on the Solmona and 
Aquila railway (p. 181). 

The train now descends rapidly along the side of the valley, 
passing through several tunnels, to (95 M.) Prezza. It then runs 
to the S.E. through the picturesque valley of the Sagittario, crossing 
that stream beyond (100 M.) Anversa Scanno by a two-storied via- 
duct of 16 arches. 103 M. Bugnara. 

107 M. Solmoua. — The station is about 1/2 M. from the town (omni- 
bus 30 c). — Hotels. Albeego Toscano, well spoken of; Alb. MoNzir, at 
the gate, near the railway-station, R. lfr., tolerable. — Caffi in the main 

Solmona (1570 ft.), with 18,500 inhab., the ancient Sulmo of 
the Paeligni, the birthplace of Ovid, who was much attached to this 
his 'cool home, abounding in water', as he calls it, is picturesquely 
situated, being commanded on two sides by mountains, and con- 
tains several mediseval buildings of architectural interest. The 
palace of Baron Tabassi, in a side-street, and several others de- 
serve examination. The church of 8. Maria Annunziata , and the 
Gothic facades of the churches of S. Francesco a" Assist and S. Maria 

to Castellammare. ISERNIA. 13. Route. 185 

delta Tomba, though all more or less injured by the earthquake of 
1706, are also interesting. The church of S. Francesco was built 
on the site of an older church, a Romanesque portal of which, 
opposite the above-mentioned hotel, is still preserved, and serves 
as an entrance to the meat-market. In front of it are an aqueduct 
of 1256 and a tasteful fountain in the Renaissance style (1474). At 
the door of the grammar-school is a statue of Ovid in blackish 
stone, dating from the 15th cent.; the name of the poet still 
lingers in the songs of the district as that of a famous sorcerer. 
The strong fermented wine ('vino cotto') of Solmona has some 

About 3 M. to the N. of Solmona, and H/2 M. from the station, lies the 
Badia di S. Spirito, the church of which contains some paintings by Ra- 
phael Mengs. Adjacent are extensive remains of the foundations of a Ro- 
man building known as the 'Villa di Ovidio'. On the rock above the 
ruins, picturesquely situated, is the Hermitage of Celestine V. (comp. p. 17S). 

About 16 M. to the S. of Solmona lies Scanno (3445 ft.), reached on a 
mule in about 6 hrs. (walking not recommended). The picturesque route 
passes several villages, and then ascends the wild and rocky ravine of the 
Sagittario. The latter part of it skirts the lake of Scanno. Scanno (no 
inn, private introductions desirable) is perhaps the finest point in the 
Abruzzi. The women of Scanno wear a peculiar costume. 

The Monte Amaro (9170 ft.), the highest summit of the Majella Mis., 
may he ascended from Solmona. Riding is practicable to the Catnpo di 
Oiove, 3-4 hrs.; thence to the top (refuge-hut) 5 hrs. 

From Solmona to Caianello (Naples), ca. 75 M. Diligence to Rocca 
Ravindola daily in 9 hrs., starting in the evening. At Rocca Ravindola 
we reach the railway and at Caianello catch the express to Naples. Carr. 
and pair from Solmona to (25 M.) Castel di Sangro, 12 fr. — The road 
traverses the plain to (6 M.) Pettorano and then ascends circuitously to 
Rocca Pia or Rocca Valloscura, a village in a rocky ravine. Fine retro- 
spects of the valley of Solmona. Beyond Rocca we ascend to the Piano di 
Cinquemiglia (4265 ft.), a mountain-girt upland plain, the extent of which 
is indicated by its name. In winter this plain is often impassable for 
months on account of the snow, and even in summer the temperature is 
low. After passing the plain we see Rivisondoli to the left. Roccarasa is 
passed on the right. The road then winds down to the valley of the Sangro, 
the ancient Sagrus. The village to the left is Rocca Cinquemiglia. We 
cross the river and reach — 

25 M. Castel di Sangro (Hdlel du Commerce, in the Piazza), picturesquely 
situated at the foot of lofty mountains, on the right bank of the wide and 
rapid Sangro. Its only objects of interest are a ruined castle and the old 
church of S. Nicola, by the bridge. 

The road to Isernia (22 M.) ascends the hills separating the valley of 
the Sangro from that of the Vandra, an affluent of the Volturno. Fine view 
at the top; below, to the left, the town of Forli. We descend through 
the villages of Rionera and Vandria, cross the valley, and ascend another 
range of hills, on the crest of which we obtain a view of Isernia and the 
wide valley of the Volturno. 

47 M. Isernia (Loc. di Pettorossi), the ancient Samnite town of J2semia, 
formerly of importance on account of its strong situation on an isolated hill, 
now consists mainly of one long, narrow , and dirty main street. A few 
Roman remains are visible at the church of S. Pietro and elsewhere, and 
also some relics of the ancient polygonal walls. 

Archaeologists may make an excursion hence to Pietrabbondante, with 
the ruins (theatre and temple) of the Samnite Bovianum. Road to (9 M.) 
Petcolanciano (diligence at 10.30 a.m. ; corricolo6fr.); thence bridle-path 5 M. 

From Isernia a diligence runs daily to Campobasso (p. 191), via Boiano, 

186 Route 13. CHIETI. 

the ancient Bovianum Undecimanorum. One-horse carr. from Isernia to 
Venafro 6 fr. 

Feom Iseknia to Caianello, ca. 28 M., railway in progress (open from 
Rocca Ravindola). The road at first traverses a hilly district , passing 
Macchia on the right, and then enters the valley of the Volturno, which 
it crosses. 10 M. Rocca Ravindola. — From Rocca Ravindola to Caianello, 
18 M., railway in 1 hr. 5 M. Venafro, the ancient Vena/rum, a small 
town rising on a hill, famous for its oil in the days of Horace (Od. ii. 6); 
it is commanded by a ruined castle. The railway skirts the mountains. 
8 M. Sesto Campano; 10 M. Sesto Capriati; 1372 M. Presenzano (see p. 6), 
18 M. Caianello (poor inn, not suitable for spending the night), a small 
village and a station on the railway from Rome to Naples. 

From Caianello to Naples, see R. 1. 

The railway now bends sharply to the N. , towards the Talley 
of the Aterno. — HO 1 /^ M. Pratola-Peligna. 

113 M. Pentima. A short distance hence is the Cathedral of 
*8. Pelino (keys kept by the canon at the village), an edifice of the 
13th century. The architecture is very interesting, but the interior 
has unfortunately been modernised. Old pulpit. Chapel of St. 
Alexander of the 16th century. 

On the lofty surrounding plain lie the ruins of the extensive ancient 
city of Corflnium, once the capital of the Pseligni. In B.C. 90 it was consti- 
tuted the federal capital of the Italians during their struggle against the 
Romans for independence, and called Italica, but a few years later it had 
to succumb to the Romans. The discoveries made in the course of the 
recent excavations at the necropolis and other points are exhibited in the 
small Museum here, the key of which may be obtained from the attentive 
Inspettore Cav. de Nino at Solmona (interesting for archaeologists only). 

116!/2M. P opoli f'Locanda dell' America, moderate; Posta), a town 
with 7000 inhab., situated at the junction of the roads from Pescara, 
Aquila, Avezzano, and Solmona, and commanded by the ruined 
castle of the Cantelmi, who were once masters of the place. A little 
above the town the Gizio and Aterno unite to form the Pescara, 
along which the railway descends till it approaches the sea. 

118V 2 M. Bussi. The valley is enclosed on both sides by abrupt 
cliffs. Tunnel. — 125'/ 2 M. Torre de' Passeri, picturesquely situated. 
Connoisseurs of early Christian architecture should visit the ab- 
bey of <S. Clemente di Casauria, l'/ 4 M. from Torre de' Passeri, 
a basilica of the 12th cent., with ancient sculptures. This was the 
site of the ancient Interpromium, relics from which are still pre- 
served in the church. 

1291/2 M. 8. Valentino; 13iy 2 M. Alanno; 135M. Manoppello. 

140 M. Chieti. — The Station is about 3 M. from the town, which 
lies on the heights to the E. (omnibus 60 c, in the reverse direction 
50 c); about halfway the road passes a ruined baptistery. 

Hotels in the town: *Albergo del Sole, R. l'/a fr., good trattoria; 
Albeego Ndovo ; Palomba d' Oko. 

Chieti (1065 ft.), the ancient Teate Marrucinorum, capital of a 
province, with 22,000 inhab., is a clean and busy town. From the 
Piazza Vittorio Emanuele a promenade leads round the town, affording 
magnificent *Views of the Maiella group, the course of the Pescara, 
and the hill country extending to the sea (the finest from the 
drilling-ground on the S.). The order of the Tlieatines founded 

SORA. 14. Route. 187 

in 1555 by Paul IV., who had been Archbishop of Chieti, derives 
"its name from this town. 

The valley of thePescara gradually expands. Beyond (148 1 /2M.) 
Pescara (p. 190) the line crosses the river. — 149 M. Castellam- 
mare Adriatico, see p. 190. 

14. From Avezzano to Roccasecca (Naples). 

Fkom Avezzano to Roccasecca, about 50 M. ; diligence daily (at 1 a.m.) 
in 7'/4 hrs. to Sora; from Sora to Roccasecca railway. The diligence 
corresponds with the trains of the Rome and Naples railway. 

Avezzano, see p. 182. The drive through the valley of the Liris 
to Roccasecca (railway under construction) is one of the most attract- 
ive in Italy. The road traverses the Monte Salviano, and reaches 
(7 J /2 M.) Capistrello, where the emissarius of the Lago di Fucino 
(see p. 182) issues from the mountain. It then follows the left bank 
of the Liris. The imposing pyramid of Monte Viglio (7075 ft. ; as- 
cended from Filettino on the W. side), to the W. of Liris, domin- 
ates the view. On a height on the right bank lies (4 M.) Civitella 
Roveto, the capital of the Val di Roveto , as the upper part of the 
valley of the Liris, as far as Sora, is called. Then, to the left, Civita 
d'Antino, the Antinum of the Marsi, with several relics of antiquity. 
To the right of the river lies Morino, whence the fine waterfall of 
Lo Schioppo, 5 M. distant, may be visited. The beautiful oak and 
chestnut woods have of late been freely cut down. 

A charming mountainous district is now traversed. We pass 
(12 l /2 M.) Balsorano, and after 7 hrs'. drive from Avezzano (in all 
31 M.) reach the town of — 

Sora (Hdtel di Roma, Alb. di Liri, both with trattorie), with 
13,200 inhab., situated in the plain, on the right bank of the Liris, 
which flows in the form of a semicircle round the crowded houses 
of the town. The Romans wrested the place from the Volsci, and 
founded a powerful colony here, B.C. 303. The cathedral stands 
on ancient substructures. On the precipitous rock above the town, 
which forms, as it were, the key of the Abruzzi, are remains of 
polygonal walls, and also traces of mediaeval castles. The town was 
the native place of several celebrated men, and the residence of 
others (the Decii, Attilius Regulus, the orator Q. Valerius, L. Mum- 
mius, etc.). The learned Cardinal Caesar Baronius (1538-1607) was 
born at Sora. 

The Railway from Sora to Roccasecca (20 M., in about 
1^2 hr.) traverses the well-cultivated valley, following the left bank 
of the river. The abundance of water here imparts a freshness and 
charm to the scenery which are rarely met with in warm climates. 
To the left the Fibrenus falls into the Liris. 

In the Fibrenus, near its mouth, lies the Isola 8. Paolo, on which 
a monastery was founded by the Benedictine S. Domehico Abbate, a 
native of Foligno. Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory VII., was once 
a monk here. The island is also supposed to be the Insula Arpinas, the 

188 Route 14. ISOLA. 

birthplace of Cicero, the scene of his dialogue 'de legibus'. The abbey- 
church, recently restored, is an interesting edifice of the 12th century. 
Cicero's villa was erected by his grandfather, and embellished by his father, 
who devoted his leisure to the study of science here, and it was therefore 
a favourite retreat of Cicero himself, and is described by him in his 
treatise De Leg. 2, 3. In the reign of Domitian the villa belonged to the 
poet Silius Italicus. The Liris was crossed by an ancient bridge above 
the island, the '■Ponle di Cicerone ', one of the three arches of which is 
still standing. 

In the neighbourhood are several manufactories, chiefly of paper 
(cartiera), surrounded by well-kept gardens. The *Gardens con- 
nected with the former Cartiera del Fibreno, founded by M. Lefevre, 
a Frenchman, now Count of Balzorano, contain the picturesque wa- 
terfalls (Le Cascatelle) of the Liris and the Fibrenus. The cool 
water of the latter is praised by Cicero. 

3y 2 M. Isola (Alb. d'ltalia, outside the town, unpretending), 
or Isola Liri , a small town with 6000 inhab. , which , as its name 
indicates, stands on an island in the Liris. The two anns of the river 
here form two magnificent waterfalls, 80 ft. in height. That on the 
E. side, a view of which is obtained from the bridge as the town is 
entered, is a perpendicular fall, while the other and more pictur- 
esque cascade, to see which we cross the second bridge and keep to 
the right, is broken by the rocks into several arms. 

About 3 jr. to the W. of Isola (good road; carr. 3-4 fr.) lies the abbey 
of SS. Giovanni e Paolo di Casamari, now declared national property, with 
a well-preserved "'Church of the heginning of the 12th century. The name 
preserves the memory of the birthplace of Marius at Cereatae, afterwards 
known as Cereatae Marianae. 

7 M. Arpino, station for the town of that name situated high 
above the valley. Arpino (Locanda della Pace, near the Piazza) is 
a finely situated town with 12,000 inhab., the ancient Volscian 
mountain-town of Arpinum, and celebrated as the home of Marius 
(see above) and Cicero. The Town Hall in the Piazza is embellished 
with busts of Marius, Cicero, and Agrippa. Arpino was the native 
place of the well-known painter Giuseppe Cesari (1560-1640), more 
commonly known as the Cavaliere d' Arpino, whose house is still 
pointed out. 

The present town occupies only a small part of the site of the 
ancient Arpinum. The citadel of the latter lay on an abrupt emin- 
ence, connected with the town by a narrow isthmus and now occupied 
by the small octagonal church of S. Maria della Civitcl (view). The 
town itself rose on the slope of a still higher hill. The greater part 
of the ancient wall, consisting of large irregular blocks of stone, 
broken at intervals by mediaeval round towers, is still preserved, 
and may be traced throughout its whole extent. The ascent should 
be made on the N. side. On the hill stands the Porta dell Arco, a 
remarkable gateway with a pointed arch. 

IOV2 M. Fontane. — 13y 2 M. Arce, in a strikingly picturesque 
situation. — The line here quits the valley of the Liris, and runs 
to the S. E. to (20 M.) Boccasecca; seep. 3. 

15. From Ancona to Foggia (Brindisi). 

201 M. Railway in 8 3 /i-12 hrs.; fares 36 fr. 50, 25 fr. 55, 14 fr. 60 c. 
(3rd class by express 18 fr. 25 c). — Ancona is 347 M. -distant from Brin- 
disi, to which an express train runs daily in 15'/4 hrs. in correspondence 
with the quick trains from Milan and Bologna (fares 62 fr. 90 c, 44 fr. 5, 
31 fr. 45 c.) ; also once weekly (Sun.) in ll 3 /4 hrs. (from Bologna to 
Brindisi 15 3 /4hrs.), in connection with the English mail to India, carrying 
first-class passengers to Brindisi only. The local trains stop for the night 
at Pescara or Foggia. 

The line skirts the coast, affording a sea view to the left, and an in- 
land view to the right. The towns, generally situated on the heights, at 
some distance from the railway, communicate regularly with their stations 
by diligence ; but these Vehicles have little pretension to comfort. 

From Ancona -via, (372 M.) Varano, (10 M.) Osimo, (15 M.) 
Loreto, (17V2 M.) Porto Recanati, and (23 M.) Potenza Picena to 
(26 1 /a M.) Porto Civitanova, see Baedeker's Central Italy. — Porto 
Civitanova, at the mouth of the Chienti, is the station for the town of 
Civitanova, -which lies l 1 ^ M. inland. A railway runs hence to 
Fabriano via. Macerata and Albacina (see Badeker's Central Italy). 

The railway to Foggia and Brindisi crosses the Chienti. 31 M. 
iS. Elpidio a Mare. The village of 8. Elpidio lies several miles 
inland. — The Tenna is next crossed. 

36!/2 M. Porto S. Giorgio, with a handsome castle. 

On the hill , 3 M. inland , is situated Fermo (Locanda delV Aquila ; 
seat in a carriage 50 c), the ancient Firmurn Picerwm, with 18,000 inhab., 
and the seat of an archbishop. It became a Roman colony after the begin- 
ning of the First Punic War, and has continued since that period to be a 
town of some importance. At the Porta S. Francesco, by which the town 
is entered , are seen remnants of the ancient wall , constructed at a very 
remote period. The streets ascend somewhat precipitously to the height 
on which the handsome Piazza is situated ; the Town Sail here contains 
some inscriptions and antiquities. Outside the town we obtain fine views 
of the fertile district, the Apennines, and the sea. 

The train next crosses the brooks Lete Vivo and Aso. 43 M. 
Pedaso; 48 M. Cupra Marittima; 50 M. Orottammare (Pens. Giusti, 
pens. 5 fr., open also in winter), frequented for sea-bathing. On 
the hill, about 4!/ 2 M. inland, is Ripatransone (6000 inhab.). Near 
Cupra Marittima (Marano) once lay the ancient town of that name, 
with a celebrated temple dedicated to the Sabine goddess Cupra, and 
restored by Hadrian in A.D. 127. 

53 M. 8. Benedetto (Inn at the station) , a village on the coast. 

Feom S.Benedetto to Ascoli Piceno, 2O1/2M., railwayin lV4hr. (fares 
3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 70 c). The train ascends the valley of the Tronto, 
passing Porto d'Ascoli, Monteprandone, Montesampolo. Spinetoli-Colli, Offida- 
Cattel di Lama, and Marino. — Ascoli Piceno (' "Locanda delV Aquila, mode- 
rate), the ancient Asculum Picenum, with 23,300 inhab., the seat of a bishop 
and capital of a province, is situated on the S. bank of the Tronto. The 
valley is here contracted and enclosed by lofty mountains. To the N. rises 
the jagged Monte deW Ascensione (3610 ft.), to the W. the Sibilla, and more to 
the S. the Pizzo di Sevo. Ascoli, an ancient town in a commanding situation, 
the capital of the tribe of Picentines, took a prominent part in the Social 
War against Rome, and was captured and destroyed by Pompey. Interesting 
remains of the ancient walls, a bridge, and a "Gate at the W. end of the 
town. The town-hall contains a few inscriptions, and other relics are 
encountered in other parts of the town , e. g. insignificant vestiges of a. 

190 Route 15. TERAMO. From Ancona 

theatre and amphitheatre. The architecture of the churches and palaces 
dates chiefly from a period anterior to the Renaissance, materially en- 
hancing the interest of the town , which is indeed the most attractive on 
the E. coast of S. Italy. The ''Cathedral is said to have been founded 
by Constantine on the site of a temple of Hercules. The original sub- 
structures are still traceable. A chapel on the right in the interior con- 
tains good pictures by Crivelli. In jS. Vittore, Romanesque mural paint- 
ings of the 12th and 13th cent, were discovered under the whitewash in 
1890. — Mountain-roads lead hence via, Norcia to Spoleto, and others through 
the valleys of the Velino and Aterno to Aquila (p. 178). 

Beyond (56 M.) Porto d'Ascoli the train crosses the Tronto, the 
ancient Truentus, formerly the boundary between the States of the 
Church and the kingdom of Naples. 62 M. Tortoreto. 

68 M. Giulianova, a dirty village with a few fine villas on the 
hill, 1^4 M. from the coast, built in the 15th cent, by the inhabi- 
tants of the ancient Castrum Novum on the Tordino, and then nam- 
ed S. Flaviano. 

Fkom Giulianova to Teeamo, 16 M., railway in lhr. (fares 2fr. 95, 2fr. 
10, 1 fr. 35 c). The train ascends the valley of the Tordino, passing Mosciano- 
S. Angela, Notaresco, Bellante- Ripattone , Castellalto-Camano. — Teramo 
(Albergo Pellegrino, Via Delfico; Caffe Zippetta, Corso S. Giorgio; omn. 
from the station to the town , 1 /t- l /t fr)i the ancient Interamna , is the 
capital of a province and seat of a bishop, with 20,400 inhabitants. The 
Gothic cathedral is now modernised; in the interior is an antependium by 
the goldsmith Nicola di Guardiagrele (15th cent.). — A road ascends the 
valley of the Vomano from Teramo , passing Montorio and Fano Adriano, 
ascending between the Monte Piano (5645 ft.) and the Monte Cardilo, leaving 
Monte S. Franco (7000 ft.) to the S., and then descending in many curves 
past S. Vittorino (p. 180) where several roads meet, to Aquila (p. 178). — 
Ascent of the Gran Sasso d'ltalia, see p. 180. 

The train crosses the Tordino, the ancient Batinus, and then 
beyond (73 M.) Montepagano the Vomano (Vomanus). To the right 
a fine yiew is obtained of the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (p. 180), which 
is here visible from base to summit. — 79!/ 2 M. Atri-Mutignano. 

Atri (1390 ft.; "Albergo di Vine. Marcone), 6 M. inland (diligence daily, 
1 fr. 25 c. ; other conveyances rarely obtainable), the ancient Batria, an epis- 
copal residence, with 10,000 inhab., is a town of great antiquity, and was 
once celebrated for its copper coins. Numerous ruins bear testimony to 
its ancient importance. The Gothic cathedral, with its frescoes and a 15th 
cent, painting of the Madonna adoring the child, merits a visit. It rests 
on extensive foundations of ancient origin, perhaps those of a temple. 
Extensive *View from the campanile. Several large grottoes near the town 
are also of very remote date. 

The train now crosses the Piomba, the ancient Matrinus, 5 M. 
inland from which is situated Citth Santangelo (7000 inhab.). 
84 M. Silvi ; 87 M. Montesilvano. 

Penne, 16 M. inland, the capital of the district, with 10,000 inhab., was 
the Pinna of the ancients, and chief town of the Vestini, of which period 
various relics still exist. 

90 M. Castellammare Adriatico, junction for the lines to Terni 
and Aquila, and to Rome, Avezzano, and Solmona (see RR. 12, 13). 
— The train next crosses the Pescara river. 

92 M. Pescara {Alb. Rebecchino, near the station, with trattoria, 
clean; Leone d'Oro; Railway Restaurant, mediocre and dear), a 
fortified town with 5500 inhab., is situated in an unhealthy plain. 

to Foggia. TERMOLI. 15. Route. 191 

The mountain-group of the Majella , culminating in Monte Amaro 
(9160 ft.), now becomes visible on the right. 

The train crosses the Alento. 96 M. Francavilla, a village on the 
hill to the right. Beyond it a mountain-spur projects into the sea. 
Four short tunnels. Beyond the third the fort of Ortona becomes 
visible on the left. 

105 M. Ortona. The town (Caprera; Cafe in the Piazza), y 2 M. 
from the station, the ancient Ortona, a seaport-town of the Fren- 
tani, is a tolerably clean and well-built place (12,000 inhab.), 
situated on a lofty promontory, with a small quay on the shore below. 
Beautiful views towards the S. as far as the Punta di Penna (see 
below), especially from the ancient and dilapidated fort. The archi- 
tecture of the cathedral should be inspected. 

Beyond Ortona the train passes through another tunnel and 
crosses two brooks. 109^2 M. S. Vito Lanciano is the station for 
Lanciano, 6 M. inland, with 18,000 inhab., the ancient Anxanum. 
Between S. Vito and the next station (113 M.) Fossacesia are three 
tunnels, beyond which we obtain a pleasing survey of the peninsula, 
terminating in the Punta di Penna. 

Near (116 M.) Torino di Sangro the train crosses the Sangro, 
Lat. Sagrus. 122 M. Casalbordino. Three tunnels, beyond which 
Vasto becomes visible, on an olive-clad hill on the right. 131 M. 
Vasto. The town lies on the hill, I1/4 M. from the station. 

Vasto d'Aimone (Locanda delV Indipendenza ; Loc. del Peace; 
Cafft Nazionale), the ancient Histonium, with 14,000 inhab., lies 
high, and commands fine views as far as the Tremiti islands and 
Monte Gargano. The small cathedral with a Gothic facade bears a 
memorial tablet to General 'Carlo Antonio Manhes, distruttore de' 
briganti, primo cittadino del Vasto', date 1810. A small museum 
in the town-hall contains inscriptions and other relics found here. 
In the environs are extensive olive-plantations. 

Beyond (134 M.) S. Salvo the train crosses the Trigno , Lat. 
Trinius. 139 M. Montenero. 

14772 M. Termoli (Alb. fy Trattoria della Corona), a smalltown 
close to the sea , with mediaeval walls, excessively dirty. Charming 
survey of the Majella and Abruzzi, and farther on of the Tremiti 
Islands (the Insulae Diomedeae of mythology, still serving, as in 
antiquity , as a place of confinement) and Monte Gargano in the 
distance. The cathedral , with a Gothic facade , contains a number 
of quaintly decorated saints. 

From Termoli to Benevento via Campobasso, 107 M. , railway in 
7V4-10 hrs. (fares 19 fr. 45, 13 fr. 65, 8 fr. 65 c). Usually no tiain in direct 
connection from Campobasso. The journey on the whole is monotonous. 
5'/2 M. Ouglionesi- Portoccmnone; 10 M. S. Martino in Pensilis; 17'/2 M. 
Vruri Rotello; 23 M. Larino, near the ruins of the ancient Larinum; 31 M. 
Casacalenda; 33Vs M. Bonefro; 3672 M. Ripabottoni-Sant-Elia; 411/2M. Cam- 
polieto-Monacilione; 47 M. Matrice- Montagano ; 52 M. Ripalimosano. — 55 M. 
Campobasso (Alb. Centrales Leone), the capital of a province, and a place of 
some importance, with 15,000 inhab., is noted for its steel wares. — 59'/2 M. 

192 Route 15. FOGGIA. 

From Ancona 

Baranello; 62 M. Vinchiaturo. — The railway here begins to descend the 
valley of the Tanaro. 69 M. S. Giuliano del Sannio. — 71 1/2 M. Sepino; 
in the neighbourhood are the extensive ruins of the ancient Saepinum, now 
Altilia. — 75'/2 M. S. Croce del Sannio; 80 M. Morcone; 85 M. Pontelan- 
dolfo; 86V2M. Campolattaro ; 90 M. Fragneto Monforte ; 92 M. Pescolamazza: 
IO41/2 M. Pietra Elcina. — 107 M. Benevento, see p. 204. 

Beyond Termoli, where the cactus first makes its appearance, 
the scenery is less attractive. The train crosses the Biferno, Lat. 
Tifernus. 152 M. Campomarino, 158 M. Chieuti, Albanian settle- 
ments. From Chieuti a road runs to the town of Serracapriola. We 
next cross the Fortore, the ancient Frento. 

165 M. Bipalta. 

Near Ripalta, on 15th June, 1503, the Normans defeated and captured 
Pope Leo IX. , and then , falling on their knees , implored his blessing. 
Leo, relenting, imparted it, and subsequently conferred Apulia, Calabria, 
and Sicily on the brothers Humfred and Robert Guiscard, a grant which 
was ultimately fraught with consequences so important to Rome and the 
papal throne, as well as to the Normans. 

To the N.E. is the Lago di Lesina, which communicates with 
the sea. The train now proceeds inland, in order to avoid the 
promontory of Monte Oargano (p. 192), a buttress of the Apennines 
projecting into the sea, with several peaks about 3300ft. in height. 
1741/4 M. Poggio Imperiale; 177 M. Apricena; 184 M. San Severo, 
a dirty town with 17,500 inhab., which, after a gallant resistance, 
was taken and almost entirely destroyed by the French in 1799. 
The cholera committed fearful ravages here in 1865. 191 M. Motta. 

201M. Foggia. — Restaurant at the station. The town is •/» M. 
distant; cab l ji fr. — In the Town: Albekgo di Milano ; Locanda <fe Risto- 
eatoee Roma, in the main street, very mediocre. 

Foggia, the capital of a province formerly called the Capitanata, 
and the junction of the coast-railway and the line to Benevento and 
Naples (R. 17), is a clean, thriving town, with 40,300 inhabi- 
tants. It is well situated in a commercial point of view, and forms 
the central point of the great Apulian plain. The name is probably 
derived from the pits or cellars (Lat. foveae , now called fosse di 
grano~), in which the inhabitants store their grain. On the left, 
opposite the first houses of the town, 4 / 4 M. from the station, is a 
portico forming the entrance to the Oiardino Pubblico, which is 
adorned with several busts. Beyond these public grounds is a bo- 
tanic garden. The main street which we follow now takes the name 
of Corso Vittorio Emanuele. To the left in the piazza planted with 
trees rises a monument to Vincenzo Lanza (1784-1860), a physician 
and patriot, who was born at Foggia. After 5 min. we cross the Corso 
del Teatro and reach the Piazza Federico II. , adorned with a foun- 
tain (Pozzo dell' Imperatore), situated in the older part of the town. 
The name is a reminiscence of the Emperor Frederick II., who fre- 
quently resided at Foggia. Built into the wall of a modern house, 
in the side-street to the right, is a gateway belonging to the old pal- 
ace of the emperor, bearing an inscription of the year 1223 relative 
to the foundation. Leaving the Piazza Federico II. and turning to 

to Foggia. MANFREDONIA. 1-5. Route. 193 

the left, we soon reach the Cathedral, which was originally erected 
by the Normans, partly destroyed by an earthquake in 1731, and af- 
terwards re-erected in a modern style. Part of the old facade only 
now exists. 

A great part of the spacious , treeless plain around Foggia is used as 
a sheep-pasture (Tavoliere delta Puglia). During the summer the flocks 
graze on the mountains, and in October return to the plain by three great 
routes (Tratturi delle Pecore). These migrations, during which hundreds 
of flocks may be encountered in one day , date from the Roman period. 
Alphonso I. , who introduced the merino sheep , converted the pastures 
into a royal domain in 1445. The number of sheep supported by these 
pastures amounted to 4V2 million at the close of the 16th cent., but owing 
to the progress of agriculture, is now reduced to less than half a million. 

About 3 M. to the N. of Foggia are the scanty remains of the ancient 
town of Arpi, said to have been founded by Diomedes, and afterwards 
replaced by Foggia. 

From Foggia to Manfeedonia, 22>/2 M., railway in 1 hr. (fares 4 fr. 10, 
2 fr. 85, 1 fr. 85 c). — 10 M. Amendola; 15 M. Fontanarosa. — 22V2 M. Man- 
fredonia, a quiet town with 8500 inhab. and the seat of an archbishop, was 
founded by King Manfred about 1263, and destroyed by the Turks in 1620. 
It now contains no buildings of importance, but part of the mediseval forti- 
fications is well preserved. Owing to the sheltered situation of the town, 
to the S. of Monte Gargano, the vegetation is very luxuriant, resembling that 
of Sicily in character. — About 2 M. to the W. of Manfredonia, on the road 
to Foggia, is the v Cathedral of 8. Maria Maggiore di Siponto, a fine example of 
the Romanesque style, with a crypt. The tastelessly restored interior con- 
tains a 'miracle-working' Madonna and numerous votive tablets. This church 
is part of the scanty remains of the old 8ipontum, which became a Roman 
colony in B. C. 194. Other interesting remains of the old town have 
come to light in recent excavations. The road also passes 8. Leonardo, 
converted into a commandery of the Teutonic Order in the time of Her- 
mann von Salza, with two fine portals, now used as a 'Masseria 1 , or farm- 
house , and very dilapidated. 

A road, at first traversing olive-plantations, and then ascending in 
windings, leads hence to (IOV2 M.) Monte Santangelo (2655 ft.), with a pic- 
turesque castle, and a famous old sanctuary of 8. Michele, where a great 
festival is celebrated on 8th May. The chapel consists of a grotto to 
which 55 steps descend, and where, as the legend runs, St. Michael appear- 
ed to St. Laurentius , Archbishop of Sipontum, in 491. In the 11th cent, 
the warlike Normans undertook pilgrimages to this sacred spot before they 
became masters of the country. The bronze doors, with scenes from Script- 
ure, bear the inscription : 'Hoc opus completum est in regia urbe Constan- 
tinopoli adjuvante Dno Pantaleone qui fieri jussit anno ab incarnatione Dni 
Millesimo Septuagesimo Sexto 1 (comp. p. 170). — From this point 31. Calvo, 
the culminating point of Monte Gargano (3460 ft.), is most easily ascended. 
Between Monte Santangelo and Vico lies the extensive and beautiful beech- 
forest called Bosco delV Umbra, which stretches towards the sea. Farther 
to the N. is Ischitella; towards the E., on the coast, is Viesti. The roads 
are bad, and suitable for riding and walking only. 

From Foggia to Luceka, 12'/2 M., railway in about 40 min. (fares 
2 fr. 30, i fr. 60, 1 fr. 5 c.) ; three trains daily. The line ascends gradually 
through arable land. 

Lucera (Albergo d'ltalia), a town with 14,500 inhab., the ancient Lu- 
ceria , was regarded as the key of Apulia, owing to its situation. It is first 
heard of during the Samnite wars, and in B.C. 314 it became a Roman 
colony. It continued to be an important and prosperous town down to the 
7th cent, after Christ, but was destroyed in 663. It was at length restored 
by Frederick II. , who in 1223 transplanted a colony of Saracens hither 
from Sicily, bestowing on them entire religious freedom. They were in 
consequence staunch adherents of the Hohenstaufen family, and accorded 
an asylum to the wife and children of Manfred alter the battle of Bene- 

Baedekeb. Italy III. 11th Edition. 13 

194 Route 15. MELFI. From Ancona 

vento. They were, however, subdued by Charles of Anjou in 1269 , and 
in 1300, after an attempt to throw off the yoke of Charles II., were com- 
pelled to embrace Christianity. 

The town lies on a lofty plain, which slopes imperceptibly towards 
the S. and E., and abruptly towards the N. and W. On the W. side the 
plateau projects, forming a kind of peninsula, on which stands the ad- 
mirably preserved "Castle (keys at the Municipio), erected by Frederick, 
but dating in its present form from the reign of Charles I. It is an in- 
teresting example of a mediaeval stronghold , and occupies the site of the 
ancient arx. The 'View embraces the plain bounded by the Apennines 
and Monte Gargano; to the N. lies the town of S. Severo, and to the E. 
stretches the sea. The isolated mountain to the S. is the Monte Vulture 
near Melfi, the summit of which commands a survey of the whole of Apu- 
lia. — The old Cathedral, which had fallen into ruin in the time of Fred- 
erick II., was restored in the Gothic style after the conversion of the 
Saracens by the Anjevins. The pilasters of the nave are in verde antico. 
The right transept contains a beautiful figure of the Madonna in marble, 
on a monument of 1605. Below the choir is a crypt. — A few inscriptions 
dating from the ancient municipium, which far exceeded the modern town 
in extent, are preserved in the library of the municipio, or town-hall. 
There are slight traces of an amphitheatre on the E. side of the town. 

On the road to S. Severo, 6 M. from Lucera, lay the Castel Fiorentino, 
where Frederick II., after a reign of 38 years as a German king, died in 
1250, in his 56th year. 

From Foggia xo Rapolla-Lavello, 45 M., railway in 21/-2 hrs. 
(fares 8 fr. 25, 5 fr. 80, 3 fr. 75 c). — 5V 2 M. Cervaro, seep. 207 ; 
11 M. Ordona, the ancient Herdonia, with an ancient bridge, am- 
phitheatre, tombs, etc. ; 19Y2 M. Ascoli Satriano (Albergo di Roma, 
clean), 1V2 M - fr° m tne station (cab !/ 2 fr."), charmingly situated, the 
ancient Ausculum Apulum, famed for the victory gained here by 
Pyrrhus over the Romans, B.C. 279; 24y 2 M. Candela. — 31 M. 
Rocchetto S. Antonio. — The railway now descends the valley of 
the Ofanto, the Aufidus of the ancients, to (39 M.) S. Nicola, and 
thence ascends, to the S., the valley of the little Rendina to — 

45 M. Rapolla-Lavello, the present terminus. King Conrad IV. 
died at Lavello in 1254. The railway is to be continued to Qioia 
del Colle (p. 200). 

Pending the opening of the railway from Rocchetta to Melfi and 
Potenza, Rapolla-Lavello is the best starting-point for the excursion 
to (2 hrs. to the W.) — 

Melfi (2065 ft.), with 13,000 inhab., picturesquely situated on 
the slope of Monte Vulture, and largely rebuilt since an earthquake 
in 1857. It possesses an old castle of the Norman sovereigns, 
who often resided here, now restored by Prince Doria as a chateau. 
Here, in 1059, Pope Nicholas II. invested Robert Guiscard with 
the duchies of Apulia and Calabria. The magnificent Cathedral of 
1155, almost entirely destroyed by the earthquake, has since been 
modernised. The town-hall contains a fine Roman sarcophagus. 

From this point the conspicuous Monte Vulture (4365 ft.), an extinct vol- 
cano, may be visited. Horace mentions it as the 'ApulianVultur'; at that 
period it formed the boundary between Lucania and Apulia. Calabria 
extended hence in a S.E. direction to the Japygian or Salentinian pro- 
montory, the modern Capo di Leuca (p. 203); and S.W. lay the land of 

ioFoggia. VENOSA. 15. Route. 195 

the Bruttii, as far as the Sicilian straits. Since the middle ages, however 
the latter district has been named Calabria, while the ancient Calabria is 
now the Terra di Otranto. 

The former crater of M. Vulture is densely overgrown with oaks and 
beeches, among which two small and deep lakes are situated. By one of 
these are the Capuchin monastery of <S. Michele , most picturesquely 
situated, and the ruined church of S. llano. On the farther side of the 
principal crater rises the summit of the mountain, II Pizzuto di Melfi 
(4360 ft.). The circumference of the whole mountain is about 37 M. 

About 6 M. to the SB. of the station of Eapolla-Lavello lies Venosa, 
which will also be a railway-station when the line is prolonged. 

Venosa (poor inn), the ancient Venusia, colonised by Rome after the 
Samnite war, is now a small town with 7500 inhab., picturesquely situated 
on the slope of Monte Vulture , not far from the Fiumara , the 'pauper 
aquse Daunus' of Horace (Carm. iii, 30, 11). The Castle was erected by 
Pirro del Balzo in the 15th century. The abbey and church of S. Trinita, 
consecrated by Pope Nicholas II. in 1058 and recently badly restored, 
contain the tombs of the founder Robert Guiscard and his first wife 
Aberarda , mother of Boemund, and several frescoes of the 13th and 14th 
centuries. The three principal chapels are still distinctly recognised. The 
handsome court contains numerous inscriptions, columns, and other relics 
of an amphitheatre, which lay in the neighbourhood. 

Near Venosa, on the road to the Fiumara, Jewish Catacombs, with 
inscriptions in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, were discovered in 1853. History 
records that Jews were numerous here in the 4th and 5th centuries. 

An ancient structure of 'opus reticulatum' here is called the Casa di 
Orazio, but without the slightest authority. Horace, the son of a freedman, 
was born atVenusia, on 8th Dec. B.C. 65, and there received his elementary 
education, after which his father took him to Rome in order to procure 
him better instruction. He frequently mentions the 'far resounding Aundus' 
in his poems, as well as the villages in the vicinity (Carm. iii. 4, 14), such as 
the lofty Acherontia, now Acerenza (p. 209), 9 M. to the S.E., the woods of 
Bantia, N. of the latter, now Abbadia de* Banzi, near Genzano, and the 
fertile meadows of the low-lying Ferentum (probably Forenza). Near Palazzo, 
6 M. to the E. of Venosa, to the right of the road to Spinazzola, rises an 
abundant spring, now called Fontana Grande, believed to be identical with 
the Fons Bandusiae so highly praised by Horace (Carm. iii. 13). 

On the wooded heights between Venusia and Bantia, in B.C. 208, 
M. Claud. Marcellus, the gallant conqueror of Syracuse, and the first gen- 
eral who succeeded in arresting the tide of Hannibal's success (at Nola, 
215), fell into an ambuscade and perished. 

16. Prom Foggia to Brindisi and the Apulian 

Railway to Brindisi, 146 M. , in 5-61/2 hrs. ; fares 26 fr. 40, 18 fr. 50, 
10 fr. 65 c. (3rd cl. express 13 fr. 20 c.) ; comp. p. 189. — From Brindisi to 
Otranto, 54 31., in 3-3y 2 hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 75, 6 fr. 85, 3 fr. 90 c. (3rd cl. express 
4 fr. 90 c); only two through-trains daily. — Excursions in the country 
are usually made here in two-wheeled Sciarrabfcs (a corruption of the 
French 'char-a-bancs'), resembling the Neapolitan corricoli. The average 
charge per day is 6-7 fr., fee included, and the average journey 30-35 M. 

Foggia, see p. 192. On the right lies an extensive plain, the Ta- 
voliere della Puglia. Beyond it, to theS., rises Mte. Vulture (p. 194). 

12!/ 2 M. Orta Nova. — From (22 M.) the station Cerignola a 
branch-railway (V4I1T.; fares 1 fr. 5, 60, 35 e.) diverges to the 
town of Cerignola, with 26,000 inhab., uninteresting. Route to 
(10'/2 M.) Canosa, see p. 196. The surrounding plain is richly 
cultivated, but entirely destitute of trees , which generally form an 


196 Route 16. CANOSA. From Foggia 

important feature in Italian fields and enhance the beauty of the 
landscape. Cotton-plantations begin here. — 32' / 2 M. Trinitapoli 
Beyond (35 M.) Ofantino the train crosses the Ofanto (p. 194), the 
last river of the E. coast, -with banks covered -with underwood, 
Between two ranges of hills to the right lies the broad plain on 
which the battle of Cannre was fought (see below). 

42^2 M. Barletta (Loeanda di Ettore Fieramosca), a seaport- 
town with 33,200 inhab., picturesquely situated, contains a number 
of well-built houses and churches. The market-place is adorned 
with a bronze statue 14 ft. in height, said to represent the Emp. 
Heraclius (according to others Theodosius), and to have been found 
in the sea. In the Piazza d'Azeglio is a monument to Massimo 
d'Azeglio (d. 1866), the statesman, erected in 1880. The Cathedral 
of S. Maria Maggiore contains the tomb of a Count of Barbi and 
Miihlingen (d. 1566), with a German inscription. 8. Andrea and 
S. Trinita possess several ancient pictures. The extensive Castello 
dates from the time of Charles VI. 

In the wars between Louis XII. and Ferdinand the Catholic, Barletta 
was defended in 1503 by Gonsalvo da Cordova and besieged by the Duke 
of Nemours. During the siege, among other encounters, a combat took 
place in the vicinity (between Andria and Corato, p. 197) between thirteen 
on each side of the most valiant knights of Italy and France, conducted re- 
spectively by Colonna, and Bayard 'sans peur et sans reproche 1 , which 
terminated in favour of the former. 

Canosa (Albergo Genghi, bad), with 16,500 inhab., on the slope of 
a hill, lies 14 M. inland from Barletta and about as far from Andria (see 
below), with both of which it is connected by high-roads. Of the ancient 
Canusium, once a prosperous town, a gate (Porta Varrense, on the road 
to Cerignola) , ruins of an extensive amphitheatre, and other relics still 
exist. Numerous painted vases, golden trinkets, etc., have been discovered 
in the neighbourhood. The principal church of S. Sabino, with several 
small domes, contains a pulpit and episcopal throne in marble and some 
antique columns; its pavement is now several feet below the level of the 
street. In an adjacent court is the tomb of Boemund (d. 1111), son of 
Rob. Guiscard, one of Tasso's heroes. Large olive-plantations in the neigh- 
bourhood, which, like the whole of Apulia, also yields excellent wine. 

About midway between Barletta and Canosa, and a little to theN. of 
the road, on the right bank of the Aufidus (Ofanto), once lay Cannae, where 
the Romans were signally defeated by Hannibal, B. C. 216. The Roman army, 
under the Consuls Lucius ^Emilius Paullus and Caius TerentiusVarro, con- 
sisted of 80,000 foot and 6O)0 horse, that of Hannibal numbered 40,000 foot 
and 10,000 horse. After various changes of position the two armies engaged 
on the right bank of the Aufidus, the right wing of the Romans and the 
left wing of the Carthaginians leaning on the river. The Gallic and Spanish 
legionaries opened the battle by a successful attack on the Carthaginian 
centre, but Hasdrubal, at the head of the Carthaginian cavalry on the 
right wing, quickly put the Roman horse to flight, and then attacked the 
legions in the rear. Scarcely a single Roman foot-soldier escaped, 70,000 
being left on the field, including jEmilius Paullus the Consul, and 10,000 
being taken prisoner. Hannibal lost only about 6000 men. — In 1019 an 
Apulian and Norman army under Melo of Bari was defeated at Cannffi 
by the troops of the Greek prefect Basilius Bugianus. In 1083 Cannse was 
taken and destroyed by Robert Guiscard. 

From Barletta to Bari via Andria, about 50 M., steam-tramway 
in 3y 2 hrs., four times daily in each direction. — 7i/ 2 m. Andria {Lo- 
eanda di Milone, near the road to Trani, tolerable), with 37 000 inhab.. 
founded about 1046, once a favourite residence of the Emp. Frederick II., 

to Brindisi. TRANI. 16. Route. 197 

whose second wife Iolanthc of Jerusalem died here in 1228, after having 
given birth to a son (Conrad), and was interred in the interesting old 
cathedral. His third wife, Isabella of England, who died at Foggia in 
1241, was also interred in the cathedral of Andria, but the monuments of 
these empresses have long since disappeared, having been destroyed by 
the partizans of Anjou. On the Porta S. Andrea, or delV Imperatore, is 
a metrical inscription in letters of metal, attributed to Frederick : Andria 
fidelis no&tris affixa medullis, etc. The old church of S. Agostino and the 
adjoining convent belonged to the Teutonic Order during the sway of the 
Hohenstaufen. — To the S. of Andria, on the summit of the pyramidal 
Murgie di Minervino, is the conspicuous and imposing "Castello del Monte, 
erected by Frederick II., who frequently resided here, for the purpose 
of hawking in the neighbourhood. The building is maintained by govern- 
ment. This height commands a fine *View of the sea, the valley of the 
Ofanto, Mte. Vulture, etc. A bridle-path (91/2 M.) ascends to it from Andria. 
A little beyond Andria, in a field by the road-side, is a modern 
monument called VEpitafio, marking the spot where the above-mentioned 
encounter between Colonna and Bayard took place. 9>/2 M. Corato, with 
30,000 inhabitants. 14 M. Ruvo (Giov. Nanni, tolerable), with 17,000 inhab., 
the ancient Rubi, famous for the numerous and beautiful vases found in 
the Apulian tombs in its environs , and now among the chief treasures 
of the Museum of Naples. The tombs have since been covered up again. 
The collection of Giov. Jatta is worthy of a visit. — 17 M. Terlizzi. — 
26 M. Bitonto, with 26,000 inhab. and large manufactures of salad-oil. 
The interesting cathedral contains several tombs of the 17t!i century. — 
Near (301/2 M.) Modugno the tramway-line crosses the railway from Bari 
to Taranto (p. 199). — 37 M. Bari, see p. 198. 

The line now skirts the coast. The country is luxuriantly fer- 
tile, and is chiefly famous for large olive-plantations yielding the 
finest quality of salad-oil. The district where this is produced now 
extends from Barletta and Canosa, past Bari, to the neighbourhood of 
Taranto (p. 210). The yield and quality of the olive are extremely 
fluctuating. A first-rate crop, though very rare, sometimes realises 
a price equal to the value of the whole estate. 

501/2 M. Trani (Albergo della Stella d' Italia; Alb. delle Pu- 
glie; Due Mori), with 26,000 inhab., is a well-built seaport. 
The loftily situated '^Cathedral, built about 1100, still possesses a 
Romanesque portal and beautiful bronze doors by Barisano (1175). 
Interior barbarously modernised. The crypt, which extends beneath 
the entire church, deserves a visit. Above the portal of the church 
of the Ognissanti is a Romanesque relief of the Annunciation. The 
interesting Castello is now used as a prison. Several synagogues 
afford an indication of the former prosperity of the place and of its 
importance at the time of the Crusades. The pretty 'Villa', or public 
gardens, on the coast, contains two well-preserved, milestones from 
the Via Trajana, which led from Benevento to Brindisi via Canosa, 
Ruvo, Bari, and Egnatia. Excellent wine (Moscado di Trani) is pro- 
duced in the neighbourhood. 

55 ( /2 M. Bisceglie, with 23,000 inhab., the ruins of a Norman 
fortress, and numerous handsome villas. 

61 M. Molfetta (30,000 inhab.), beautifully situated, an epis- 
copal see, was once in commercial alliance with Amain. After the 
death of Johanna I. her husband Otho, Duke of Brunswick, was 
confined in the castle here until released by Charles of Durazzo in 

198 Route 16. BARI. From Foggia 

1384. — 65 M. Oiovinazzo, said to have been founded by the inhabi- 
tants of Egnatia (p. 200), on the destruction of the latter, or by the 
inhabitants of the ancient Netium (Natiolum). 69!/ 2 M. S. Spirito 
and Bitonto (p. 197); the latter lies 4 M. to the W. 

77 M. Bari. — Hotels. Albergo del Risokgihento (PI. a; C, 4), 
with good trattoria, E., L., & A. 2 1 /->fr., bargaining advisable; Alb. Cen- 
trale, at the corner of the Via Piccinni and the Via Cavour (PI. D, 4); 
Hotel Cavour, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 86 ; Alb. Piccinni, Via Piccinni 12. 

Cafes. Risorgimento and Stoppani, both in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele; 
Caffi Piccinni. — Beer, etc., at Orsola CafliscK's and the Birreria del Bolog- 
nese, both in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele. 

Cabs into the town, or per drive, 50 c, after dusk 70 c. ; with two 
horses 70 or 90 c. 

Tramway to Barletta, from the N.W. of the Giard. Garibaldi, see p. 196. 

Steamboats. Vessels of the Societh Florio, for Brindisi , the Piraeus, 
Tremiti, Ancona, Venice, and Trieste. Also to Genoa and Marseilles. 

British Vice-Consul, Emit Berner, Esq. — U. S. Consular Agent, 
Joseph Klein, Esq. 

Bari, the ancient Barium, which is still, as in the time of 
Horace, well supplied with fish ('Bari piscosi mcenia'), a seaport, 
and the capital of a province, with 60,600 inhab., is the most 
important commercial town in Apulia. It is one of the most ancient 
bishoprics in Italy , and is now the seat of an archbishop. In 
mediaeval history it is frequently mentioned as the scene of contests 
between Saracens, Greeks, and Normans, etc. In 1002 it was wrested 
from the Saracens by the Venetians. "William the Bad destroyed 
the town in 1156, but "William the Good restored it in 1169. 
Bari was an independent duchy from the 14th cent, down to 1558, 
when it was united with the kingdom of Naples. 

The Strada Sparano da Bari leads to the N. from the station and 
crosses the Piazza Ateneo, in which, on the left, stands the Ateneo 
(PL C, 6), containing a technical school and the Provincial Museum. 
The latter consists chiefly of vases in the S. Italian style (Director : 
Comm. Michele Mirenghi). 

The Strada Sparano ends in the Corso Vittorio Emanuelb, 
which runs from W. to E. and separates the closely built old town 
from the new town, or Borgo. On the W. the Corso ends in the 
grounds of the Oiardino Oaribaldi (PI. A, 4) ; at the E. end is the 
Oiardino Margherita (PL D, E, 4), with a bust of Giuseppe Masari 
(d. 1883), parliamentary deputy and author, beyond which is the 
Old Harbour, now used only by fishing-boats and other small craft. 

In the middle the Corso expands into the Piazza dblla Pre- 
fettura (PLC, 4), which is bounded on the W. by the Oiardino 
Piccinni, with a statue of the composer Piccinni, Gluck's rival, who 
was born at Bari in 1728, on the S. by the Teatro Piccinni (PL 15), 
the Palazzo di Citta, and the Tribunali (the last two forming the 
wings of the theatre), and on the N. by the Prefecture (PL 11). 
Passing to the left of the prefecture we reach the Castello (now a 
prison, PL B, C, 3), which was built in 1169 and afterwards re- 
peatedly strengthened. The castello lies on the New Harbour, 





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to Brindisi. BARI. ie. Route. 199 

whence a fine view of Mte. Gargano is enjoyed in clear weather. 
— Farther on is the Cathedral of S. Sabino (PI. 3; C, 3), begun in 
1027, originally a fine Byzantine building, sadly modernised in 1745. 
Over the altar of S. Rocco is a picture by Tintoretto, and opposite 
to it one by Paolo Veronese. Fine crypt (begun in 1034), with 
numerous columns. The lofty campanile resembles the Moorish 
tower of Seville. 

Near the cathedral is the church of *S. Nicola (PI. D, 2, 3), 
begun in 1087 for the reception of the relics of the saint, which 
were brought from Myra in Lycia. The crypt was consecrated by 
Pope Urban II. in 1089 ; the church itself, a pillared basilica in 
an antique style, with numerous later additions, was finished by 
the Norman king Roger in 1139. On the exterior are tombstones 
erected to members of noble families of Bari, and to Byzantine pil- 
grims who died here. The interesting facade is embellished with 
mediocre statues of the Virgin, S. Nicola, and S. Antonio di Padova. 

The Interior consists of nave and aisles with flat ceiling , borne by 
doable rows of columns, with galleries over the aisles. The transverse 
arches in the nave did not form part of the original structure. In the N. 
aisle is the Tombstone of Robert, Count of Bari, 'protonotarius' of Charles 
of Anjou, who conducted the proceedings against the ill-fated Prince Con- 
radin, and was afterwards assassinated by a nephew of Charles of Anjou 
on the very spot on which he had proclaimed the sentence (p. 39). He 
was a member of the Chiurlia family, resident at Bari. — To the right 
of the high- altar is a Madonna with saints, by BaHolommeo Vivarini of 
Murano, 1476. — At the back of the choir is the Tomb (erected in 1593) 
of Bona Sforza, queen of Sigismund I. of Poland and last Duchess of Bari 
(d. 1558), with statues of St. Casimir and Stanislaus. 

On the staircase leading to the Crypt are some early-Christian sar- 
cophagus-sculptures representing Christ and the Evangelists (5th cent.), 
which were perhaps brought from Mysia. — The crypt itself contains a 
silver altar with interesting * Alto-reliefs, executed in 1319 for the Servian 
king Urosius by Ruggero dalV Invidia and Roberto da Barletta, and 
restored in 1684 by Bom. Marinelli and Ant. Amtabili of Naples. Below 
the altar is the vault containing the bones of the saint, from which a 
miraculous fluid ('Manna di Bari'), highly prized by believers, is said 
to exude. The festival of the saint , on 8th May , is attended by thou- 
sands of pilgrims, chiefly from the Albanese villages. 

The Treasury contains a beautifully illuminated breviary of Charles II. 
of Anjou, the sceptre of the same monarch, and an iron crown, which is 
said to have been made at Bari in 1131 for the Norman Roger. Roger 
himself, Emp. Henry VI. and his consort Costanza, Manfred, and Ferdinand I. 
of Aragon were all crowned with it in this church. — In 1271 Charles of 
Anjou presented the church with a colossal bell, which Manfred had in- 
tended for Manfredonia, but tradition reports that this giant was melted 
down and made into Ave smaller bells about the year 1394. The present 
bells date from 1578, 1713, and 1830. 

The Lion in the Piazza Mercantile (PI. D, 3), with the inscription 
'custos justitiae' on its collar, is the heraldic cognisance of Bari. 

On the old diligence-road to Taranto, about 6 M. to the S.E. of Bari, 
is the village of Capurso, visited by pilgrims on account of the miraculous 
image of the Madonna del Pozzo. Thence road to Noicattaro, Rutigliano, 
and Conversano (see p. 200). 

From Bari to Taranto, 72 M., railway in 4'/2 hrs. (fares 13 fr., 9 fr. 10, 
5 fr. 85 c). The line leads inland, towards the W., and gradually ascends. 
7 M. Modngno; 9Vi M. Bitetto. On a hill 3 M. to the N. lies Palo del Colle, 
once surrounded by four villages (Auricarre, Marescia, Staglino, Batlaglia), 

200 Route 16. BRINDISI. From Foggia 

of which few traces are left. 14 M. Qrumo-Appula. 25'/z M. Acquaviva delle 
Fonti; about 3 M. to the W. is situated Cassano, with a stalactite grotto (key 
at the Sindaco's); fine view from the suppressed Convento dei Riformati. 
34 M. Oioia del Golle (14,000 inhab.). The line now enters the Terra 
d"Otranto, the ancient Calabria, and traverses the low range of hills which 
form the S.E. spurs of the Apennines. The scenery becomes of bleak char- 
acter, the olive-trees disappearing and the fields often looking as if sown 
with fragments of limestone rocks. 42 M. S. Basilio-Mottola ; 48 M. Cat- 
tellaneta, where olives reappear. Beyond the next tunnel the line crosses 
three deep ravines ('gravine'). 53 M. Palagianello ; 58 M. Palagiano; WfeN. 
Massafra, picturesquely situated on the slope of a 'gravina'. The train 
approaches the sea. Fine view of the bay. — 72 M. Taranto, see p. 210. 

Si M. Noicattaro, station for the town of the same name, lying 
3 M. inland, with large potteries. In the neighbourhood is Rutigliano, 
dominated by the square tower of an old castle. — 89 M. Mola di 
Bari (13,000 inhab.), on the coast. On the hill rising inland, but 
not visible from the railway, lies the old town of Conversano, the 
ancient Cupermnum (700 ft.), with a strong castle, which belonged 
from 1456 to theAcquavivas, dukes of Atri and counts of Conversano. 

— 99 M. Polignano a Mare is situated on a lofty and precipitous 
rock , rising above the sea and containing several fine grottoes. 
The finest of these lies under the new town (entrance by a small 
door in the old town ; key at the house opposite). — 102 M. Monopoli, 
the ancient M inopolis, with 12,000 inhab., the residence of an arch- 
bishop. The cathedral contains a St. Sebastian by Palma Vecchio. 
The tower of S. Francesco commands a fine view. Near the sea, on 
the line of the ancient road to Egnatia, there have been discovered 
several rock-hewn tombs , the contents of which are now in the 
museum at Bari (p. 198). — On the coast between Monopoli and 
Fasano lies the ruined town ('la citta distrutta') of Egnatia, the Greek 
OnatMa, now Anazzo, where a number of vases, ornaments, etc., 
have been found. The ancient walls have been nearly all removed 
by the peasants to build their cottages. 

HO^M. Fasano (Locanda by the Municipio, tolerable), a thriv- 
ing town with 15,500 inhabitants. The old palace of the Knights 
of St. John, with its handsome loggie (1509), is now occupied by 
the Municipio. Signora Scarli Colucci possesses a collection of an- 
tiquities from Egnatia , to which , however, persons unprovided 
with an introduction will scarcely obtain access. 115 M. Cisternino. 

The train now enters the province of Lecce or Otranto {Terra 
d'Otranto, the ancient Calabria, see above). 123 M. Ostuni (Lo- 
canda Petruzzo-Anglana) possesses a cathedral with a line Roman- 
esque facade ; the Biblioteca Municipale contains a collection of 
antiquities. — 129 M. Carovigno ; 139 M. S. Vito d'Otranto. 

146 M. Brindisi. — Hotels. Grand Hotel des Indes Okientales, 
built by the S. Italian railway company, on the quay, near the landing- 
place of the P. and O. steamers, R. 3, A. 1, B. l>/ 2 , D. 5, lunch 3y 2 -4 fr. 

— Albekgo d'Europa, in the Strada Amena, leading from the station to 
the (y 2 Jl.) harbour, R. & L. 2y 2 fr. , A. 40 c. ; Albekgo Centrale, Via 
Garibaldi, near the harbour, R. & L. l'/2-3 fr. ; two tolerably good. 

Cabs. From the station to the harbour, 1 pers. 60 c, at night 80 c, 

to Brindisi. BRINDISI. 16. Route. 201 

2 pers. 1 fr. or 1 fr. 20 c, 3 pers. 1 fr. 20 or 1 fr. 40 c, 4 pers. 1 fr. 50 or 1 fr. 

TO c. ; per 1/2 hr - 2 fr - or 2 fr - 20 c -> P er hr - 3 fr - ° r 3 fr. 20 c. ; trunk 20 c. 

Post Office, in the Strada Amena. — Telegraph Office, at the harbour. 

Steamboats to Corfu, Syra, and the Piraeus (comp. E. 43) ; also to An- 

cona, Venice, Trieste, Alexandria, etc. 

British Vice-Consul: Sig. S. 0. Cocoto. — English Church Service 
in winter. 

Brindisi, with 17,000 inhab., the ancient Brentesion of the 
Greeks, and the Brundisium (i.e. stag's head) of the Romans, a 
name due to the form of the harbour which encloses the town in 
two arms, was once a populous seaport, and the usual point of em- 
barcation for Greece and the East. 

Brundisium was a very famous place in ancient history. At an early 
period it was colonised by Tarentum, and subsequently by Rome, B.C. 245, 
and it formed the termination of the Via Appia, the construction of which 
from Capua was nearly coeval with the foundation of the colony. Horace's 
description (Sat. i. 5) of his journey from Rome to Brundisium , B. C. 37, 
in the company of Maecenas, who wished to be present at the con- 
clusion of a new alliance between Octavianus and Antony at Tarentum, 
is well known. At Brundisium the tragic poet Pacuvius was born, and 
here, in B. C. 19, Virgil died on his return from Greece (some ruins near the 
harbour being still pointed out to the credulous as the remains of the house 
where he expired). The town, when occupied by Pompey, B.C. 49, sus- 
tained a memorable siege at the hands of Caesar, who describes the event 
in the first book of his Civil War. The fleets of the Crusaders frequently 
assembled in the harbour of Brundisium , but the place soon declined 
after the cessation of the crusades. It was subsequently destroyed by 
Lewis , King of Hungary, in 1348 , and again by a fearful earthquake in 
1458, which buried most of the inhabitants beneath its ruins. 

In modern times Brindisi has again become the starting-point 
of the most direct route from Central Europe to the East, and bids 
fair to become an important station for the carrying trade. The ex- 
tensive harbour, admirably sheltered from every wind, has been en- 
tirely restored. The large steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Co., etc., are enabled to enter and lie at the quay itself. The N. 
arm of the harbour, which once bounded the town and extended far 
into the land, was productive of malaria, owing to its muddy con- 
dition, and is now dried up. The entrance to the harbour is 
divided into two channels by an island. In order to prevent 
the harbour from becoming filled with sand, the N. channel has 
recently been closed by means of a substantial bulwark of solid 
stone. The quarantine establishment and a small fort are situated 
on the island. The fort may be visited by boat, and a fine view 
enjoyed from the top, and the trip may be extended to the break- 
water (in all I-II/2 hr., fare I1/2 fr.). 

On a slight eminence by the quay rises a lofty unfluted 
column of Greek marble, with a highly ornate capital, repre- 
senting figures of gods. Near it are the remains of a second. 
The former bears an unfinished inscription, containing mention 
of a Byzantine governor named Spathalupus, by whom the town 
was rebuilt in the 10th cent., after its destruction by the Sara- 
cens. These columns are supposed once to have marked the 
termination of the Via Appia ; but more probably belonged to an 

202 Route 16. LBOCE. 

honorary monument of the Byzantine period , like the column of 
Phocas at Rome. The other relics of antiquity are insignificant. 

The Castello with its massive round towers , founded by the 
Emp. Frederick II., and strengthened by Charles V., is now a 
bagno for criminals condemned to the galleys. The 11th cent, 
baptismal-church of S. Giovanni, with frescoes, is now an anti- 
quarian museum. In the Cathedral the nuptials of Frederick II. 
with Iolanthe of Jerusalem were solemnised in 1225. Several 
thousands of the participators in the Crusade of 1227 perished 
here. Brindisi possesses a public library, presented by a Bishop de 
Leo, a native of the place. The environs are fertile, but malarious. 

Railway from Brindisi to Taranto , Metaponto, and Naples, 
see R. 18. 

From Brindisi the train runs in 1 hr. 20 min. , via stations 
Tuturano, S. Pietro Vernotico, Squinzano, and Trepuzzi, to — 

170 M. Lecce {Albergo della Vittoria, well spoken of; Alb. 
della Ferrovia ; Roma; Gran Caffe, Piazza S. Oronzo), the capital 
of a province and the seat of a bishop, with 26,000 inhab., situated 
in an unattractive district, not far from the sea. 

The church of S. Croce, with its fanciful baroque facade, in the 
Piazza della Prefettura, dates from the end of the 16th century. The 
Prefettura, an old Celestine convent, is of the same period; it con- 
tains a collection of vases (Attic *Amphora with Polynices and Eri- 
phyle ; vase with Achilles and Brise'is), terracottas, coins, and in- 
scriptions. Passing through the Prefettura we reach the Giardino 
Pubblico. In the Piazza a bronze statue of Victor Emmanuel II., by 
Maocagni, was erected in 1889. Near the Porta diRugge is the church 
of S. Domenico, in the baroque style of the 17th cent. ; opposite is 
the Hospital, of the end of the 16th century. In the Piazza del 
Vescovado are the Cathedral of S. Oronzo, built in the 17th cent., 
the Seminary, and the Vescovado. Outside the Porta di Napoli lies 
the Campo Santo, with the church of SS. Nicola e Cataldo, built by 
the Norman Count Tancred in 1180. Of the facade the central part 
alone, with the beautiful portal, is of ancient date. The corridor to 
the right of the church is entered by an interesting *Side-portal. 

Lecce occupies the site of the ancient Lupia. In the vicinity lay Ru- 
diae, where Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, was horn, B.C. 239 (d. 
at Rome 168), now Rugge, a place of no importance. — On the coast lies 
the Castello di S. Caiialolo, l l jz M. to the W., a favourite point for excursions. 

About i l /i M. to the S.E. of Lecce lies Covallino, with a chateau in the 
rich baroque style of the 17th cent.; the owner, the Duca Sigismondo Castro- 
mediano de Limburg, admits visitors on their sending their cards. 

The train runs from Lecce to (29!/ 2 M.J Otranto in about 2 hrs. 
Four unimportant stations. — 179 M. Zollino. 

Feom Zollino to Gallipoli, 22 31., railway in l'/ 4 hr. (fares 4 fr., 
2 fr. 80, 1 fr. 80 c). — .Stations: Soleto, Galatina, Galaione, Nardb-Oalatone 
(the ancient Neretum of the Sallentini, now an episcopal residence), S.Nicola, 
and Alezio. — 22 M. Gallipoli (British vice-consul), a seaport, with 11,000 
inhab., beautifully situated on a rocky island in the Gulf of Taranto, but 
connected with the mainland by a bridge. It was founded by the Lace- 

OTRANTO. 17. Route. 203 

demonian Leucippus and the Tarentines, and is the Urbs Grata Callipolis 
of the Roman geographer Mela, hut is called Anxa by Pliny. The cathedral 
is a handsome building of the 17th century. The town was formerly 
celebrated for its oil , which was stored for long periods in subterranean 
cisterns , and thence drawn off for exportation in a thoroughly clarified 
condition. Date-palms are frequent in the gardens of the handsome villas. 

— A steamer of the Florio Co. plies weekly to Brindisi and Taranto. 

184 M. Corigliano a" Otranto ; 187 M. Maglie; Bagnolo del Sa- 
lento ; Cannole; 

19972 M. Otranto, the Greek Hydrus, the Roman Hydruntum, 
a colony and municipium , often mentioned by the ancients as a 
point of embarcation for Apollonia in Epirus, was destroyed by the 
Turks in 1480, and never recovered from the effects of this cruel 
blow. It is now an insignificant fishing town with 2000 inhab., 
and the seat of an archbishop. The castle with its two towers was 
erected by Alphonso of Aragon and strengthened by Charles V. — 
The Cathedral still contains some columns from a temple of Mer- 
cury, which once stood near the village of S. Nicola, not far from 
the town. — From the ramparts of the Castle the coast and moun- 
tains of Epirus are visible in clear weather. 

A road skirting the coast leads from Otranto to (31 31.) the Promon- 
tory of Leuca, via Muro (to the right), and Castro, situated on a rocky 
eminence by the sea, and therefore supposed to be the Castrum Minervae, 
that point of Italy which, according to Virgil, was first beheld by ^Eneas ; 
then through a succession of gardens and vineyards to Tricase (I1/2 M. 
from the sea), Alessano, Montesardo, Patit, and finally S. Maria di Leuca, 
a village on the site of the ancient Leuca, not far from the promontory 
of Leuca or Finisterra. This is the Promonlorium Japygium, or Salentinum, 
of antiquity , the extreme point of Apulia, commanding a noble prospect. 
In fine weather the lofty Acroceraunian mountains of Albania may be 
distinguished. We may return for a change via, Patii, Presicce, Uggento (the 
ancient Uxentum, an episcopal residence), and Taviano, to Oallipoli (31 31.). 

17. From Naples to Foggia (Ancona). 

123 M. Railway in &/2&I2 hrs. (fares 22 fr. 40, 15 fr. 70, 10 fr. 10 c). 
This line forms part of the shortest route from Naples to N. and E. Italy 
and to Germany. From Naples to Bologna 19V2 hrs. From Foggia to An- 
cona (201 M., in 71/4-12 hrs. ; fares 36 fr. 50, 25 fr. 55, 18 fr. 25 c), see p. 189. 

— The slow trains are always behind time. 

Naples, see p. 19. — The line describes a wide curve through 
fields planted with poplars , vines, and various other crops, form- 
ing the most fertile and highly cultivated portion of the Terra di 
Lavoro (p. 7). An occasional glimpse of Vesuvius is obtained to 
the right. — 6 M. Casoria, connected with Naples by a steam-tram- 
way (p. 23). 8y 2 M. Frattamaggiore-Orumo ; 10 M. S. Antimo. 

12'/.2 M. Aversa, a town with 21,000 inhab., probably occupies 
the site of the ancient Atella, where the Fabula Atellana, or 
early Roman comedy, first originated. In 1029 it was the first 
settlement of the Normans , who afterwards became so powerful. 
The large church of S. Paolo contains a faithful reproduction of the 
Holy House of Loreto (see Baedeker's Central Italy). On 18th Sept. 
1345 King Andreas of Hungary , husband of Queen Johanna I. of 

204 Route 17. BENEVENTO. From Naples 

Naples, was assassinated by Niccolo Acciajuoli in the palace o 
Aversa. The light and rather acid wine of Aversa, called Asprino 
is frequently drunk at Naples. Steam Tramway to Naples, see p. 23 

18 M. Marcianise. — 28 M. Caserta, see p. 9. 

The line now gradually ascends ; to the right a view of the Cam 
panian plain; to the left, the mountains. Two tunnels. — 26 M 
Maddaloni ; the town lies below the line. 

The train descends, and passes under the *Ponti della Valle, ar 
imposing aqueduct in three stories, about 210 ft. in height. I 
was constructed by Vanvitelli by order of Charles III. and his son 
for the purpose of supplying the gardens of Caserta with water fron 
Monte Taburno (a distance of 25 M.). The towers connected witl 
it are seen on the hill to the left. — 30 M. Valle di Maddaloni 
— At (3372 M Frasso-Dugenta we cross the Isclero, on which, 
2^2 M. above Dugenta , lies 8. Agata de' Goti, on the site of th( 
ancient Saticola. The defile between S. Agata and Mojano is sup- 
posed by some to be the Caudine Forks, as the locality corresponds 
better with Livy's description than the pass near Arpaia (p. 10). 

The train enters the broad and fertile valley of the Volturno, 
which is first crossed below, then above, the influx of the Calore. — 
Beyond (38 M.) Amorosi the train follows the right bank of the 
Calore. Near (4072 M.) Telese-Cerreto we observe on the right th« 
Lago di Telese, a malarious marsh which poisons the neighbourhood 
Telese, a poor village on the hills to the left, is visited in summei 
for its mineral springs, and possesses a large new establishment foi 
visitors (special train from Naples daily in July and August). Neai 
it are a few relics of the Samnite Telesia, once occupied by Hanni- 
bal, but taken and destroyed by the Romans. It was afterwards col- 
onised by Augustus. In the 9th cent, the town suffered severely 
from an earthquake, and it was at length entirely destroyed by thi 
Saracens. A diligence runs hence to Piedimonte d'Alife (p. 10 
in about 3 hrs. 

4372 M. Solopaca; the small town (5000 inhab.) is pleasant!; 
situated Ufa M. off, at the foot of Monte Taburno (4095 ft.), or 
the left bank of the Calore. — 4772*1. S. Lorenzo Maggiore, on th< 
hill to the left. — Another tunnel. — 51 M. Casalduni- Ponte 
where the high-road to Benevento crosses the Calore by an iroi 
bridge. The valley contracts; to the right on the hill lies Torre- 
cuso. — On each side of (5572 M.). Vitulano we traverse a tunnel 

60 M. Benevento. — The Station (Rail. Restaurant, fair) lies 3 A " 
to the N. of the town; one-horse cab 50 c, two-horse 1 fr., after dusl 
60 c. or 1 fr. 30 c. ; one-horse cab per hour 70 c. 

Hotels. Villa di Roma, with good trattoria; Albeego Manfkedi 
Locanda di Benevento, in the Largo S. Antonio, small, but clean. - 
Cafi Garibaldi, in the main street; etc. 

The sights of the town may be visited in 3 hrs. or less. 

Benevento, a town with 21,700 inhab., situated on a hill bound 
ed by the two rivers Sabato and Calore , was formerly the capita 

to Foggia. BENEVENTO. n. Route. 205 

of a papal province of the same name. The narrow and dirty streets 
are gradually undergoing improvement. 

Benevenlum, founded according to tradition by Diomedes, or by the son 
of Ulysses and Circe, was originally called Maleventum, but the name 
was changed when it became a Roman colony, B.C. 268. It lay on the Via 
Appia, and became one of the most important places in S. Italy. In the 6th 
cent, after Christ Beneventum became the seat of a powerful Lombard 
duchy. In the 11th cent. Emp. Henry III. ceded the principality of Bene- 
vento to Pope Leo IX., after which it belonged to Rome. In 1241 the town 
was partly destroyed by Frederick II. From 1806 to 1815 Benevento was 
capital of the short-lived principality of that name, which Napoleon I. 
granted to Talleyrand. 

The road from the station crosses the Calore by a handsome bridge. 

Near this, according to tradition, was the temporary grave of the 
young King Manfred, who on 26th Feb., 1266, in a battle with Charles I. 
of Anjou on the neighbouring plains , had lost his throne and his life 
through the treachery of the Barons of Apulia and the Counts of Caserta 
and Acerra. Shortly afterwards, however, the body of the ill-fated prince 
was exhumed by order of Bartolommeo Pignatelli, Archbishop of Cosenza, 
conveyed beyond the limits of the kingdom, and exposed unburied on the 
bank of the Rio Verde. Dante records this in his Purgatorio (iii. 134). 

Skirting the verge of the town, to the left, we reach on the N. 
side, *Trajan's Triumphal Arch, or the Porta Aurea, dating from 
A. D. 114, one of the finest and best preserved Roman structures 
in S. Italy. It was dedicated to the emperor by the Roman senate 
and people, in recognition of his having completed a new road to 
Brundisium, and somewhat resembles the arch of Titus at Rome. 
It is constructed of Greek marble, and is 50 ft. in height, the passage 
being 27 ft. high. A quadriga with a statue of Trajan once crowned 
the summit. The reliefs relate to the history of the emperor. 

Outside. Over the arch are two rivers , the Danube and Euphrates 
(or Rhine). The frieze represents the triumph of Trajan over the Ger- 
manic tribes. Above, on the left, assembly of the gods , resolving on the 
adoption of Trajan by Nerva ; on the right, conquest of Dacia, King Dece- 
balus at the emperor's feet. On the left Trajan triumphing over Dacia; 
on the right the marriage of Hadrian and Sabina; 1. Armenia constituted 
a Roman province ; r. an Oriental ambassador in Trajan's presence. — 
Passage: I.Trajan sacrificing to Jupiter; r. Trajan bestowing a 'congiarium' 
or largess on the people after his triumph. On the ceiling Trajan crowned 
by Victory. — Inner Side. On the frieze a Dacian triumph. Reliefs : 
Trajan sacrificing, Procession to the Capitol, Adoption of Trajan, Entry 
into Rome, Trajan administering justice, Trajan in the Basilica Ulpia. 

Following the Town Walls (to the right if we approach from the 
town), which , as well as the town itself, contain many relics of 
antiquity, we proceed towards the S. to the Castle, erected in the 
14th cent., now partly used as a prison. The promenade in front of 
it commands an excellent survey of the valley of the Sabato. 

From this point we follow the main street to a small piazza 
with a modern obelisk, in which is the Church of Santa Sofia, a 
circular edifice of the Lombard period, erected about 732-74. It is 
now partly modernised. The vaulting of the dome is borne by six 
ancient Corinthian columns. To the left are the handsome cloisters 
of a suppressed Benedictine monastery , with curious mediieval 
sculptures on the capitals of the columns. 

206 Route 17. BOVINO. 

Farther to trie left is the Town-Hall. To the right is the Piazza 
Papiniano. The obelisk, re-erected here in 1872, is a memorial of 
the Egyptian worship of Isis, which was very prevalent here towards 
the end of the pagan period. — We next reach the piazza in front 
of the cathedral. 

The *Cathedral is a beautiful edifice in the Lombard-Saracenic 
style, dating from the 12th century. The campanile is later (accord- 
ing to an inscription, begun in 1296) ; in the wall is a relief in 
marble, representing a wild boar, the cognisance of Benevento. The 
principal door of the cathedral is of bronze, adorned with basreliefs 
of New Testament subjects. It is said to have been executed at Con- 
stantinople in 1150. The interior is in the form of a basilica, with 
double aisles borne by ancient columns. Ambones and candelabra 
of 1311. Valuable treasury. 

To the left of the cathedral is the Episcopal Palace, a pile dat- 
ing from various periods. Descending to the right of the church, 
we pass through three archways (reached also from the piazza in 
front of the episcopal palace), and taking the second turning on the 
right, reach the site of the ancient Theatre. Several of the entrance- 
arches in limestone have recently been excavated. The traveller may 
now continue his route beyond the town along the bank of the Sabato, 
planted with poplars, to the ancient Ponte Lebroso, by which the 
Via Appia once led to the town. It is now the site of a mill. This 
point may also be reached by following the main street beyond the 
town, and then descending to the left. We return to the hill, on 
which a conspicuous new church is being built ; on the slope lie the 
ruins ofSanti Quaranta, an extensive structure of brick with a crypto- 
porticus and colonnades, probably part of a bath-establishment. 

From Benevento to Termoli, see p. 191. 

From Benevento to Naples vid Avellino and Nola, see R. 11. 

The RaujWay crosses the Tammaro, a tributary of the Calore, 
immediately before (64 M.) Ponte Valentino, and follows the un- 
interesting N. bank of the latter stream, through its narrow valley, 
to (67 Y2 M.) Apice. — 74 M. Buonalbergo. 77 M. Montecalvo; 
the town is on the hill to the right. Four tunnels , one of which 
is more than I1/2 M. long. We then cross the watershed between 
the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adriatic. 84 M. Ariano di Puglia; the 
town is not visible from the line. Then a long tunnel, beyond which 
we descend the Valle diBovino, the narrow valley of the Cervaro. — 
90 M. Savignano-Oreci, two villages loftily situated on opposite 
sides of the valley. — 95 M. Montaguto-Panni. Montaguto lies on 
the left bank of the Cervaro ; Panni lies high up among the hills 
to the right. We follow the left bank of the Cervaro. — 93»/2 M. 
Orsara di Puglia. 

102y2 M. Bovino, the ancient Vibinum, lies on the hill to the 
right. At Ponte diBovino the train crosses the Cervaro. — 107 M. 
Oiardinetto is the station for Troja , 7 M. to the N. (diligence 

EBOLI. 18. Route. 207 

IV2 fr._), a colony founded in 1017 by the Greek prefect Bugianus 
(p. 196); to the 11th cent, belongs also the interesting cathedral 
with its ancient bronze doors. The facade (1093-1119) is richly 
adorned with sculpture and mosaic-work. 

From (118 M.) Cervaro diverges the branch-line to Rapolla- 
Lavello mentioned at p. 194. We finally traverse the Tavoliere 
della Puglia (p. 193) to (123 M. ) Foggia (p. 192). 

18. From Naples to Brindisi via Metaponto and 

240 31. Railway (express to Sletaponto) in 10V2-17 hrs. ; fares 43 fr. 
65, 30 fr. 55, 19 fr. 65 c. 

From Naples to (45'/2 M.) Battipaglia, see pp. 160-165. 

49^2 M. Eboli [Albergo del Pastore, tolerable), a town with 
9000 inhab., situated on the hillside, with an old chateau of the 
Prince of Angri, enjoys a line view of the sea, the oak-forest of 
Persano, the towns at the foot of Monte Alburno, as far as the temples 
of Psestum. The sacristy of S. Francesco contains a large Madonna 
by Andrea da Salerno. 

The railway proceeds towards the E., at the foot of the hills. 
On the right flows the broad and turbulent Sele, beyond which rises 
the Monte Alburno (5710ft.), the Alburnus of the ancients, described 
by Virgil as 'green with holm-oaks'. The line, which is here 
scaling the main chain of the Apennines , passes through no less 
than thirty-six tunnels in the limestone rock. Scattered groves of 
oaks and olive-trees are seen at intervals. 54 M. Persano; 6IV2M. 
Contursi ; the village lies at some distance to the left. The train now 
follows for a short time the course of the Tanagro or Negro, the 
Tanager of the ancients. — 65 M. Sicignano. 

Fkom Sicignano to Lagonegbo, 50 M., railway in 31/2-4 hrs. (now being 
prolonged to Castrocucco, p. 166). — The line ascends the valley of the 
Tanagro towards the S.E. 5V2 M. Galdo;7i/ 2 M. Pelina. — lO'/zM. Auletta; 
on the hill to the left is the village of that name (3000 inhab.). Many 
traces still exist of the appalling earthquake of Dec. 17th, 1857, through 
the effects of which, direct and indirect (exposure, hunger, etc.), 40,000 
people perished in the district of Sala and the valley of Diano alone. — 
The line describes a wide bend to the right and crosses the ravine of 
the Lonlrano by a lofty viaduct, beyond which it again approaches the 
Tanagro. To the left lies the village of Pertosa, which was partly de- 
stroyed in 1857. Below the village is a large cavern, dedicated to St. 
Michael, whence, after a subterranean course of l'/2 M., the Tanagro pre- 
cipitates itself into a gorge. Beyond (17 M.) Polla, the ancient Forum 
Popilii, we enter the beautiful and fertile Valle di Diano. The valley, 15 M. 
in length, is traversed by the Tanagro, here named the Galore, and contains 
numerous villages. — 21 M. Atena, the ancient Atina in Lueania, with remains 
of an amphitheatre, walls, and towers. '25 1 /i M. Sala-Consilina, the seat of 
a sub-prefect, picturesquely situated on a height. — 28V2 M., Sassano-Teg- 
giano , the ancient Tegianum, whence the valley derives its name. The 
river is here crossed by the Ponte di Silla, an ancient Roman bridge. 

31'/2 M. Padula. Above the village is the Certosa di S. Lorenzo, a fine 
Renaissance edifice, recently restored and declared a national monument. 
Three well-preserved colonnaded courts, a large external staircase of some- 

208 Route IS. POTENZA. From Naples 

what later date, the refectory, and an adjoining room with a tasteful 
pavement of majolica slabs are interesting. — 35 M. Monlesano. 

[From Sala, Padula, andMontesano beautiful routes (formerly not un- 
attended with danger from brigands) lead to the E. to the picturesque 
Valley of Marsico, which is watered by the Agri. The chief place is Marsico 
Nuovo, a town with 12,000 inhab. in the upper part of the valley. After 
a ride of 4-5 hrs. the traveller reaches Saponara, situated on a steep hill, 
at the foot of which, in the Agri valley, once lay the ancient Grumentum. 
The ruins are insignificant, but a rich treasure of vases, inscriptions, and 
gems has been found among them.] 

41 M. Casalbuono. — 50 M. Lagonegro (Albergo Gaetano Lettieri, toler- 
able; one-horse carr. to Lauria, 5 fr.), a small town with 4000 inhab., in 
a wild situation, amidst lofty mountains, is at present the terminus of 
the line. The French gained a victory over the Neapolitans here in 1806, 
after which they committed the most savage excesses. 

Fkom Lagonegko to Spezzano (Metaponto, Cosenza), about 40 M., 
high-road, traversed by a 'Vettura Corriera'. The road winds through 
dark and profound ravines, passing to the left of the Lago di Serino, the 
ancient Lams Niger, in which the Sinno, the Siris of the ancients, takes 
its rise. The (6 M.) village of Lauria (Inn, on the road, dirty; a better 
one in the village; one-horse carr. to Castelluccio, 5 fr.) lies at the base 
of a lofty mountain, opposite the huge Monte Sirino, and is surrounded by 
vineyards. Then Castelluccio, on an eminence above a branch of the Lao, 
the ancient Laos. The road leads hence, via Mormanno and Moram, the 
Muranum of the ancients, on the W. slope of Monte Pollino (7325 ft.), to — 

30V2 M. Castrovillari {Leon o?Oro, E. dirty, cuisine good), a town 
of 10,000 inhab., situated on two brooks which unite a little lower down 
to form the Coscile. The older parts of the town, at the foot of the ancient 
Norman Castello, are largely deserted on account of the malaria. 

Beyond Castrovillari the high-road leads through the well -cultivated 
valley of the Coscile via. Carnmarata to (40 M.) Spezzano- Castrovillari, where 
we reach the railway from Sibari to Cosenza mentioned at p. 219. 

Beyond Sicignano the train reaches (70 M.) Buccino , a town 
■with 6500 inhab., situated on a hill to the left. Beyond (71 M.) 
Ponte S. Cono it enters the valley of the Platano, which receives 
several small affluents on the left. At (74^2 M.) Romagnano the 
country becomes bleak, and covered with broom. 79 M. Balvano. 
83 M. Bella-Muro, the station for the village of Bella and the town of 
Muro Lucano (8000 inhab.), both of which lie about 6 M. to the N. 
Near (91 M.) Baragiano the train crosses the Platano, which it then 
quits. — 92!/2 M. Picerno, with 6000 inhab., who make oil, wine, 
and silk. In the vicinity are some marble quarries. — 96 M. Tito, 
at the top of the pass, with an extensive view, stretching on the 
S. to Monte Pollino (see above), snow-covered even in June. The 
village (5000 iiihab.) lies to the right. 

103 M. Potenza. — Alb. & Bist. Lombaedo, A. defective, omnibus 
to the station I1/4 fr. ; Ceooe di Savoia, dirty. — "Cafe' Pergola, opposite 
the Alb. Lombardo; kail. Restaurant, with bedrooms, well spoken of. 

Potenza, with 20,300 inhab., is the capital of the province 
of the same name, which forms part of the old Basilicata, a district 
nearly corresponding with the ancient Lueania. The town, which 
was almost totally destroyed by the earthquake of 1857, lies on 
an eminence above the Basento , which rises on the mountain 
Ai-iona not far from this, and falls into the Gulf of Taranto near 
the ruins of Metapontum. Fine view from the piazza in front of 
the Cappella di S. Oerardo. — The ancient Potentia, destroyed by 

to Toronto. METAPONTO. 18. Route. 209 

Emp. Frederick II. and again by Charles of Anjou, lay lower down in 
the plain , at the spot now called La Murata, where coins and in- 
scriptions have frequently been found. Remains of various ancient 
towns have been discovered near Potenza. Sig. Lacava, director of 
the Banco di Napoli, is well acquainted with the environs, and 
exceedingly courteous in imparting his information. 

From Potenza to Acerenza, an interesting excursion : diligence to 
Pietragalla (in 4 hrs., fare 2 fr.), and a walk of 2-3 hrs. thence. Acerenza 
(Locanda in the old castle), the Acherontia of Horace (comp. p. 195), 
famed for its wine, occupies a lofty and beautiful situation. The crypt 
of the cathedral contains four ancient columns of coloured marble and 
pedestals with mediaeval reliefs. 

Fkosi Potenza to Melfi (p. 194; about 37 M. • hilly road) a diligence 
runs in 9-10 hrs. (fare 6 fr.), via Avigliano and Atella. Railway under con- 

The train now follows the picturesque valley of the Basento, 
passing through numerous tunnels. The stations are generally at a 
considerable distance from the towns and villages, with which there 
is often no regular communication. 107 M. Vaglio ; the village lies 
to the left of the railway. 11372 M. Brindisi-Montagna ; 117 M. Tri- 
vigno. 118 M. Albano ; the town of Albano di Lucania is situated 
on a hill to the N. The train now crosses the Camastra, the chief 
affluent of the Basento ; fine mountains to the right. 122 M. Cam- 
pomaggiore-Pietrapertosa ; to the left, romantic mountain scenery. 
129^2 M- Calciano, the station for Tricarico, a town to the N., the 
seat of a bishop, with 6000 inhabitants. 132 M. Grassano-Garaguso 
(small restaurant) ; 13772 M. Salandra-Grottole. Grassano and Grot- 
tole lie considerably to the N. , Garaguso and Salandra to the S. of the 
railway. Salandra, with its oastle, is situated on the Salandrella, an 
affluent of the Cavone, which flows into the Gulf of Taranto. — 
145^2 M. Ferrandina, 15372 M. Pisticci ; the two small towns are at 
some distance to the S. Farther on the train crosses the Basento, 
which descends in windings to the sea. 161 ^2 M- Bemalda, a town 
of 7000 inhab., with extensive fields of saffron and cotton. 

169 M. Metaponto (Rail. Restaurant, tolerable, also bedrooms), 
near the old castle of Torremare, is a solitary station the name of 
which recalls the celebrated ancient Greek city of Metapontum. 
Pythagoras died here,B. C. 497, in his 90th year, but his philosophy 
long survived him in the towns of Magna Gracia, especially at 
Metapontum itself, Tarentum , and Croton. When Alexander of 
Epirus came to Italy in B. C. 332, Metapontum allied itself with 
him, and in the Second Punic "War it took the part of Hannibal. 
Its enmity to Rome on the latter occasion, however, caused its down- 
fall, and at the time of Pausanias, in the 2nd cent, after Christ, it 
was a mere heap of ruin-. About 1 M. to the N.W. of the station 
lie the ruins of a Doric Temple, dedicated to Apollo Lyceus, and 
called by the peasants Chiesa di Sansone; the columns are encased 
in stucco. — About 3 M. to the N.E. (horse 2-272 ft-) is another 
ancient Greek*Temple in the Doric style, called Le TavolePaladine 
Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. 14 

210 Route 18. TARANTO. From Naples 

by the peasants, who believe each pillar to have been the seat of 
a Saracen chieftain. Fifteen columns of the peristyle (ten on the 
N., five on the S. side) ate still standing. The limestone of which 
they consist is now much disintegrated. — We may now return by the 
right bank of the Bradano. The neighbouring farm-houses (massarie), 
such as the Massaria Sansone, are built of massive blocks from the 
ancient walls of the town. On the coast are traces of a harbour now 
filled with sand. To the S.W. are rows of tombs which afford an idea 
of the great extent of the town. 

The proceeds of the latest excavations are temporarily exhibited in 
the red house behind the railway-station (adra. on previous application 
to the Guardia di Antichita at Bernalda, p. 209). They include a dedicatory 
inscription to Apollo Lyceus, which revealed the purpose of the temple; a 
fragment of a metope, some polychrome terracotta mouldings, and archi- 
tectural fragments from the same temple; a boar, in the archaic style, 
carved in sheet-bronze, etc. 

From Metaponto to Reggio, see R. 19. 

The railway from Metaponto to Taranto traverses a flat and 
monotonous district on the coast. The once fertile country is now 
very inefficiently cultivated (comp. p. 214). The train crosses several 
flumare (p. 214). — 1751/2 M. Ginosa; 186 M. Chiatona. 

196 M. TArantO. — Hotels. Albergo Europa, Borgo Nuovo, in » 
pretty situation on the Mave Piccolo commanding good views, R. 272-5, 
L. i/2> A. i/zfr., well spoken of; Ale. Garibaldi, at the gate, '/iK. from 
the station, with view towards the Mare Piccolo, R. from 1 fr. 20 c, dirty; 
Albekgo di Roma, not very good. 

Trattorie and Cafes. "Aquila <TOro, near the Alb. Europa, charmingly 
situated on the coast; Caffi DuiMo, Strada Maggiore; several Cafis in the 
Ringhiera, often crowded on Saturdays. 

Baths beside the Albergo Europa. 

Cab from the station to the town, 1/2 M., 60 c. — Two omnibus-lines 
ply in the town: 1st cl. 15, 2nd cl. 10 c. 

British Vice-Consul, Signor O. Alberti. 

Taranto, a town with about 40,000 inhab., is situated in the N. 
angle of the Gulf of Taranto , on a rock which divides the deep 
inlet here into the Mare Piccolo and Mare Grande and which is 
made an island by the canal at Porta di Lecce. The Mare Grande 
is bounded by the Capo S. Vito on the S.E. The ebb and flow of 
the tide is distinctly visible under the bridges which connect the 
island with the mainland, one of the few places on the Mediter- 
ranean where it is perceptible. The harbour is Tjrotected by two 
flat islands situated in front of it, the Choerades of antiquity, now 
<S. Paolo (the smaller), occupied by a fort, and <S. Pietro. The 
entrance to the harbour is between S. Vito and S. Paolo, on each 
of which a lighthouse is situated. Towards the N.W. the passage 
is navigable for small boats only. 

Tarentum, or Taras, as it was called in Greek, founded to the W. of 
the mouth of the Galaesus by Spartan Parthenians under the guidance of 
Phalanthus, B. C. 707, gradually extended its sway over the territory of 
the Iapygic, which was peculiarly suited for agriculture and sheep-farm- 
ing. (The sheep of this district wore coverings to protect their lleeces; 
comp. JJorace, Carm. II. 6, 'ovibus pellitis Galesi'.) Excellent purple- 
mussels were also found here, so that the twin industries of weaving 

Ccuitiere Qtteirolo 

T A 1A 1ST T ' 

toTaranto. TARANTO. IS. Route. 2\\ 

tt^^VS^^^^^^Vfo * h a . e fu , 
its extensive commerce and fisheries, its ao-rieultar?^ 1 ' 8 Stro , ng fleet > 
Tarentum became the most opulent and powerful citv n ?w ln t, cturii! ' 
The coins of the ancient Tarentum are remarkable fo tS tl^l*' 
In the 4th cent. B. C. the city attained the zenith of its pro*™?"* 7 " 
under the guidance of Archytas, the mathematician ; but at the s 
time its inhabitants had become notorious for their wantonness ""in 
the war against the Lucanians Tarentum summoned to its aid foreign 
princes from Sparta and Epirus, and in its struggle with Rome it was 
aided by Pyrrhus (281), whose general Milo, however, betrayed the city 
into the hands of the enemy. In the Second Punic War the town es- 
poused the cause of Hannibal, but was conquered in 209 by the Romans 
who plundered it, carried off its treasures of art, and sold 30,000 of the 
citizens as slaves. In the time of Augustus Tarentum, like Naples and 
Reggio, was still essentially a Greek town, and its trade and industry 
were still flourishing ('ille terrarum mihi praeter omnes angulus ridet', Hor. 
Carm. II. 6). Subsequently it became quite Romanized. After the reign 
of Justinian the town, with the rest of S. Italy, belonged to the Byzant- 
ine empire. In 927 it was entirely destroyed by the Saracens, but in 967 
it was rebuilt by Nicephorus Phocas, in consequence of which Greek once 
more became the common dialect. In 1063 Robert Ouiscard took the 
town and bestowed it on his son Boemund. At a later period Frederick 
II. of Hohenstaufen built the castle of Rocca Imperiale. Philip, son of 
Charles II. of Anjou, was made prince of Taranto in 1301. 

The modern town, occupying the site of the Acropolis of the 
ancient city, which extended far towards the S. E., is the seat of 
an archbishop , a sub-prefect , and other dignitaries , and carries 
on a considerable traffic in oil, oats, and wheat. 

The population is densely packed in confined houses and nar- 
row streets. The town is intersected lengthwise by three streets. 
The Mare Piccolo is skirted by the Strada Garibaldi, inhabited 
chiefly by fishermen, whose language is still strongly tinctured 
with Greek and is often unintelligible to the other Tarentines. 
This street is connected by a number of lanes with the narrow 
Strada Maggiore, or main street, the chief business thoroughfare, 
which intersects the town from N.W. to S.E. The Strada Yittorio 
Emanuele, skirting the coast, affords a view of the bay and the 
mountains of Calabria, and forms a pleasant evening promenade. 

The now entirely modernised Cathedral of S. Cataldo was 
founded in the 11th century. It contains a few Byzantine capitals. 
The chapel of the saint (an Irishman), adjoining the choir on the 
right, is sumptuously decorated. The crypt is closed. The tower 
commands a fine view (best in the evening). — The Castle, at the 
S. end of the town, and the other fortifications date from the time 
of Ferdinand of Aragon and Philip II. of Spain. 

The relics of the ancient city are scanty. The most important 
is a Doric Temple, discovered by Prof. Viola, of which two in- 
complete columns may be seen in the court of the Gongregadella 
Pieta (Strada Maggiore), and some fragments of the stylobate m the 
cellar^ To judge from he heavy proportions of the columns and the 
narrow intercolumniation, this is one of the oldest extant examples 
of the Doric style. - Over the bridge connecting the town with the 


212 Route 18. TARANTO. 

mainland to the N. of the Porta di Napoli runs a Roman aqueduct, 
9^2 M. long, known as II Triglio. 

The S.E. gate of the town is named the Porta di Lecce. The 
canal which here unites the Mare Piccolo with the Gulf of Taranto 
is 295 ft. wide, and admits war-ships of the largest size. It is 
crossed by an iron swing-bridge. 

On the mainland towards the S.E., where the Tarentum of an- 
tiquity was situated , a new quarter , the Borgo Nuovo , is now 
springing up. A Museum (Director, Prof. Luigi Viola) has recently 
been fitted up in the former convent of S. Pasquale, in the market- 
place, in which are collected the antiquities unearthed in the course 
of building operations and excavations in the neighbourhood. 

Among the contents is pottery, some of rude workmanship and some 
ornamented with geometric designs, dating from the pre-Grecian inhabi- 
tants. The Corinthian vases and their imitations date from the Doric 
colonists. — The development of the Hellenistic plastic art from the 
severe style of the 6th cent. B.C. to the more florid taste of the 3rd cent. 
B.C. is illustrated in numerous votive-statues and reliefs. — Among the 
more noteworthy objects are a few jewels, glass and ivory articles, two 
fine marble *Heads: Persephone 'or Aphrodite, from the end of the 5th 
cent., and Hercules, from the 3rd cent. B.C.; and Reliefs of marine and 
land fights between Greeks and barbarians, from the Alexandrian period. 

Near the hospital are the remains of the Amphitheatre, with 
cellars. Beside the road to 8. Lucia, near the sea, are large heaps 
of the purple-yielding mussel shells, dating from antiquity. In 
this neighbourhood is the Villa Beaumont-Bonelli (gardener Y2 fr.), 
with a good view, and farther on, 3/ 4 M. from Taranto, stands the 
Villa Pepe, once the property of the celebrated Archbishop Capece- 
latro (d. 1816), who placed on it the inscription — 'Si rursus heio 
peccasset Adam, forsitan Deus ignosceret', and afterwards that of 
General Pepe. Although in a dilapidated condition, it still merits 
a visit, and is thus described by an old writer: — 

'This is one of the most charming spots in the neighbourhood. The 
Mare Piccolo looks like a broad lake. Gentle slopes, covered with olive- 
groves, rise in every direction. A fine view of Taranto and its towers, 
perched on a rock, is enjoyed hence, and still higher rise two magnificent 
palm-trees, the finest of which stands in the courtyard of the archiepiscopal 
residence. Gardens with oranges, lemons, figs, almonds, and pomegranates 
slope down from the town to the water's edge, filling the air with their 
delicious fragrance'. 

From this point we obtain a survey of the extensive naval 
buildings, including the Arsenal, with docks 218 yds. long and 
40 yds. broad, and the Mare Piccolo. The last is divided into two 
halves by the promontory II Pizzone, and the Punta della Penna. 
Excellent fish abound in this bay. They enter with the tide under 
the S. bridge, and are netted at night in great numbers. There 
are no fewer than 93 different species, and they are largely ex- 
ported in every direction. Shell -fish are also bred here in vast 
numbers (oysters and others called cozze , the best being the coc- 
cioli). The situation of the beds is indicated by stakes protrud- 
ing from the water. The traveller may visit them by boat (1 V2 **• 

POLICORO. 19. Route. 213 

per hr.), and enjoy his oysters fresh from trie sea (about 50 o. per 
doz. is sufficient recompense ; bread should be brought). 

The climate of Taranto is somewhat cold in winter, and not 
unbearably hot in summer. The honey and fruit of the neigh- 
bourhood are in high repute, as they were in ancient times. The 
date-palm also bears fruit here, but it seldom ripens thoroughly. 

In the district between Taranto, Brindisi, and Otranto the venomous 
tarantola, op tarantella-spider occurs. Its bite is said by the natives to 
cause convulsions and even madness, for which evils music and dancing 
are supposed to be effectual remedies. The latter belief gave rise to the 
curious tarantella-dancing mania, which was epidemic in S. Italy in the 
15-17th centuries. 

From Taranto to Bari, see p. 199. 

The railway describes a curve round the Mare Piccolo, and then 
turns to the E. — 2041/2 M. Monteiasi-Montemesola ; 208 M. Orot- 
taglio; 217 M. Francavilla-Fontana. — 221M. Oria, the ancient Uria, 
from which the Dona family is said to derive its origin, a beautifully 
situated place with numerous palaces and a small museum (in the. 
Biblioteca Municipale). 226^2 M. Latiano; 231 M. Mesagne. 

240 M. Brindisi, see p. 200. 

19. From (Naples) Metaponto to Reggio. 

267 M. Railway in 10i/4-17'/s hrs. (fares 48 fr. 60, 34 fr. 5, 21 fr. 90 c). 
— Fkom Naples to Reggio, 436 M., railway in 21-27 hrs. (fares 79 fr. 45, 
55 fr. 6"), 35 fr. 75 c). — Through-tickets to Messina, Catania, and other 
places in Sicily include transport from the railway-station to the quay at 
Reggio and the steamer-fare to Messina. — The traveller should supply 
himself with refreshments for this journey, as the railway-restaurants are 
poor and few in number. 

Metaponto, see p. 209. — The railway crosses the Basento and 
skirts the Gulf of Tarentum. The soil is very fertile, but miserably 
cultivated. Although quite capable of yielding two crops annually 
with proper management, it is allowed, in accordance with the old- 
fashioned system prevalent here , to lie fallow for two years after 
each crop. In the marshy districts near Metaponto and at other parts 
of the line the railway company has surrounded the stations and 
many of the pointsmen's and signalmen's huts with plantations of 
the Eucalyptus Globulus , which have already proved extremely 
beneficial in counteracting the malarious influences of the district. 
The train crosses several fiumare (p. 228), which were confined 
within embankments on the construction of the railway. The nu- 
merous watch-towers are a memento of the unsafe condition of the 
coast during the middle ages, which is also the reason of the distance 
of the settlements from the sea. 

5 M. (from Metaponto ) 8. Basilio Pisticci , beyond which the 
train crosses the Cavone. 10 M. Scanzano Montalbano. We next 
cross the Agri, the ancient Aciris. 13'/ 2 M. Policoro, near which lay 
the Greek town of Heraclea (founded by the Tarentines in 432), 
where Pyrrhus with the aid of his elephants gained his first victory 

214 Route 19. SIBARI. From Metaponto 

over the Romans, B.C. 280. At Luce, in the vicinity, the celebrated 
bronze Tabula Heracleensis (Lex Julia Municipalis) , now in the 
Museum at Naples (p. 60), was discovered in 1753. 

The train traverses a wood (Panlano di Policoro), full of the 
most luxuriant vegetation (myrtles , oleanders , etc.) , and near 
(20 M.) Nova Siri crosses the river Sinno, the ancient Siris. The 
line now approaches the sea. 

22Y 2 M. Eocca Imperiale. The country becomes hilly. 26 M. 
Monte Giordano; 31 M. Eoseto. To the left, on the coast, is a 
curious ruin. — The finest part of the line is between Roseto and 
Rossano. It commands a beautiful view of the precipitous Monte 
Pollino (7850 ft.) never free from snow except in summer, and of 
tbe broad valley of the Crati, at the head of which rise the pine- 
clad Sila mountains (p. 220). — 34 M. Amendolara; 40 1 /. 2 M. Tre- 
bisacce (a good echo at the station); 47 M. Torre Cerchiara. 

50 M. Sibari {Rail. Restaurant, tolerable), formerly Buffaloria, 
whence the line mentioned at p. 218 diverges to Cosenza, derives 
its name from tbe ancient Sybaris (see below). Malarious district. 

The train now crosses the Crati, on which the wealthy and lux- 
urious Sybaris, founded B.C. 720 by Achaeans and Trcezenians, and 
destroyed in 510 by the Crotonians , is said to have been situated. 
Excavations were begun in 1888. 

About 6 M. from this point, near Terranova, are the scanty ruins of 
Thurii, which was founded by the Sybarites after the destruction of their 
city. In 443 the Athenians sent a colony thither, and with it the historian 
Herodotus. Owing to the wise legislation of Charondas , Thurii soon at- 
tained to great prosperity. It formed a league with the Romans in 2S2, 
and was defended by C. Fabricius against the attacks of the Lucanians, 
but it was afterwards plundered by Hannibal. In 193 it received a Roman 
colony, and the new name of Copiae, but it rapidly declined, and was at 
length entirely deserted. 

58 M. Corigliano Calabro. The town, with 11,000 inhab., lies 
on a height, 4 M. from the station. 

651/2 M. Rossano. The town (Albergo & Trattoria Milanese, 
tolerable, R. from l l /.> fr.), with 18,000 inhab., situated on 
a hill, and possessing quarries of marble and alabaster, is 5 M. dis- 
tant. This was the birthplace of St. Nilus. The archiepiscopal library 
contains a valuable 6th cent. MS. of the Gospels, engrossed on purple 
vellum and copiously illustrated. 

The train runs close to the sea through a mountainous district, 
and crosses the Trionto. Stations Mirto Crosia, S. Giacomo, Pietra- 
paola, Campana. 72^2 M. Cariati (Albergo di Sibari, miserable). 
Farther on, the train traverses pleasant plantations of olives, vines, 
and rigs. Stat. Crucoli, Cirb, Torre Melissa, and Strongoli. This 
last, a squalid village with 3000 inhab., situated on a bold emin- 
ence 4 At. from the station, and reached by a bad road, was the 
ancient Poetelia, founded according to tradition by Philoctetes, and 
besieged by Hannibal after the battle of Cannse. 

toBeggio. COTRONE. 19. Route. 215 

119 M. Cotrone [Albergo della Concordia, Alb. Valente, both at 
the entrance to the town, with tolerable trattorie; carriage from the 
station ifofr.), a thriving little seaport with 'J7U0 inhab., situated on 
a promontory, was in ancient times the famous Achaean colony of 
Croton, founded B.C. 710, which is said to have been once so 
populous and powerful as to be able in 510 to send an army of 
100,000 men into the field against Sybaris. After its great victory 
on that occasion, however, Croton declined ; not Ion? afterwards 
the citizens were defeated by the Locrians on the river Sagras, and 
in 299 the town fell into the hands of Agathocles of .Syracuse. 
During the height of the prosperity of the city, Pythagoras, who 
had been banished from Samos by the tyrant Polycrates, and was 
then in his 40th year, established himself at Croton. lie attracted 
a band of disciples and founded his brotherhood here, B.C. 4">0 
but was at length banished in consequence of the jealousy of the 
citizens (comp. p. 203). On the way to the station are large store 
houses for the fruit which is exported hence in considerable quan- 
tities. A visit should be paid to the old Castle, dating from the reisn 
of Charles V., the highest tower of which commands a line \ie\v 
(admission by applying to an officer or sergeantj. — A pleasant walk 
may be taken through the Strada Margherita to the harbour. 

Oranges and olives thrive admirably in the environs, and are 
largely exported. Liquorice is also a staple product. An intro- 
duction to a member of the Baracco family, which is all-powerful 
in this neighbourhood, will be found of great service (sometimes 
obtainable through the consuls at Naples). 

About 7 31. to the S.E. is the Capo delle Colonne, or Capo Xao, alow 
promontory, much exposed to the wind. (Route to it by land 2'/2 hrs., 
very rough ; boat 6-10 fr.) As the steamer rounds this cape , the eye is 
arrested by a solitary column, rising conspicuously on massive substruc- 
tures above the few modern buildings of the place. This is now the sole 
relic of the Temple of Hera of the Lacinian Promontory , once the most 
revered divinity on the Gulf of Tarentum. The worship of Hera has been 
replaced by that of the Madonna del Capo, to whose church, close to the tem- 
ple, a number of young girls from Cotrone ('le verginelle") go every Satur- 
day in procession, with bare feet. To the S.W. of this promontory are 
three others, the Capo delle Cimiti, the Capo Rizzulo, and the Capo Castella. 

Beyond Cotrone the train quits the coast, and traverses a hilly 
district. 12372 M. Pudano. — Near (1291/2 M.) Cutro it passes 
through a long tunnel (5 min.). Stations Jsola- Capo- Rizzuto, Roc- 
cabernarda, Botricello, Cropani, Sellia, Simmeri. 

156 M. Catanzaro - Marina ; about l / 2 M. from the station is 
La Rocceletta, the ruins of the mediaeval abbey of Roccella. — 
From the Marina a branch-line (b l /- 2 M. in 25 min.) runs via S. 
Maria to Sala, the station for the loftily situated town of Catanzaro. 

Catanzaro. — Hotels. Alb. di Lionetti, Centeale , both tolerable- 
Alb. Sekkavalle. — Trattoria Cenlrale, in the Piazza. Farther along the 
Cors'o Cafi del Oenio. 

Diligence at 6 p.m. to Tiriolo (p. 220) in connection with the dilieenp P0 
to Cosenza and Eeggio. — Mule 3-5 fr. a day. 6entes 

British Vice-Consul, Signor Alphonso Cricelli. 

216 Route 19. CATANZARO. From Metap onto 

Catanzaro, with 28,600 inhab. (including the suburbs), the 
capital of the province of the same name, prettily situated 8 M. 
from the sea, possesses numerous velvet and silk manufactories, and 
luxuriant olive-groves. The Cathedral contains a Madonna with S. 
Domenico, a good Venetian picture of the 16th century. Fine views 
are obtained from the campanile and from the ViaBeUavista (N. side 
of the town). Near the castle is a small Provincial Museum (key at 
the prefecture, not always obtainable), containing coins, vases, 
and other antiquities from the Greek settlements of the district 
(tine *Helmet from Tiriolo ; statuette of yEsculapius ; among the 
pictures, a Lucretia by a Venetian master, and a Madonna by An- 
tonello Saliba, 1508). The Castle was built by Robert Guiscard. 
The climate is cool in summer, and snow often lies in winter. Many 
wealthy families reside here. The handsome Calabrian costume is 
still frequently seen here, particularly on Sundays. Numerous 
pleasant excursions may be made hence. 

Beyond Catanzaro the line skirts the coast and passes through 
several promontories by means of tunnels. 

160 M. Squillace, the ancient Scylaceum, is perched on an al- 
most inaccessible rock, 4*/2 M. from the station and nearly opposite 
the lofty Monte Moscia, which here projects into the sea; it is not 
visible from the railway. 

Cassiodovius, the private secretary of Theodoric the Great , was horn 
at Scylaceum , and after the death of his master retired to his native 
place, where he founded a monastery , wrote a number of learned works, 
and died in 575, upwards of 90 years old. — To the N. of Squillace the 
Emp. Ot/w II. was defeated in July, 982, by the Arabs, who had crossed 
over from Sicily. He himself escaped almost by a miracle, and succeeded 
in reaching Eossano, where he met his consort Theophano. Otho did not 
long survive this reverse; he died at Rome in December, 983, and was 
interred in the old church of St. Peter. 

The train passes through the promontory by means of two tunnels. 
Stations Montauro, Soverato, Sun Sostene, Sanf Andrea, Badolato, 
Santa Caterina , Monasterace- Stilo (near which are iron-works), 
Iiiace. lWd i /. 2 M. Caulonia. The river Alaro is supposed to be the 
Sagras of antiquity, where an army of 130,000 Crotonians is said to 
have been utterly routed by 10,000 Locrians. On this river lies 
Castelvetere, on the site of the ancient Achfean Caulonia, where 
Pythagoras sought refuge after his expulsion from Croton. 

197 M. Roccella Ionica, with 6500 inhab. ; the old town, with 
its ruined castle , is picturesquely situated on a rock overhanging 
the sea. — Near the station of (201l/ 2 M.) Gioiosa Ionica is a small 
ancient amphitheatre. From this point the magnificent scenery 
resembles that of Greece. 204 M. Siderno Marina. 

2071/2 M. Gerace (Alb. Locri, Via Garibaldi, R. H/ 2 ft., clean). 
The town, with 9600 inhab., and a cathedral, originally Romanesque, 
in which the antique columns are still extant, lies on the slope of 
a lofty spur of the Apennines, having risen from the ruins of Locroi 

toReggio. REGGIO. 19. Route. 217 

Epizephyrioi, the once celebrated colony of the Loerians, founded B.C. 
683, provided with a salutary code of laws by Zaleucus (664), and 
extolled by Pindar and Demosthenes for its wealth and love of art. 
The ruins of the ancient city near Torre di Oerace are now oon- 
cealed by an orange-garden. 

The Passo del Mercante, a mountain path, leads from Gerace through 
beautiful woods, and over the lofty Aspromonie , to Cittanova. The top 
of the pass commands a delightful view of the sea in both directions. 
Thence via Radicena to Gioia Tauro (p. 221) or to Seminara, 2'/2 31. to the 
S.E. of Palmi (p. 222), about 37 M. in all. 

Stations: Ardore, Bovalino, Bianconuovo. Two tunnels. 228 M. 
Brancaleone. The line now skirts the Capo Spartivento, the Pro- 
montorium Herculis of antiquity, the S.E. extremity of Calabria 
(station, 232 M.). Tunnel. 236 M. Palizzi. The train turns towards 
the W. and then nearly to the N. From this point to Pellaro the 
railway is bounded on the right by barren rocks and sand-hills, 
intersected now and again by the stony beds of the mountain tor- 
rents, dry in summer and often overgrown with oleanders. Tunnel. 
Then : 239'/ 2 M. Bova; 242 M. Amendolea; 247 M. Melito. 

253 M. Saline di Reggio. The train affords a view of the coast 
and mountains of Sicily, and rounds the Capo dell' Armi, the Pro- 
montorium Leucopetrae, which was in ancient times regarded as the 
termination of the Apennines. Cicero landed here in B.C. 44, 
after the murder of Caesar, having been compelled by adverse winds 
to turn back from his voyage to Greece, and he was then per- 
suaded by citizens of Rhegium to go to Velia, where he met Brutus. 

256 M. Lazzaro; 260 M. Pellaro; 263l/ 2 M. S. Gregorio. 

267 M. Reggio. — There are three Railway Stations here: Reggio 
Centrale, Reggio Succursale, and Reggio Porto, the last for through-passengers 
to or from Messina. 

Hotels. -AlbeegoVittoeia, R., L., & A. 31/2, B. 3 / 4 , lunch 2'/2, D. 4fr. ; 
Alb. Centeale, Capeera, well spoken of, and several more in the Corso 
Garibaldi. Novaka, in the Strada Plebiscito; Teinaceia, on the Marina. 
— The larger hotels have also good trattorie. — Cafes : SpinelU, in the 
Piazza Vittorio Emanuele ; Giordano, Corso Garibaldi. 

Carriages (stand in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele), per drive 80 c, at 
night 1 fr. 20 c. ; per hr. l'/ 2 fr., at night 2 fr. 20 c. 

Steamer to Messina every morning and evening, in about 1 hr. , fares 
4 or 3 fr. (pp. 213, 322) ; embarcation and landing 25 c. (bargaining neces- 
sary); the passage may also be made in one of the Naples mail-steamers, 
which cross several times weekly (landing or embarcation 50 c). 

Reggio, called Reggio di Calabria to distinguish it from Reggio 
nell' Emilia, is the capital of the province of the same name, and 
an archiepiscopal residence, with 16,000 inhabitants. Known in 
antiquity as Rhegium, it was originally a Eubcean colony, and was 
peopled in B.C. 723 by fugitive Messenians. Rhegium soon rose to 
prosperity, but it also early suffered the hardships of war. In 387 
B. C. the town was captured and destroyed by Dionysius I. of Syra- 
cuse, and in 270 B. C. by the Romans. In the middle ages it 
suffered the same fate, successively at the hands of Totila the Goth 
in 549, the Saracens in 918, the Pisans in 1005, Robert Guiscard 

218 Route 19. REGGIO. 

in 1060, and the Turks in 1552 and 1597. The town was almost 
entirely destroyed by the great earthquake of 1783, and it therefore 
now presents a modern appearance, with its broad and handsome 
streets extending from the sea to the beautiful hills in the rear, 
which are studded with numerous and handsome villas. 

The Cathedral, a spacious basilica with pillars, dates from the 
17th cent. ; the Cappella del Sacramento, to the left of the high- 
altar, is richly adorned with coloured marble. On the facade is a 
quotation from the Acts of the Apostles. — In the small piazza to 
the right, at the back of the cathedral, is the Museo Comunale, 
containing fine terracottas, lamps, statuettes, and vases (including a 
few very antique specimens and native examples with curious or- 
namentation) ; a relief of a woman dancing, of the 6th cent. B.C., 
with its architectural framework painted black, red, and yellow; 
similar fragments of a later date, with elegant ornamentation on a 
bright red ground; mosaics, small bronzes, coins, inscriptions, etc. — 
Above the cathedral rises the Castello. 

In the piazza adjoining the railway-station is a statue of Gari- 
baldi. — A military band often plays in the Piazza "Vittorio 
Emanuele, which is embellished with a statue of Italia. — The 
Strada Reggio Campi, which runs along the heights behind the 
town, forms a charming promenade with varying views (especially 
fine by evening -light) of the environs and the Sicilian coast. The 
distance from Reggio to Messina is about 6 3 / 4 M. 

Excursions. At the back of Reggio rises the imposing, forest-clad As- 
promonte, the W. extremity of the range which in ancient times bore the 
name of Sila; the highest point is the Montalto (6420 ft.). The summit is 
overgrown with beech-trees, the slopes partly with pines. Here, in the vici- 
nity of Reggie, Garibaldi was wounded and taken prisoner by the Italian 
troops under Pallavicini , 29th Aug., 1862. The ascent, which is very 
laborious, is best undertaken from Villa S. Giovanni (p. 222) or from Scilla 
(p. 222; two mules and one guide for a day and a half 14 fr.). If possible 
the start should be made early on a moonlight night. The summit, which 
is reached in 9 hrs., commands an imposing view of the sea, the islands, 
and Sicily. 

To Scilla , see p. 222. — Ascent of the Mte. Elia , see p. 222. This 
excursion is best made by taking the train to Palmi, ascending the hill 
on foot in 1 hr., and descending through beautiful chestnut wood to Bag- 
nara in 3 hrs. Travelling in the province of Reggio has always been 
considered free from hazard. 

20. From Sibari to Reggio via Cosenza. 

From Sibari to Cosenza, 43 M., railway in about 3 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 80, 
5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 55 c). — From Cosenza to Rosarno, about 87 M., high- 
road traversed by Vetture Gorriere and diligences (Giornaliera), in about 
25 hrs. — From Rosarno to Reggio, 38 M., railway in about 3 hrs. — 
Those who have time should go by carriage from Palmi to Reggio. 

Sibari, a station on the Naples and Reggio railway, see p. 214. 
— 6 M. Cassano al Ionio, the station for Cassano (9000 inhab.), a 
beautifully situated town 5 M. to the N., with warm baths, and an 

COSENZA. 30. Route. 219 

ancient castle on a lofty rock. The castle affords a magnificent 
survey of the valleys of the Coscile and the Crati , the Sybaris and 
the Crathis of antiquity. The wild, barren limestone mountains 
rise here almost immediately from the plain , culminating in the 
Monte Pollino. The Torre di Milo is pointed out here as the tower 
whence the stone was thrown that caused the death of T. Annius 
Milo, when he was besieging Cosa on behalf of Pompey. 

10 M. Spezzano - Castrovillari ; Spezzano is 5 M. and Castro- 
villari 91/2 M. to the S. of the station (p. 208). Beyond (15 M.J 
Tarsia the train reaches the valley of the Crati , which it ascends, 
crossing several affluents of that river. Stations : 8. Marco-Rog- 
giano, Mongrassano - Cervico, Torano - Lattarico, Acri- Bisignano, 
Montalto-Rose, and Rende-San-Fili. To the W. are the Calabrian 
spurs of the Apennines. 

43 M. Cosenza [Albergo Vetere, on the promenade, good cuisine, 
E. not scrupulously clean; Due Lionetti , with the good Trat- 
toria Centrale), the ancient Consentia, once the principal city of 
the Bruttii, is now the capital of the province of Cosenza, 
with 16,700 inhab., and an archiepiscopal residence, containing 
well-built houses and palaces of wealthy landed -proprietors and 
manufacturers. It lies on the N. slope of a hill which separates 
the Crati from the Busento above the confluence of these streams. 
The town is commanded by a castle (fine view), the walls of which, 
though 9 ft. in thickness, have been unable to resist the shocks of 
earthquakes. In 1181 the town was destroyed by an earthquake, 
and again on 4th Feb., 1783, when upwards of 30,000 persons 
perished in this district. Serious damage was also sustained from 
the earthquakes of 1854 and 1870. 

Alaric, King of the West Goths, died at Cosenza in 410, after 
he had plundered Rome and made an attempt to pass over into 
Sicily. His coffin and his treasures are said to have been buried 
in the bed of the river Buxentius (Busento). The site is unknown, 
but a tradition of Cosenza places it at the union of the Busento 
and the Crati, near the station. 

The Gothic Cathedral contains the tomb of Louis III. of Anjou, 
who died here in 1435, eighteen months after his marriage with 
Margaret of Savoy. The church is now being restored according to 
the ancient plans which have been rediscovered. — Near the Pre- 
fettura and the new Theatre are tasteful gardens. Here a monu- 
ment, with an allegorical figure of Liberty by Gius. Pacchioni of 
Bologna, was erected in 1879 to the Brothers Bandiera and other 
participators in the Calabrian rising of 1844. Farther on are several 
busts: to the right, Bernardino Telesio, the philosopher (d. 1588), 
to the left, Garibaldi, Cavour, Mazzini. — A picturesque footpath 
leads from the promenade up the valley of the Crati to the Castello 
(p. 219), which commands a fine view. The return may be made 
through the valley of the Busento, the entire walk taking about 1 hr. 

220 Route 20. ROGLIANO. From Sibari 

From Cosenza to Paola (p. 223), where the steamers touch three times 
weekly, a drive of 31/2 hrs. (seat in a diligence on these days 5 fr. ; in 
summer at night only). 

Another road leads to the E. from Cosenza to S. Giovanni in Fiori 
(diligence daily in 12 hrs. , starting on the other side of the Crati ; in 
winter and spring going only as far as Spezzano Grande). Thence we may 
proceed by bridle-paths to Cotrone (p. 215). S. Giovanni is the principal 
place in the Sila (locally known as 'Monte Nero'') , a lofty and wooded 
range of mountains, extending about 37 M. from N. to S., 25 M. from E. to 
W., attaining a height of 6325 ft., and embracing an extensive network of val- 
leys. These mountains, which consist of granite and gneiss, are remarkable 
for their beauty and fertility; their slopes are studded with numerous villages 
(picturesque costumes), while higher up they are clothed with chestnuts, oaks, 
beeches, and pines. The E. and S. slopes descend to the Gulf of Taranto. 
In ancient times these mountains supplied the Athenians and Sicilians 
with wood for ship-building, and they were famed for their cattle. The 
snow does not disappear from the higher regions until the latter end 
of May, or June, after which they afford a delightful summer abode to 
the natives with their flocks. This beautiful district, which has very 
rarely been explored by travellers , is still in a very primitive condition. 
Letters of introduction to influential inhabitants should be procured at 
Naples or Messina by intending explorers. The best months for the 
tour are July, August, and September. 

The Road to Rosasno ascends gradually through a well-cul- 
tivated district. The heights are clothed with oaks and chestnuts. 

9^2 M. Rogliano, a town of 5500 inhah. on a hill to the 
left, commands a charming view of the fertile country and the 
surrounding mountains, above which on the right rises the M. Co- 
cuzzo (5050 ft.). The road descends into the ravine of the Sa- 
vuto, the ancient Sabatus, ascends Le Crocelle di Agri folio, an 
abrupt ridge of the Apennines, and leads by Carpanzano, Coraci, 
Arena Bianca, and through ravines and forest, to — 

34 M. Tiriolo, a town with 4000 inhab., loftily situated on 
the watershed between the Corace , which falls into the bay of 
fSquillace, and the Lamato, which descends to the bay of S. Eufe- 
mia, the ancient Sinus Terinaeus. Near Tiriolo, a name perhaps 
derived from the Ager Taurianus, numerous coins and other anti- 
quities have been found. In 1640 a bronze tablet (now at Vienna) 
was discovered here, bearing the Senatusconsultum against the 
Bacchanalia, of B. C. 186, mentioned by Livy (xxxix. 18). 

Before Tiriolo is reached, a road to the left crosses the river Corace and 
leads to (9>/2 M.) Catanzaro (diligence, see p. 215). 

To the right a road leads to (11 M.) Nicastro, an episcopal town on 
the hillside, in the now ruined castle of which Frederick II. once 
for several years confined his son, the German king Henry VII., who had 
rebelled against him in 1235. The latter died at Martorano in 1242, and 
was buried at Cosenza. Towards the sea, 3 M. from Nicastro, lies S. 
Eufemia , with a celebrated Benedictine monastery founded by Robert 
Guiscard, but destroyed by the earthquake of 1638. 

The road to Reggio traverses a chain of hills, and then crosses 
the Lamato, the right bank of which it skirts for some distance, 
commanding almost uninterrupted views of the bays of Squillace 
and S. Eufemia, which are here barely 19 M. apart. 

to Reggio. MILETO. SO. Route. 221 

We next pass Casino Chiriaco and cross the plain of Maida, 
where in 1806 the English auxiliaries of the Bourbons under 
Sir John Stuart defeated the French under Regnier and drove 
them out of Calabria. The road crosses the fertile , but un- 
healthy plain via, Francavilla to Torre Masdea. 

56 M. Fizzo, a small town with 8500 inhab., situated on a sand- 
stone rock on the coast. Below it are the ruins of the old castle 
where Joachim Murat, king of Naples, who had landed here the day 
before, was shot on 13th Oct. 1815. Outside the town is a Monu- 
ment to those who perished in the revolt of the brothers Bandiera 
(p. 219). — '■ The Naples and Messina steamers touch here(p. 223). 

The road, running near the coast, next leads to — 

65 M. Monteleone (Albergo d'ltalia, tolerable ; one-horse carr. 
to Gioia, in 51/2 hrs., 10 fr.), on the site of the ancient Hipponion, 
the Vibo Valentia of the Romans, a loftily situated town with 12,000 
inhab., which was much damaged by the earthquake of 1783. The 
old castle was erected by Frederick II. Pleasant promenade com- 
manding a charming view of the sea, Sicily, and the Lipari Islands. 

A road leading N. to the coast (3 M.) passes through the village of 
Bivona, on the site of the ancient port of Vibo, destroyed by the Saracens 
in 983. 

Beyond Monteleone a road diverges to the right to Tropea (p. 224), 
where the steamers from Naples to Messina touch twice a week , and 
whence the Lipari Islands (E. 33) may he visited. Tropea will be a station 
on the new railway from Nicotera (see below) to Pizzo. 

The road now traverses a hilly district to — 

74^/2 M. Mileto, once the favourite residence of Count Roger of 
Sicily, whose son, King Roger, was born here. Pop. 5000. It con- 
tains the ruins of the abbey of S. Trinita founded by him, where 
his remains and those of his first wife Eremberga formerly reposed in 
two ancient sarcophagi which are now in the museum at Naples. — 
The mountains of Sicily, and particularly the summit of JEtna, 
now become conspicuous in the horizon. 

From Mileto a mountain-path leads E. to the (5 M.) grand ruins of 
the once celebrated monastery of Santo Stefano del Bosco, situated in a 
lonely valley at the foot of the Apennines. Near the neighbouring village 
of Soriano are the extensive ruins of the Dominican monastery of S. Do- 
menieo Soriano, also destroyed by the earthquake of 1783; and, on the 
farther side of the low ridge of Monte Astore, the remains of the Certosa, 
in which St. Bruno established his austere order of Carthusians in 1094, 
and where he died and was interred in 1101. 

From Mileto the road gradually descends from the heights 
bounding the bay of Gioia on theN., and reaches ^^MORosarno, 
a station on the railway between Nicotera and Reggio (see below). 
The picturesquely situated town (4000 inhab.) was destroyed by the 
earthquake of 1783. 

The Railway from Nicotera to Reggio (4372 M. , in about 

3'/2 hrs.) skirts the coast. — Nicotera, see p. 224. b 1 /^ M. Rosarno. 

12 M. Gioia Tauro, on the site of the ancient Metaurum, a 

222 Route 20. PALMI. 

desolate-looking place, situated on tlie coast to the right, and an 
extensive depot of oil. 

The line crosses the Marro, the ancient Metaurus, a river famed 
for its fish. The earthquake of 1783 was particularly destructive 
in this neighbourhood. The earth opened in many places , swallow- 
ing up houses entire, and filling up several valleys. 

1772 M. Palmi (Vittoria, pens. 5 fr., clean; Roma, R. only. — 
Trattoria Louvre, in the main street, fair. — Cab to the town 1 fr.), 
with 15,500 inhab. , surrounded by orange and olive plantations, 
and affording beautiful views of the coast and the island of Sicily, 
particularly from the Oiardino puhblico. 

The town (450 ft.) is situated about halfway up the "Monte Elia, 
which is easily ascended in 1 hr. by a good path through olive-woods. The 
top commands a superb view of the Faro, the castle of Scilla, the town and 
harbour of Messina, and the majestic iEtna in the background. The N. 
coast of Sicily is visible as far as Milazzo ; out at sea are Stromboli and 
the Lipari Islands ; to the N. the bay of Gioia as far as Capo Vaticano. 
We may descend in 20 min. to the road leading from Palmi to Bagnara, 
at a point about 8 M. from the station of Bagnara (short-cuts for walkers). 

The line from Palmi to Reggio, traversing chestnut and olive 
plantations, skirts the E. side of the Mte. Elia (see above), on the S. 
slope of which is situated — 

23 ( /2 M. Bagnara. Farther on the line skirts the sea, affording 
a succession of fine views. 

Walkers from Palmi or Monte Elia (see above) need not descend to 
the town , but follow the road above , which does not reach the coast 
until beyond Bagnara. 

26 M. Favazzina. 

29 M. Scilla (Locanda di Baviera, on the Marina, unpretend- 
ing and moderate ; a relative of the landlord is recommended as 
a guide to Aspromonte), the ancient Scylla, with 8000 inhab., re- 
built since the terrible earthquake of 1783. The castle, situated 
on a promontory commanding the town, once the seat of the prin- 
ces of Scilla, was occupied by the English after the battle of Maida 
(p. 221), and defended for 18 months (until 1808) against the 
French. Fine view of Sicily, across the Straits of Messina, here 
3 M. broad. The silk and wine produced here enjoy a high repu- 
tation. Numerous swordflsh (pesce spada) are caught here in July. 
Ascent of the Aspromonte, see p. 218. 

The rock of Scylla , represented in Homer's Odyssey as a roaring 
and voracious sea-monster — a beautiful virgin above, and a monster 
with a wolfs body and dolphin's tail below — is depicted by the poets 
in conjunction with the opposite Charybdis as fraught with imminent 
danger to all passing mariners. The currents and eddies in the straits are 
still very rapid, but it is now believed that the Charybdis of the ancients 
is by no means exactly opposite to the whirlpool of Scylla, as the 
saying Hncidis in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdiiii' appears to indicate, 
but outside the harbour of Messina, 7'/2 M. from Scilla, at the point now 
called Gurofalo (comp. p. 322). 

32 M. Cannitello. — 34 M. Villa S. Giovanni (*Trattoria; 
oue- horse carnage to Scilla and back 6-7 fr., incl. halt), prettily 
situated ; ascent of the Aspromonte, see p. 217. 

PAOLA. 22. Route. 223 

SG 1 ^ M. Catona, opposite Messina (p. 313). We are now in a 
region of luxuriant vegetation, with oranges, pomegranates, palms, 
and aloes. — 381/2 M. Oallico ; 39 l / 2 M. Arehi- Reggio ; 41 M. 
8. Caterina-Reggio ; 42 M. Reggio-Succursale. 

43y 2 M. Reggio- Centrale, see p. 217. 

21. From Naples to Messina by Sea. 

Communication between Naples and Messina is maintained by the 
Italian Societti Florio-Rubattino. The voyage lasts 14-18 hrs. (fares 43 fr. 
60, 27 fr. 60 c. , incl. provisions). Besides the direct steamers (twice a 
week), the same company despatches vessels thrice a week to Sicily, touch- 
ing at the chief ports on the Calabrian coast, and taking 37-52 hrs. in all. 
— Embarcation with luggage 1 fr. 

"We enjoy a magnificent retrospective view of the lovely bay. 
After 2^2 hrs. the steamer enters the strait between Capri, with 
the rugged and precipitous Lo Capo (p. 156), and the Punta di 
Campanella (p. 150). Shortly afterwards a view of the Bay of 
Salerno is disclosed. As the sun sets and the vessel gradually stands 
out to sea, Mt. Vesuvius presents a most majestic appearance. 

On the Direct Voyage the steamer reaches the open sea about 
dusk. On the following forenoon the volcano of the island of 
Stromboli , near which the steamer afterwards passes, becomes 
visible on the right. The mountain-range of the N. coast of Sicily 
nest comes in sight , presenting a very striking appearance. As 
the vessel steers for the Strait of Messina we observe Scilla on 
the left, and the Faro on the right. Arrival at Messina, see p. 313. 

The Coasting Steamers pass the promontories della Licosa 
and dello Spartivento and the Bay of Policastro during the night. 
The once powerful town of Policastro (4000 inhab.) was destroyed 
by Robert Guiscard in 1055, and by the Turks in 1542. 

On the following morning, Monte Pollino (7325ft.), which 
terminates the Neapolitan Apennines, is the most conspicuous 
mountain, and adjoining it begin the Calabrian Mts. As the vessel 
proceeds southwards to Paola we enjoy a succession of fine views. 
The coast is studded with numerous towns and villages, most of 
them situated on the heights , between which valleys descend to 
empty their brooks into the sea. Verbicaro is seen somewhat 
inland, then Diamante, at the base of a lofty cliff. Farther on, 
Belvedere with 4600 inhab., charmingly situated on the slopes of 
the mountain. Then, beyond a small promontory, in the bay to the 
S., lies Cetraro, the inhabitants of which are anchovy- fishers. 
We next observe Quardia, on a lofty hill, with warm baths ; then 
Fuscaldo, with 10,000 inhab. and the ruins of an old castle. 

Faola, with 8500 inhab., beautifully situated in a ravine and 
on the slope of the mountain, carries on an extensive oil and wine 
trade. The town, which some suppose to be the Palycus of the 
Greeks, was the birthplace of S. Francesco di Paola, founder of the 
mendicant order of Minorites. — Diligence for Cosenza, see p. 219. 

224 Route 22. PIZZO. 

After a halt of at>out l!/ 2 hr. the vessel resumes her voyage. 
On the coast are the villages of San Lucido, Fiumefreddo, and Bel- 
monte, at the hack of which rises the conspicuous Monte Cocuzzo 
(5050 ft.). Amantea next becomes visible, supposed to he the 
ancient Amantia of Bruttium. The town and fortress, erected on 
a lofty rock, were garrisoned in 1806 by royalists, who repulsed the 
French troops; but, after severe sufferings from famine, they were 
compelled to surrender the following year. To the S. of Amantea 
the Savuto falls into the sea. The coast becomes flat and less richly 
cultivated. Farther on, Nocera; then past the Capo Suvero to the 
Oolfo di Santa Eufemia, at the S. end of which lies — 

Pizzo (see p. 221 ; halt of 1 hr.). 

At the S. E. angle of the bay lies Monteleone, see p. 221. 

The steamboat rounds Capo Zambrone, and reaches Tropea, an 
ancient town (6000 inhab.) in a delightful situation, the climate 
of which is much extolled. To the S. is the Capo Vaticano with its 
lighthouse, projecting far into the sea. In the bay lies Nicotera, 
near the influx of the Mesima, the present terminus of the rail- 
way from Reggio (p. 222). Gioia Tauro, see p. 221. Soon after 
Pizzo is quitted the Lipari Islands (R. 33) become visible to the W.; 
Stromboli, with its continually smoking crater , is the most conspi- 
cuous. Off Capo Vaticano the Sicilian mountains suddenly appear. 

Palmi , Bagnara, Scilla, see p. 222. The Aspromonte range, 
with the Montalto (6420 ft.), looks uninteresting from this side. 
We now enter the Strait of Messina, which presents a busy scene 
during the daytime. 

Messina, see p. 313. 

22. From Naples to Palermo by Sea. 

Steamers of the Society Florio - Rubattino daily in the afternoon in 
12-13 hrs. ; fares 40 fr. 60, 25 fr. 60 c., including provisions (comp. pp. xvii, 
26). — The pas senger should be on deck early next morning to enjoy the 
beautiful approach to Sicily and the entrance into the harbour. 

Beyond Capri the steamer reaches the open sea. Early next 
morning (between 5 and 6 o'cl.) the Lipari Islands (R. 33) are seen 
to the S. (left); later the island of Vstica (p. 276) to the W., 
long remaining visible ; then, about 10 a.m., the towering moun- 
tains of Sicily ; to the extreme right is the Capo di Oallo, nearer 
rises Monte Pellegrino (2065 ft. ; p. 268), and to the left is the 
Monte Catalfano (1230 ft.), with a smaller pointed promontory, 
guarding the E. entrance to the Bay of Palermo. At length we per- 
ceive the beautiful and extensive city. A little to the left of Monte 
Pellegrino are the lofty Monte Cuccio (3445 ft.), Monreale (p. 271), 
and farther distant the Monte Oriffone. — Palermo, see R. 23. 


General Remarks. 

Strabo, the Greek geographer, in one passage calls Sicily an 'addition' 
in another a 'detached portion' of Italy; and there is indeed not one of 
the surrounding islands so intimately allied with the great peninsula 
which bisects the Mediterranean. Goethe has justly observed that, with- 
out Sicily, Italy would lose much of its charm: 'the climate cannot 
be too highly extolled ; the beauties are innumerable.'' This cannot fail 
to be experienced by every traveller who forms acquaintance with this 
'gem among islands', which is the most important link between Italy, 
Greece, and North Africa, not only in a geographical, but also in a histor- 
ical and artistic sense. Those whose time and resources permit are there- 
fore strongly recommended to visit Sicily before proceeding homewards. 

Plan of Tour. The best seasons for travelling in Sicily are the months 
of April and May, or October and November. Even in January the weather 
is often fine and settled (comp. pp. 231, 232). The ascent of JEtna, in spring 
is possible , but the best period is August or September , after the first 
showers of autumn have cleared the atmosphere. 

The principal points in the island may be visited in a fortnight or 
three weeks without divergence from the railway. The following distri- 
bution of time may be followed : — At Palermo 3-4 days ; the towns in 
the W. part of the island (Segesta, Selinunto, Mazzara, Marsala, Trapani) 
4-5 days (Segesta and Selinunto alone 2-3 days) ; from Palermo via. Termini 
to Cefalu 1 day ; back via Termini and Roccapalumba to Girgenti, 1/2-I day ; 
at Girgenti 1 day; from Girgenti to Catania 1 day; Catania and Mt. JStna 

2 days ; at Syracuse IV2 day ; at Taormina 1 day ; at Messina, with excur- 
sions to Reggio or Palmi 2 days. The best mode of exploring the very 
picturesque N. Coast is indicated at p. 307. — Travellers with limited time 
should begin at Messina and return to Naples from Palermo, as this is 
the only route with daily steamers. 

The most energetic of travellers, however, will take at least a month 
to exhaust the beauties of the island. The following routes are the most 
important : — At Palermo 4-5 days ; by land in 4 days, or by steamer 
direct in 15 hrs. from Palermo to Messina ; in the latter case Milazzo 
and Patti (Tyndaris) should be visited from Messina, 2 days; Messina, 
with excursions as above, 2 3 days; Taormina 1 day; Catania and ^Etna 

3 days; stay at Syracuse 2-3 days; by railway or steamer to Girgenti; at 
Girgenti 1 day; by land in 2 days to Sciacca, Selinunto, and Castelvetrano; 
thence by Calatafimi (Segesta) in 1 day, or, if Marsala and Trapani be 
included, in 4 days, to Palermo. 

Geography and Statistics. 

Sicily (Greek Sikelia or Trinacria) is the largest island in the 
Mediterranean. Its area, according to the official estimate, is 
29,241 sq. kilometres, but other recent estimates give it at about 
25,800 sq. kilometres, i. e. about 10,000 Engl. sq. M. The form 
of the island is an irregular triangle. Closely connected with Italy 

Baedeker. Italy III. 11th Edition. 15 

226 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

by geological structure as well as in geographical position , it 
forms a continuation of the great Apennine range which stretches 
across the Mediterranean from the main trunk of Europe to Africa, 
a submerged prolongation of the range being also distinctly tra- 
ceable. The distance between Cape Boeo and Cape Bon is only 
75 M. , and the depth in the direct line never exceeds 100 fath- 
oms, except in one narrow belt running S.E. towards the island 
of Pantellaria (248 fathoms), while the Straits of Pantellaria, 
separating Sicily from Africa, are as a rule not more than 50 fath- 
oms deep. This submerged elevation is probably of volcanic origin 
(comp. p. 380). To the N. of Sicily lies another volcanic tract, the 
eruptions of which have produced the Lipari Islands. The S.E. portion 
of the island of Sicily is of the tertiary formation, and is connected 
with the Malta Islands by a submarine table-land. The virtual W. 
apex of Sicily is formed by Maritimo, the westernmost of the Aega- 
dian Islands, which lie in shallow water. The Straits of Messina 
are only 2 M. wide at their narrowest point, and at their shallowest 
part (near the same point) 51 fathoms deep , while on the N. and 
E., on the contrary, the shores of the island descend abruptly into 
the deepest parts of the Mediterranean, a sounding of no less than 
2000 fathoms having been made within about 30 M. of Cape Passero. 
Mountains. Sicily is of a hilly or mountainous character through- 
out, and contains no plains of any extent. It may be roughly de- 
scribed as a table-land of a mean level of 2300-2800 ft., somewhat 
tilted towards the N., and higher at the edges than in the interior. 
The loftiest of the non-volcanic summits are towards the N., where 
a range of mountains runs from the Straits of Messina along the 
coast, forming a prolongation of the Apennine range which tra- 
verses the Italian peninsula. The continuity of the chain remains 
unbroken as far the valley of Polizzi, a place of historical interest, 
whence the Hirnera Septentrionalis (Fiume Orande) flows N. to the 
Tyrrhenian, and the Himera Meridionalis (Fiume Salso) S. to the 
African Sea. The W. part of the range , which consists rather 
of detached groups of mountains, is the only one which has received 
a distinguishing name from the natives, who call it the Madonie. Its 
highest summits are the Pizzo dell' Antenna (6480 ft.), the loftiest 
mountain in the island after iEtna, and the Monte Salvatore, both 
covered with snow during one half of the year. Scientific geographers 
apply the name of Nebrodic Mountains to the Madonie together with 
the mountains to the N. and N.W. of JEtna (where the Monte Sori 
attains a height of 6050 ft.), while they distinguish that section of 
the range which abuts on the Straits of Messina as the Peloric Chain 
(the Monies Neptunii or Pelorides of the ancients). 

To the W. of the important watershed of the two Himeras the 
mountains still form a chain or range, though of less distinct char- 
acter, the highest summits of which all lie near the N. coast. 
As we proceed towards the W. , however, single mountains or 

Oeography and Statistics. SICILY. 227 

isolated clusters become more prominent, till they end at last 
in the pyramid of Monte S. Giuliano, the ancient Eryx, rising 
precipitously from the sea and standing like a gigantic sentinel to 
guard the W. coast of the island. From this great northern range, 
running fromE. to W., various minor chains branch off towards the 
S. and S.W. into the heart of the island, leaving both on the E. 
and W. small littoral plains between them and the sea. 

In the S. E. corner of the island is a mountainous district of a 
very peculiar and interesting geological character, united with the 
other mountain-systems only by a narrow ridge near Caltagirone. 
In the heart of it rises the Monte Lauro (3230 ft.), whence the 
considerable rivers of this part of Sicily descend in all directions 
through profound ravines and valleys , the sides of which are 
honeycombed with caverns. These erosions reveal to us the fact, 
that , while the surface of the mountain consists chiefly of tertiary 
shell-limestone , this formation alternates lower down with strata 
of dark volcanic rock. Nearly the whole remainder of the island, 
particularly the districts in the middle, and to the S. and S.W., 
is also composed of the tertiary formation. To this formation, 
represented mainly by marl, clay, and gypsum, belong extensive 
deposits of sulphur and rock-salt, the first of which contribute so 
materially to Sicily's wealth and prosperity, while the latter are 
as yet almost untouched. The sulphur-strata extend westwards as 
far as the secondary mountain-ranges near Salemi and Partanna, 
and eastwards as far as the mountains of Judica and Rammacca. 
Whatever part of the interior of the island the traveller visits, 
he is sure to stumble upon a sulphur-mine, or meet long trains of 
waggons or mules conveying this 'yellow gold' of Sicily to the coast. 
The richest mines are at Lercara (p. 292), situated on the watershed 
between the Tyrrhenian and African Seas, to theN. of Girgenti, and 
near Caltanissetta (p. 299). — The tertiary formations in Sicily 
attain a most unwonted altitude; the huge rock on which lies Castro- 
giovanni, the historical Enna (p. 300), rears its head no less than 
3270 ft. above the level of the sea. — The mountains on the N. 
coast, with the ramifications extending to the Eryx and the Monte 
San Calogero near Sciacca, belong to the secondary formations, and 
consist chiefly of calcareous limestone. This limestone is perforated 
by numerous caverns, in which the bones of huge pachydermata, 
denizens of the country before its separation from the African con- 
tinent, and various prehistoric antiquities are frequently found. — 
The Peloric range and the mountains of the N. coast from Messina 
to Cape Calava are composed of crystalline rocks of the primary for- 
mations, but their bases are overlaid with strata of recent tertiary 
deposits, so that the older formation seldom comes to light on the 
coast itself. The identity of the geological structure of this part of 
the island with that of Calabria is a proof of the intimate connec- 
tion between Sicily and the Italian peninsula. The rock of Scylla 

228 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

(p. 222) , visible from the Faro , and the peninsula of Milazzo 
(p. 312), are both formed of fine-grained granite and gneiss. The 
S. margins of the Peloric Mts. and of the Aspromonte (p. 218) 
consist of clay-slate. 

Mt. Mtna (10,870 ft.), the loftiest mountain in Sicily and the 
largest volcano in Europe, rises on the E. side of the island, and is 
completely detached from the other mountains by the deep valleys 
of the Simeto and Alcantara. The -watershed between these rivers, 
however, near the Lake of Ourrita, -which is sometimes quite dry, 
attains a considerable height (3790 ft.). The district in which this 
great volcano rises has evidently been at one time a bay of the 
sea, still recognisable in the plain of Catania. The mountain is 
capped with snow throughout the year, except during a few weeks 
in summer , while in some of the gullies the snow never melts 

The Coasts of Sicily are as a rule steep and rocky, short reaches 
of flat coast being found in the gulfs of Catania and Terranova, 
and to the S. of Trapani only. A peculiarity of the Sicilian coast 
is found in the numerous narrow peninsulas lying in front of it, 
which have in comparatively recent times only ceased to be islands, 
and which almost invariably form good harbours. Of this nature 
are the peninsulas of Syracuse, Augusta, Trapani, and Milazzo. 
The strikingly picturesque Monte Pellegrino , near Palermo, was 
at one time an island off the coast , and the sickle-shaped piece 
of land which forms the harbour is also of very Tecent geological 
formation. To these capacious natural harbours falls to be added 
the artificial one of Palermo , the somewhat inadequate successor 
of the famous ancient harbour, which has been gradually silted up 
during the geological elevation of theW. coast of Sicily. The same 
cause has rendered the fine harbour of Trapani almost useless. 
The S. coast is perfectly destitute of natural harbours, and there- 
fore unapproachable in stormy weather; but artificial harbours 
have recently been constructed at great expense at Porto Empe- 
docle and Licata. 

The Rivers of Sicily are very numerous , but none of them 
are large , and with a few exceptions they all dry up in summer. 
The district of primary formations in the N. E. of the island does 
not contain a single perennial water-course , but many broad Fiu- 
mare, or river-beds , filled after heavy rain with turbulent and 
destructive torrents , which carry down large masses of the easily 
detached rock , and refuse to be confined within embankments, 
often causing widespread devastation. The stony beds of the 
'fiumare' are sometimes upwards of l /i M. wide at the mouth, and 
even in winter are traversed by a mere thread of water only. 
The numerous streams towards the S.E., which take their rise in 
the porous, honeycombed limestone hills, are, on the other hand, 
comparatively copious in the lower part of their course. Water 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 229 

may generally be found by digging below the dry beds of the 
fiumare even in summer. None of the rivers are navigable. (In the 
Map at the end of the Handbook the watercourses which dry up 
in summer are coloured brown, and those which contain water 
throughout the whole year are blue.) 

The splendid Forests with which Sicily was originally covered, 
and which yielded the admirable ship-building timber mentioned 
so often in the days of the Greek and Saracenic domination, have 
been disappearing so rapidly under the axe of the woodman since 
the 16th cent., and especially since the beginning of this cent., 
that it is estimated that not more than 4 per cent of the area of the 
island is now under wood. In the 11th cent, the Monte Lauro was 
still clothed with forests of pines and fir, and in the 15th cent, 
the Monte Pellegrino, now conspicuous for its baldness, was clothed 
with underwood. The only considerable forests are those of jEtna 
and the mountains on the N. coast, the finest of which are the 
Caronian Forest and the Bosco di Ficuzza on the Busambra, where 
the Bourbon sovereigns used to hunt when they resided at Palermo. 
These woods consist of oaks, chestnuts, elms, ashes, etc., and are 
carpeted with thick green underwood like the woods of Central 
Europe , while others nearer the coast and in lower situations con- 
sist mainly of isolated evergreen oaks [Quercus Ilex, Quereus Suber, 
etc.). Pine-forests are found in the JEtna region only. The Macchie, 
a kind of thicket of dense , almost impenetrable , and often thorny 
bushes, 5-6 ft. high, peculiar to the regions of the Mediterranean, 
and growing on the denuded .sites of former forests , are less com- 
mon in Sicily than in neighbouring lands. 

Products and Cultivation. The current impression that only 
a small portion of the area of Sicily is cultivated , is quite er- 
roneous. In 1857 it was estimated that about 200,000 acres only 
were unproductive, and 1,600,000 acres under pasture, leaving 
5,500,000 acres, or 2/4 of the whole area, under cultivation. Since 
that date, moreover, a large proportion, probably about one-half, 
of these unproductive lands have been reclaimed , chiefly through 
the partition of large estates falling into the hands of government 
on the failure of heirs. The value of pasture in Sicily may be 
gathered from the fact that an annual rental of 25,000 fr. has been 
paid for the apparently barren Mte". Pellegrino near Palermo. 

The cultivation of the soil was formerly restricted almost entirely 
to the production of wheat, but the culture of trees, especially of 
the Citri (the generic term for oranges, lemons, and citrons), is now 
found to be still more lucrative, and assumes ever-increasing pro- 
portions. According to an estimate made between 1870 and 1880, 
in the Conca d'Oro near Palermo the yield of a hectare (2!/2 acres) 
of lemon-trees averages 4225 fr., and that of a hectare of orange- 
trees 2880 fr. per annum. The orange and lemon harvest lasts from 
November to March, but the fruit does not thoroughly ripen till 

230 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

January. These fruits are cultivated most sedulously on the N. 
coast from Partinico to Messina, and on the E. coast as far S. as 
Catania. This branch of agriculture is interesting, not only from 
an economical but also from a social and moral point of view. The 
constant attention -which the Citri demand renders it impossible 
for the agricultural labourers to live in crowded villages, often 
at a considerable distance from their daily work; so that this branch 
of agriculture tends to a more equal distribution of the population, 
and contributes to improve their moral condition. The people are 
now beginning to descend from their rocky nests (p. 233) and settle 
among the fields. About one-fifth of the whole island is now de- 
voted to the cultivation of trees of various kinds, the products of 
which are exported to the value of 140,000,000 fr. annually, a sum 
that will appear still more considerable when it is remembered 
that nine-tenths of the islanders themselves subsist entirely on 
wheaten bread, fruit, and fish. 

Another prevalent error with regard to Sicily is that its fertility 
has decreased. Rain still falls in sufficient quantity to make the 
fruits of the field as plentiful now as of yore , in spite of the poor 
agricultural implements and the want of manuring. Wheat, Barley, 
and Beans, which form almost the only crops, cover all the avail- 
able level districts in the island. The concentration of the pop- 
ulation in a few large villages, the peculiarity of the farm-tenure, 
the inferiority of the agricultural implements, and the occasional 
deficiency of hands, are unfavourable to the agricultural prosperity 
of the country. The fields on the N. and E. coasts, like those in 
Sardinia and N. Africa, are enclosed by Cactus-hedges (Opuntia 
Ficus Indica and Opuntia Amyclaea), which frequently attain a 
considerable height. Their fruit , the cactus-fig , of a sweetish, 
somewhat insipid taste, is much esteemed by the natives, who in 
autumn use it to a considerable extent as a substitute for bread. 
Sumach (Rhus coriaria, the leaves of which are used in tann- 
ing and as a black dye) and Linseed are among the staple ex- 
ports. Other products exported, besides the Citri and their es- 
sential oils, are almonds, olive oil, wine (Marsala, Riposto, Ca- 
tania, Vittoria , and Siracusa) , nuts , capers , pistachios , manna, 
liquorice, lentils, and raisins. The chief animal products are silk, 
hides, wool, anchovies, tunny-fish, and cantharides. Mineral pro- 
ducts : sulphur, salt, and marble. The island possesses no mines 
of the precious metals or of coal. Many of the merchants are Ger- 
mans and Swiss, who have to a great extent taken the place of the 
English , but the Sicilians themselves are now beginning to turn 
their attention more zealously to commerce. About two-thirds of 
the manufactured goods imported into Sicily , as well as Italy, 
pass through the hands of Swiss and German merchants. The sta- 
tistics relating to the exports and imports are untrustworthy but 
it is ascertained that the former are much the more considerable. 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 231 

Climate. The climate of Sicily, apart from trie not unfrequent 
storms of winter, is a most delightful one, and in equableness 
is second to that of Madeira alone. This is especially true of the 
climate of Palermo , which is rapidly coming into favour as a 
winter residence for invalids. Catania is somewhat colder in 
winter, and is moreover exposed to sudden changes of temperature 
on account of the proximity of Mt. ^Etna. Messina and Syracuse 
are windy places. 

In Sicily the year consists of two seasons only , the rainy and 
the dry. The Rainy Season corresponds with the winter of Cen- 
tral Europe, and is marked by a fall of temperature. The freezing- 
point , however, is seldom reached , except occasionally just be- 
fore dawn , and there are few winter days when one cannot sit 
comfortably in the open air in a sheltered situation. The rainy 
season is at the same time that of the most luxuriant vegetation. 
It is ushered in by thunder-storms in September and October, 
sets in steadily in November, generally relaxes somewhat in Jan- 
uary, ends towards the close of March, and is followed by a few 
violent thunder-storms in April and May. In June, July, and Au- 
gust, but particularly in July, almost no rain falls, but the heat is 
tempered by the proximity of the sea. Continuous rain is, how- 
ever, rare, even in the wet season, and there are seldom more than 
a dozen days in the year absolutely without sunshine. Cicero's 
remark on Syracuse , that the sun shines there every day without 
exception, is almost literally true. The heaviest rainfall occurs in 
December, next to which are February and March. In Palermo it 
averages 22 inches per annum, of which 3 in. fall in December 
and only about 1 / 6 in. in July; in Syracuse the rain-fall is 16 in., 
with practically none in June, July, and August. Wheat is sown 
at the beginning of the rains, and reaped shortly after their close. 

The Winds also vary in accordance with these two divisions of 
the year. From October to March the rainy W.S.W. wind, blowing 
from the equatorial regions , prevails ; from May to August the 
prevalent wind blows from the N.E., forming a continuation of 
the trade-winds from beyond the N. pole ; while in April and 
September these winds blow alternately. Violent winds, with the 
exception of the Scirocco , are rare , and the barometrical changes 
are on the whole slight. The Scirocco, one of the hot periodical 
storm-winds , which blow from the Sahara in all directions , is 
among the few drawbacks to the climate of Sicily. It visits Palermo, 
where it is particularly disagreeable, about twelve times a year, 
and may occur in any month, though it is most frequent and most 
violent in April and the short transitionary seasons generally. On 
the E. coast it is generally charged with moisture, but at Palermo 
it is hot and dry. The highest temperature ever observed in the 
shade at Palermo (105° Fahr.) was registered during the scirocco. 
During its continuance the sky is of a dull, leaden appearance, 

232 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

often -with a tinge of red, occasioned by the columns of dust 
■which the storm frequently Tarings with it from a long distance. If 
rain falls, these fine particles of dust occasion the phenomenon 
known as 'blood rain', which may he easily collected on the fo- 
liage of the trees. The effect of the scirocco, often less felt at first 
by visitors from the N. than by the natives, is to occasion a diffi- 
culty of breathing and lassitude, which unfit one for work, espe- 
cially of a mental nature. The scirocco, however, often lasts for a 
few hours only, and rarely for more than three days. 

One of the great advantages of the climate of Sicily arises from 
the comparatively slight difference in the temperature of the differ- 
ent seasons. The heat at Palermo in summer is less than at Milan or 
Florence, while the winters are remarkably mild and equable. The 
mean temperature in August, the hottest month, is 78° Fahr., and 
in January, the coldest month, 52°, the difference being 26° only, 
while the mean annual temperature is about 64°. The lowest temper- 
ature yet recorded at the observatory at Palermo has been 35°, but 
it is known that the mercury occasionally descends 3-4° below the 
freezing-point in the early morning almost every winter. During 
December, January, February, and March the thermometer remains 
at almost the same level, and abrupt changes are very rare. The 
mean daily range of temperature at Palermo is about 12°, in winter 
less, and on some days not more than 4-5°. Catania has a mean 
annual temperature of 65°; in summer it is warmer than Palermo, 
and in winter colder. The mean temperature in August is 81° and 
that of January 50°, showing a range of 31°. The daily range of 
temperature is also somewhat greater (12 1 /2-i-i°), and a difference 
of 41° has been noticed within 24 hours. 

In spite of those climatic advantages, the traveller in winter 
must be on his guard against the very abrupt differences of temper- 
ature in passing from the sun into the shade , and also against the 
very rapid fall of temperature frequently perceived in wet weather. 
For Palermo, see p. 248. 

The Population of the island at the end of 1889 was about 
3,265,688, or on an average 289 souls per Engl. sq. M. National 
schools have been established everywhere under the new regime, 
and the towns now possess commercial (scuola tecnica and istituto 
tecnico) and grammar schools, but the number of 'analfabeti' (per- 
sons who can neither read nor write) still amounts to nearly four- 
fifths of the whole population ( 9 /i ths in 1864). 

Districts. From the Saracen period down to the beginning of 
the present century the island was divided into three districts : the 
Val (Welaia, i.e. province) di Demone, the N.E. portion; the Val 
di Noto, the S.E. part; and the Val di Mazzara, to the S.W. Since 
1817 it has been divided into seven prefectures : (1) Palermo, (2) 
Trapani, (3) Oirgenti, (4) Caltanissetta, (5) Catania, (6) Siracusa, 
(7) Messina. 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 233 

Towns. The piincipal towns are Palermo, Messina, Catania, 
Modica, Trapani, Termini, Acireale, and Caltagirone. Of the 120- 
130 towns in the kingdom of Italy which contain above 10,000 in- 
hab. upwards of one-quarter belong to Sicily. This is explained 
by the fact, that owing to the constant wars of the middle ages, 
the predatory incursions of barbarians, and the insecure state of 
the country, it was unsafe for the peasantry to live in villages, and 
this class has therefore mainly contributed to swell the population 
of the towns. 

Historical Notice. 

1. Political History. 

First Period. According to the traditions of ancient Greek 
mariners, Sicily was once inhabited by Cyclopes, Gigantes, Loto- 
phagi, Lsestrygones, etc., whom Sicilian historians have endea- 
voured to classify into iron-workers, stone-workers , farmers, and 
gardeners. The most ancient inhabitants of Sicily were a prehistoric 
race , the only certain traces of whom are the flint implements 
found in various parts of the island and perhaps a few of the stone 
monuments. They were followed by the Sicani, who were believed 
by some authorities to be of Iberian, by others of Celtic origin. It 
is more probable, however, that they belonged to an Italian race. 
They dwelt at first in the E. part of the island , but within the 
period embraced in history are found only in the W., between the 
Tyrrhenian Sea (Hykkara) and the Libyan Sea. The deserted terri- 
tory of the Sicani to the E. was taken possession of before B.C. 
1000 by the Sikeli, a tribe related to the Latins, which, as some 
authorities believe, had already had a warlike history and made 
maritime raids upon Egypt. They dwelt in the S.E. corner of the 
island, in the middle of its E. half, especially in the valley of the 
Symsethus, and on the N. coast. Their principal towns were: <S. 
Hybla, Menae (Mineo), Morgantium, N. Hybla (Paterno), Centuripe, 
Agyrion (Agira) , Assorus (Asaro) , Aluntium (S. Marco) , and 
Agathyrnum (near C. Orlando). The Phoenicians , coming from 
the E., founded numerous colonies on the coast, and the Elymi, 
supposed to be descended from the Trojans, occupied Segesta, Eryx 
(with the sanctuary of Aphrodite), Entella, and other settlements. 
The Oreeks make their appearance in Sicily in B.C. 735, when 
the Ionian Theocles of Chalcis (or Athens) founded Naxos, at the 
mouth of the Cantara. During the following year Dorians from 
Corinth under Archias founded Syracuse ; and in 728 Megara Hy- 
blaea, another Dorian colony , was settled by Lamis of Megara. 
Zankle (afterwards Messana) was peopled by Ionians , who also 
founded Leontinoi and Catana (729). A Dorian character was 

234 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

impressed upon the S. coast by the foundation of Gela (Terranova) 
by Rhodians and Cretans in 689, of Selinus by Megara in 628, and 
of Acragas (Girgenti) by Gela in 581. The Dorians also made 
themselves masters of the S.E. corner of Sicily through the Syra- 
cusan colonies of Acrae (664), Casmenae (624), and Camarina (599). 
Himera (648), the only Greek colony on the N. coast, was a joint 
settlement, in which the Ionian element preponderated. The oc- 
cupation of the Lipari Islands in B.C. 580 marks the close of the 
spread of the Hellenic power in Sicily, and the beginning of the 
Semitic reaction. The Phoenicians, who on the approach of the 
Greeks had retired to Solus (or Soloeis~), Panormus, and Motye, now 
placed themselves under the protection of Carthage and thus 
imposed a check upon the farther progress of Hellenisation. The 
Sikelians in the E. part of the island, however, became almost 
entirely subject to the Greeks. 

The Greek colonies , as they grew in population , soon began 
to suffer from internal dissensions between the different classes of 
citizens. This led to the formation of codes of law, of which that 
of Charondas of Catana is the most famous, and to the establishment 
of tyrannies , a form of government which attained its most char- 
acteristic development in this island. The most notorious of the 
ancient tyrants was Phalaris of Acragas. About the year 500 we find 
tyrants ruling over most of the cities, of whom Oelon of Syracuse 
and Theron of Acragas, united by ties of family and interest, rescued 
the Greek sway from the perils which threatened it, when, at the 
time of the 2nd Persian War, the Greeks of the western sea were 
attacked by the Carthaginians. In 480, however, the Greek cause 
was victorious at the battle of Himera, the Salamis of Sicily. The 
short but brilliant golden age of Hellenic Sicily now began, sullied 
only by the destruction of the Chalcidian towns of the E. coast by 
Gelon and Hiero. The greater number of the temples and aqueducts 
at Syracuse, Girgenti, Selinunto, Himera, etc., the ruins of which 
excite such admiration at the present day, were erected between 480 
and 450. But internal municipal struggles, fomented by the demo- 
cratic parties of the different cities, and the renewed antagonism of 
the Doric and Ionic-Achaean elements paved the way for a cata- 
strophe, to which the great Athenian campaign against Syracuse in 
413 contributed. Previously to this the Greeks had a formidable 
enemy to subdue in Ducetius of Netum (Noto), who united the towns 
of the Sikeli in a confederacy against the Greeks (461-440), but this 
league was compelled to succumb to the united forces of Syracuse 
and Acragas. What the Sicilians had failed in effecting was now 
attempted with more success by the great power of Africa. The 
Carthaginians now began their most formidable attacks. Selinus 
and Himera were destroyed by them in 409, Acragas taken in 406, 
Gela and Camarina conquered and rendered tributary to Carthage 
in 405, and Messana razed to the ground in 396. These events were 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 235 

instrumental in causing the rise of Dionysius I. in Syracuse (406), 
who extended and fortified the town, and after a war of varied 
success finally drove back the Carthaginians in 382 to the Halycus 
(Platani). Down to his death in 367 Dionysius was master of the 
destinies of Syracuse, and with it of Sicily ; the greater part of Magna 
Graecia was also subject to his sway, and he even intervened several 
times with effect in the affairs of Greece itself. Syracuse never again 
attained to such a pinnacle of power. On his death dissensions began 
anew. Dionysius II. was inferior to his father, and Dion able as a 
philosopher only. Timoleon, however, succeeded in 343-336 in 
restoring some degree of order, defeated the Carthaginians in 340 on 
the Crimissus (Belice), and again restricted their territory to the 
W. of the Halycus. But even his brilliant example availed little 
to arrest the increasing degeneracy of the people. In 317-289 
Agathocles usurped the sovereignty of Syracuse, and in 310 the 
Carthaginians besieged the city, although unsuccessfully. The 
brilliant African campaign of Agathocles was without enduring re- 
sult. Pyrrhus too, who had wrested the whole island as far as Lily- 
bsum from the Carthaginians, soon quitted it again for Italy (278- 
276), dissatisfied with the prevailing anarchy and disunion. In 
274 Hiero II. usurped the tyranny of Syracuse. His siege of Mes- 
sana, of which Campanian mercenaries, or Mamertines, had treach- 
erously taken possession , compelled the latter to sue for Roman 
aid. Thus it was that the Romans obtained a footing in the island, 
and the struggle between them and the Carthaginians , who had 
supported Hiero, now began. The chequered contest for the sover- 
eignty of Sicily lasted from 264 to 241. Hiero, who in 263 had 
become an ally of Rome, ruled over a small independent kingdom 
on the E. coast, even after the final expulsion of the Carthaginians. 
After the death of Hiero II. his successor Hieronymus espoused the 
cause of Hannibal, in consequence of which Syracuse was besieged 
by Marcellus in 214-212, taken, and sacked. In 210, after the 
conquest of Agiigentum , the island became the first Roman pro- 
vince, and was divided into two districts or qusesturse, Lilybaetana 
(with the capital Lilybaeum, now Marsala) and Syracusana. 

Second Period. At first the Romans endeavoured to improve 
the agriculture of the island, which had suffered seriously during 
the protracted wars, with a view to render Sicily a more profitable 
province. The system of cultivation borrowed from the Carthagi- 
nians was indeed successfully employed in rendering Sicily the 
granary of Italy, but at the same time it proved the occasion of 
the Servile Wars (139-131 and 104-101), which devastated the 
island to a greater extent than the Punic wars. Under the Roman 
governors the ancient prosperity of Sicily steadily declined. The 
notorious Verres in particular impoverished it greatly during his 
term of office in 73-71. The civil war between Octavianus and 
Sextus Pompeius, who had made himself master of Sicily (43-36) 

236 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

but was defeated by Agrippa in the naval battle of Nauloclius (on 
the N. coast, near Mylae), also accelerated its ruin, so that Augustus 
was obliged in a great measure to repeople the island and re-erect 
the towns. Little is known of its internal affairs after this date. 
With regard to the dissemination of Christianity in Sicily numer- 
ous traditions are current, and are preserved in the different mar- 
tyrologies. It is recorded (Acts xxviii. 12) that St. Paul landed 
at Syracuse on his journey to Rome and spent three days there, 
and the evidence of monuments goes to confirm the local legends 
of missionaries from the E. , and to refute the later pretensions of 
Rome to the establishment of Christianity in Sicily. Syracuse 
would thus seem to have taken an important part in the spread of 
the Christian religion. After the end of the 3rd cent, the new 
religion made rapid progress, and in the reign of Constantine it had 
become practically the universal faith, though heathens still existed 
in Sicily down to the 6th century. 

After another servile war had devastated the country (A.D. 
259), Syracuse began, in 278, to suffer from the incursions of bar- 
barian hordes, when it was plundered by a mere handful of wan- 
dering Franks. In B.C. 27 Sicily had become the first of the ten 
senatorial provinces , according to Augustus's distribution of the 
empire, and then a province of the diocese of Italy, according to the 
arrangement of Diocletian ; but in 395 it was separated from the 
W. and attached to the E. empire, whereby it escaped the fate of 
neither. In 440 Geiserich besieged Palermo and conquered Lily- 
bfeum (Marsala). Odoacer made himself master of Sicily, and 
the island afterwards became subject to the Ostrogoths. In 535 
Belisarius brought it under the sway of the Eastern emperors, who 
retained it till its conquest by the Arabs. — The Romish church 
had great possessions in Sicily, and Pope Gregory I. was a zealous 
promoter of the cultivation of the island. Constans II. even 
transferred the seat of the E. empire to Syracuse in 663, hut he 
was murdered there in 668, and the city was plundered hy the 
Arabs the following year. 

Third Period. In 827 the Saracens, under Ased-ibn-Fordt, 
on the invitation of the governor Euphemius, landed near Mazzara. 
Four years later Palermo fell into their hands , and that city now 
became the capital , and swayed the destinies of the island. The 
Saracens, conquering one city after another, overran the whole is- 
land , and in 878 Syracuse was taken by Ibrahim - ibn - Ahmed. 
Although the Christians could now maintain themselves in the 
N.E. angle of the island only, and even there were deprived of 
Taormina in 902, and finally of Rametta in 965, yet the establish- 
ment of a lasting peace was rendered impossible hy the antagonism 
between their Arabian and Berber conquerors, which continually 
led to sanguinary conflicts. To these evils were added the changes 
of dynasty. At first the Aghlabites of Kairvan ruled. Then Sicily 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 237 

became an independent emirate tinder the Fatimite Sovereigns of 
Egypt. The latter half of the 10th cent, was the most prosperous 
period of Sicily under the Mohammedan sway. But the sanguinary 
struggles of the Sunnites and Shiites in Africa, where the Zirites 
had usurped the supremacy, were soon transplanted hither, and 
the insurrection of several cities accelerated the downfall of the 
Arabian dynasty. In spite of these unfavourable circumstances, 
the prosperity of the island had during this period considerably 
increased, and agriculture, industry, and commerce had progressed 
so greatly that the Norman conquerors found the island a most 
valuable acquisition. 

About the middle of the 11th cent., after an ineffectual at- 
tempt to conquer the island had been made by George Maniaces, 
a Greek , in 1038-41, Robert and Roger de Hauteville, sons of 
Tancred of Hauteville in Normandy, went to Italy on the invi- 
tation of their elder brothers , who had declared themselves 
Counts of Apulia. Robert, subsequently surnamed Ouiscard, i.e. 
'the Shrewd', compelled the pope to invest him with the Duchy 
of Apulia, and then, after Ibn-Thimna of Syracuse had already in- 
voked his aid, proceeded from Mileto with his brother Roger to con- 
quer Sicily in 1061. The first expedition did not immediately 
produce the desired result. But ten years later they returned, and 
by 1090 the entire island was subdued. The line of Robert Guiscard 
having become extinct in 1 127 , the second son of Roger, Count 
Roger II. , united the whole of the Norman conquests under his 
sceptre, and caused himself to be crowned as king at Palermo in 
1130. During his reign Sicily prospered, and its fleets conquered 
the Arabs and the Greeks, from whom they wrested a portion of 
ancient Greece (Romania). He was succeeded by his second son 
William (1154-66), surnamed by the monkish and feudal chroni- 
clers Hhe Bad', who was followed by his son William II. , 'the 
Good' (d. 1189). After the death of the latter a contest as to the 
succession arose. William II. had given his aunt Constance, 
daughter of Roger, to Henry VI., son of Frederick Barbarossa, in 
marriage, and that monarch now laid claim to the crown. The Si- 
cilians , however , declared themselves in favour of Tancred , of 
Lecce, a natural son of Roger. On his death shortly afterwards he was 
succeeded by his son William III., whom Henry VI. had less diffi- 
culty in subduing (1194). Henry did not long enjoy his conquest, 
and died at Messina in 1197. He was succeeded by the Emperor 
Frederick II., as Frederick I. of Sicily, whose exertions in behalf 
of Sicily have been so highly extolled by posterity. In 1250-54 
his second son Conrad occupied the throne ; then Manfred until 
the battle of Benevento in 1266; and in 1268 Charles of Anjou 
caused the last scion of the Germanic imperial house to be exe- 
cuted (see p. 39). 

Foukth Pbkiod. Charles of Anjou and Provence maintained 

238 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

his supremacy in Sicily, with which he had been invested by Pope 
Clement IV., for but a brief period. The massacre of the Sicilian 
Vespers (1282) was an expiation of the death of Conradin. Messina 
defended itself heroically against the attacks of Charles ; and Peter 
of Aragon, son-in-law of Manfred, became master of the island. 
But its decline dates from this period. It was repeatedly devastated 
by the interminable wars with the Anjous of Naples, while the no- 
bility, such as the Chiaramonte and the Ventimiglia, attained to 
such power as to render systematic administration on the part of 
the government impossible. In 1410, when Sicily became an ap- 
panage of the kingdoms of Naples and Spain , it still retained 
its freedom of internal administration. But this very privilege 
proved prejudicial to it, whilst its external defence against the 
barbarians was neglected. During the second half of the 18th cent, 
many medieval institutions were swept away by the advance of ci- 
vilisation , and in 1812 Sicily was finally rescued from the con- 
dition of a mediaeval feudal state. In that year, the Sicilian Es- 
tates, under the influence of the English general Lord William H. 
C. Bentinck, whose troops were then protecting the island against 
Napoleon, passed a constitution on the English model. But three 
years later this was again abn gated. The misrule of the Bourbons, 
and the popular antipathy to the union with Naples, led to a san- 
guinary revolt on July 14th, 1820, which, however, was repressed 
by the Neapolitan generals, Florestan Pepe and Coletta. The oholera 
epidemic, also, of 1837, which the people attributed to the fault of 
the government, was followed by renewed disturbances. At the re- 
volution of Jan. 12th, 1848, Sicily appointed a government of its 
own under the noble Buggiero Settimo , and maintained its inde- 
pendence against Naples for a year and a half. Among the leaders of 
the people at this time were the Marchese Torrearsa, Prince Butera, 
Stabile, La Farina, and the brothers Amari. In September 1848, 
however, Messina was laid partly in ruins by the fleet of Fer- 
dinand II. ('Re Bomba') , in the following April Catania was cap- 
tured, and in May Palermo. During these struggles the inspiriting 
idea of a comprehensire national unity had impressed itself on the 
Sicilians , and when in 1860 Northern Italy became united under 
the house of Savoy , revolts once more broke out in the two chief 
towns of the island. Garibaldi, with 1000 volunteers ('i mille'), 
landed in Sicily at Marsala on May 11th 1860, and after a victorious 
battle at Calatafimi, stormed Palermo on May 27th. In a few weeks 
more he was master of the entire island ; and by the plebiscite of 
October 21st, 1860, Sicily joined the new kingdom of Italy. 

The following is a chronological sketch of the history of this 
period of six centuries : — 

a. 1282-1285. Peter of Aragon, King of Sicily. 
1285-1296. James the Just. 
1296-1337. Frederick II. 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 239 

1337-1342. Peter II., co-regent from 1321. 
1342-1355. Louis. 

1355-1377. Frederick III. the Simple, brother of Louis. 
1377-1402. Mary, daughter of Frederick III., married in 

1485 to Martin of Aragon. 
1402-1409. Martin I. sole monarch of Sicily , married to 

Bianca of Castille. 
1409-1410. Martin II., father of Martin I. 
1410-1412. Interregnum. 
6. 1412-1416. Ferdinand the Just, King of Aragon and 

1416-1458. Alphonso the Generous , King of Aragon, and 

after 1442 King of Naples. 
1458-1479. John of Aragon and Navarre. 
1479-1515. Ferdinand II. the Catholic, after 1505 also 

King of Naples. 
1515-1554. Emp. Charles V. ; 1517, Squarcialupo's re- 
hellion at Palermo. 
1554-1598. Philip II. 
1598-1621. Philip III. 
1621-1665. Philip IV. ; 1647, Revolution at Palermo, 

Giuseppe Alessi. 
1665-1700. Charles II. ; 1672-1678, Messina revolts in 

favour of Louis XIV. of France. 

c. 1700-1713. Philip V. of Bourbon, after 1713 King of Spain. 

d. 1713-1720. Victor Amadeus of Savoy. 

e. 1720-1734. Emp. Charles VI. of Germany. 

f. 1734-1759, Charles III. of Bourbon. 

1759-1825. Ferdinand IV., King of Naples and Sicily, after 

1815 Ferdinand I., King of the Two Sicilies. 
1825-1830. Francis I. 
1830-1859. Ferdinand II. 
1848-1849. Sicily independent. 
1859-1860. Francis II. 

2. History of Civilisation and Art. 

Almost every one of the numerous nations which in the course 
of centuries have inhabited or governed Sicily has left behind it 
some trace of its individual capacity for art, modified, however, to 
some extent by the characteristics peculiar to the island, and there- 
fore in most cases bearing a Sicilian stamp. Cicero has observed 
that the Sicilian is never so miserable as to be unable to utter a 
bon-mot, and a similar remark might be made at the present day. 
The Sicilians of all ages have displayed marked , though not bril- 
liant abilities. Their wit, flow of conversation, and power of re- 
partee were universally known to the ancients. It was not, there- 
fore, the result of mere chance that Greek comedy attained its 

240 SICILY. History of Art. 

earliest development here , and that bucolic poetry originated in 
Sicily, where to this day the natives delight in rural life. Sicily 
has in all ages produced admirable speakers , although rather 
sophists and phraseologists than great orators. In the study of the 
history of their island the natives have ever manifested the utmost 
zeal, and for the concrete sciences as far as they are connected with 
practical life, such as mechanics and medicine, they possess con- 
siderable aptitude. In the manufacture of objects of an artistic 
character (in opposition to pure works of art) , as in architecture, 
the art of engraving, the composition of mosaics, etc., the Sicilians 
have from a very early period distinguished themselves. It must 
not be forgotten, however, that the Saracenic supremacy introduced 
a new and important element into the national character, which 
shows itself in a vein of seriousness , foreign to the character of 
neighbouring races, such as the Neapolitans. The national songs, 
for example , are strongly tinctured with Oriental melancholy. 

The monuments of Sikelian culture of the pre-Hellenic period 
still preserved in Sicily, although far more scanty than the Greek, 
merit a more minute examination than has hitherto fallen to their 
share. Prehistoric antiquities have recently been investigated in 
several different spots , and traces of the flint period have been 
found in caverns and elsewhere. The most important antiquities 
of a somewhat later date are : the Subterranean Cities with which 
the S.E. angle of the island is full, the so-called Ddieri of Val 
d'Ispica, Palazzolo, Pantelica, etc., and the Polygonal Structures 
at Cefalil and on Alt. Eryx. 

The Metopes of Selinus, mementoes of the most ancient style, 
form the transition to the Hellenic sculpture. Some of the most 
magnificent Greek temples still extant have been erected in Sicily : 
Temple of Apollo at Selinus 371 ft. long, 177ft. broad; Temple of 
Zeus at Girgenti 356 ft. long, 174 ft. broad (Parthenon at Athens 
229 ft. by 101 ft. ; Temple of Zeus at Olympia 233 ft. by 97 ft. ; 
Temple of Apollo at Phigalia 195 ft. by 75 ft. ; Temple of Diana at 
Ephesus 388 ft. by 187 ft.). The Ruined Temples at Girgenti, Se- 
gesta, Selinunto, and Syracuse are nowhere surpassed. The Theatres 
of Syracuse, Taormina, Segesta, Tyndaris, Palazzolo, and Catania 
have indeed been modified by additions during the Eoman period, 
but the Greek origin of their foundations and arrangements may 
easily be recognised. The fortifications of the Epipolae of Syracuse 
are among the best existing specimens of Greek structures of the 
kind. In the province of Sculpture comparatively few Greek works 
have come down to us. Among these may be mentioned the more 
recent metop* of Selinus in the museum at Palermo , and a few 
relics preserved at Syracuse. Of Bronzes, in the casting of which 
Perilaos of Agrigentum is said to have excelled, scarcely a single 
specimen has survived. On the other hand a copious collection 
of admirable ancient Coins has come down to us. Beautiful 

History of Art. SICILY. 241 

Vases are likewise found in almost every part of the island. The 
climax of the prosperity of the Sicilian Greeks was contempo- 
raneous with that of their mother-country , and not in point of 
architecture alone. About the year 550, Stesichorus of Himera per- 
fected the Greek chorus by the addition of the epode to the strophe 
and antistrophe. Aeschylus resided long in Sicily , where he died 
(456), and was interred at Gela. Pindar and Sappho also enjoyed 
the hospitality of Sicily, and sang the praises of the victories 
of her sons at Olympia. Simonides visited Sicily, and composed 
appropriate lines for the gift dedicated to the gods by Gelon after 
the battle of Himera in 480. Phormis, an officer of Gelon at Syra- 
cuse, who invented movable scenes, Epicharmus in 480, Sophron 
in 460, and Xenarchus , the son of the last , distinguished them- 
selves in the composition of comedies. Nothing is more charac- 
ristic of the Sicilian enthusiasm for art than the story that the 
Syracusans once set at liberty several Athenian prisoners, because 
they knew how to recite the verses of Euripides with pathos. Even 
during the period of decline the national poetical bias was still 
pre-eminent , and gave birth to a new description of poetry, the 
idyls, in which their inventor Theocritus of Syracuse was unsur- 
passed , and which even in modern times have found numerous 

The Sicilians have always manifested considerable capacity for 
philosophical research. Pythagoras found followers here. Xeno- 
phanes of Colophon, the founder of the Eleatic school , died in 
Syracuse at an advanced age. A century later, Plato thrice visited 
Syracuse. But the most illustrious Sicilian thinker was Empedocles 
of Acragas, distinguished as a natural philosopher, and also as a 
practical statesman, physician, architect, and orator. The names of 
a number of eminent physicians are recorded : Pausanias, Aaron 
(5th cent. B.C.), Menecrates (4th cent. B.C.), and Celsus (but the 
last, born at Centuripae, is not to be confounded with his famous 
namesake who lived in the reign of Augustus). Distinguished histo- 
rians were : Antiochus, Philistus of Syracuse , Timaeus of Taor- 
mina, Dicaearehus of Messana, and the learned Diodorus (Siculus) 
of Agyrium, who wrote his celebrated Bibliotheca Historica in the 
reign of Augustus. The most brilliant of the numerous orators 
were Corax and Tisias, the teacher of Isocrates, Gorgias, and Lysias. 
Oorgias, the celebrated sophist and orator, was a native of Leon- 
tinoi, and Lysias was the son of a Syracusan. Among the mathe- 
maticians and mechanicians Archimedes was the most distinguished. 
Hicetas of Syracuse was one of the first who taught that the earth 
moved and the sun remained stationary. 

The Roman-Byzantine Supremacy gave the death-blow to the 
intellectual progress of the Sicilians. The soldier who slew Archi- 
medes may be regarded as symbolical of this epoch. In accordance 
with the Roman custom, however, numerous magnificent amphi- 

Baedekek. Italy III. 11th Edition. 16 

242 SICILY. History of Art. 

theatres, theatres, and aqueducts were constructed during this 
period. The rapacity of Verres and other governors despoiled the 
island of countless treasures of art. The Christians used many of the 
ancient temples and tombs for sacred purposes. A single Byzantine 
church of small dimensions near Malvagna alone remains from this 
period. A proof of the abject condition to which Sicily had sunk 
is found in the circumstance that down to a late period of the Mus- 
lim supremacy not a single author of eminence arose, although 
crowds of monks and priests resided in the island. Theophanes 
Cerameus and Petrus Siculus , the historian of the Manichseans, 
alone deserve mention. The wandering San Simeon of Syracuse 
died at Treves. 

The Arabs were the first to infuse new life into the island. 
They not only enriched the architectural art with new forms of 
construction, as mentioned below, but they also inaugurated a 
new era in the writing of history and geography, and under King 
Roger II. the first mediaeval geographer Edrisi completed his great 
work (Nushat-ul-Mushtak). Among the Mohammedan Kasides 
(poets) Ibn-Hamdis was the most distinguished. Art developed 
itself to a still greater extent under the Norman rule, and the 
princes and great men of that race have perpetuated their names 
by the erection of numerous cathedrals. The importance they at- 
tached to learning is proved by the fact that they were in the habit 
of summoning the most learned men of the East (e. g. Petrus 
Blesensis) to instruct their young princes. Whilst the Arabs de- 
serve commendation for the introduction of the most valuable com- 
mercial products (grain, cotton, sumach, etc.) which the island 
possesses, the Norman princes established the manufacture of silk; 
and a school for the arts of weaving and the composition of mosaic 
was maintained in the royal palace. The brilliant reign of Fred- 
erick II., his legislative merits, and his zealous promotion of 
every art and science are well known. At his court at Palermo the 
Italian language developed itself so as to become a written language, 
and his counsellors, his sons , and even he himself made the first 
attempts at Italian poetry. Of Frederick II., Manfred, Enzius, 
Ciullo of Alcamo, Peter de Vineis, Quido delle Colonne, Jacopo da 
Lentini, etc., poems are still preserved to us. But this golden age 
was of brief duration. Amid the vicissitudes of subsequent cen- 
turies all intellectual superiority became extinct. Even the 
chroniclers manifest distinct traces of this degeneracy. "Whilst 
well-written and interesting chronicles of Sicily were composed in 
the 13th century {Hugo Falcandus , Bartholomew of Neocastro. 
etc.), those of a later period are often unreadable. The revival of 
classical studies, however, at length roused literature from its inert 
condition. At the close of the 15th cent. Messina distinguished 
itself by its promotion of Greek studies, and Constantine Lascaris 
taught there. The following century produced the learned and 

History of Art. SICILY. 243 

indefatigable Thomas Fazello of Sciacca (d. 1570), the originator 
of Sicilian history and topography. His work was completed by 
the historian Maurolycus of Messina. 

The enlightened absolutism of the Bourbons during the last 
century tended to promote the progress of science in Sicily, 
although the attention of scholars was principally directed to ar- 
chaeological research relating to the history of the island. The 
wealthier of the nobility and the clergy eagerly took part in the 
revival. The art of poetry also revived, and found its most talented 
representative in Giovanni Meli of Palermo (d. 1815). His ana- 
creontic songs in the national dialect were universally popular even 
before they appeared in a printed form. 

In the history of music Sicily is represented by Bellini (b. at 
Catania 1802, d. at Paris 1835). 

"With regard to ancient art in Sicily , and particularly the 
sculptures of Selinunto, see p. xxix et seq. We may now add a few 
remarks upon the principal mediaeval and modern monuments of art. 

Architecture. The mediaeval architecture of Sicily, and par- 
ticularly that of Palermo, bears the impress of the political desti- 
nies of the country in a very striking degree, showing the change 
from the Byzantine to the Arabian domination, and from the latter 
to the supremacy of the Normans. The style is accordingly of a very 
mixed character, which strict connoisseurs will not fail to censure, 
but it possesses great attractions for the less scientific lover of art. 
The leading element is the Arabian. After the overthrow of the 
Arabian supremacy the more refined culture of that race left its 
mark on the island, and the Norman princes found it desirable to 
avail themselves of its services in the administration of the country 
and particularly in the province of art. The Arabian culture, 
however , was in its turn considerably swayed by Byzantine in- 
fluences, and it is therefore not surprising that these again should 
be reflected in the Sicilian architecture of the 12th century. The 
ground-plan of many of the churches of Palermo is traceable to 
Byzantine originals , viz. a square space enclosed by four pillars 
and covered with a dome. It is uncertain whether this form was 
introduced direct from Byzantium after the final triumph of Chris- 
tian culture, or whether the Arabs had already employed it in the 
construction of their numerous little oratories (of which Ibn Hau- 
kal, an Arabian traveller of the 10th cent., says that there were 
200 at Palermo alone) , and handed it down to their Norman suc- 
cessors. The latter alternative , however , is the more probable. 
While the plan of many churches, such as Martorana, S. Cataldo, 
and 8. Antonio at Palermo is Byzantine, and that of others, like 
Monreale, S. Spirito and several abbey-churches at Palermo, and 
the cathedral at Cefaiii, is Romanesque, the universally prevalent 
pointed arch is of Arabian origin, and quite distinct from the 


244 SICILY. History of Art. 

Gothic form. The Arabs brought it from Egypt and used it in all 
their buildings, and they also derived thence the custom of adorn- 
ing their flat ceilings with pendentives, resembling stalactites, and 
their friezes with inscriptions. While the ecclesiastical architecture 
of Sicily was thus unable to resist the Arabian influence , that of 
her palaces still possesses a distinctly Arabian character, cor- 
responding with the Oriental complexion of the Norman court. Of 
the numerous palaces which are said to have encircled Palermo in 
the 12th cent., we now possess imperfect examples only in the 
Zisa and the Cuba (and in the relics of the chateaux of Mimner- 
mum at Altarello di Baida and Favara at Mare Dolce), so that it 
requires a considerable effort of imagination picture their to vaunted 
magnificence. Sicily possesses no Gothic churches of any note (S. 
Francesco and S. Agostino at Palermo, and the cathedral at Mes- 
sina'), but it is curious to observe how tenaciously her architects 
clung to Gothic and other mediaeval forms down to a late period in 
the Renaissance epoch. Of the later mediaeval secular architecture 
we find many pleasing examples, especially at Palermo. In the 
17th cent, numerous edifices in the 'baroque' style were erected 
on a very extensive scale , but characterised by an only too florid 
richness of decorative detail. 

Sculptubjb. In the plastic art, in so far as it rises above a 
merely decorative purpose, mediaeval Sicily attained little pro- 
ficiency. The principal works in bronze (the gates at Monreale) 
are not the work of native masters. Sculpturing in marble for de- 
corative purposes, on the other hand, was extensively and success- 
fully practised here at an early period. The capitals and several 
shafts of columns in the monastery-court of Monreale are among 
the finest works of the kind in Italy. The early Sicilian Wood 
Carving, sometimes adorned with arabesques, which is still fre- 
quently met with (as at the Martorana), is of remarkably fine exe- 
cution. Another proof of the great skill of the Sicilian artificers is 
afforded by the Porphyry Sarcophagi of the Norman princes and 
German emperors in the cathedral at Palermo, and by the numerous 
Marble Incrustations and Marble Mosaics of the 12th century. The 
mural covering of the Cappella Palatina and the Martorana, and 
the mosaic decorations of the monastery court of Monreale will bear 
favourable comparison with the finest works of the Roman sculptors 
in marble and the members of the Cosmas school. Mosaic painting 
was also highly developed in the 12th century. The mosaics in 
the cathedral at Cefalu and in the Cappella Palatina, and those in 
the Martorana and at Monreale , which have been preserved from 
decay by repeated restorations, are not all of uniform value, but 
even those which show less vigour of conception display the bold- 
ness of touch and finish of execution peculiar to able and ex- 
perienced masters. As such artificers cannot possibly have sprung 
up under Arabian rule , we must assume that the earlier of the 

History of Art. SICILY. 245 

works to which we have referred were executed by Byzantine artists 
invited to Sicily from foreign countries , and that these masters 
then transmitted their art to native successors. At a later period, 
after the extinction of the Norman princes, Sicilian art fell far be- 
hind that of the mainland. Even during the Renaissance period 
Sicily made no independent exertion, her cultivation of art being 
but a slow and hesitating adoption of that of Rome and Naples. 
It must, however, be borne in mind, that the existing sculptures 
of Sicily are as yet by no means fully known. The most famous 
name connected with Renaissance sculpture at Palermo is that of 
Qagini. For three generations the Gagini's were sculptors in 
marble. Antonio Oagini, born in 1480 , was the son of a Lombard 
sculptor, and to him and his sons are referred all the finest works 
in marble of the 16th cent, at Palermo. At a later period Oiacomo 
Serpotta (1655-1732), a successor of Bernini, and a forerunner of 
the rococo school, executed at Palermo numerous works in stucco, 
of distinct, though perhaps somewhat affected, grace. 

Painting. The history of this art in Sicily, although it has 
been the object of zealous local research, has not yet been placed 
on a satisfactory critical basis. In the 15th cent., however, the 
island produced several painters of considerable eminence , the 
most frequently named of whom is Antonio Crescenzio , although 
only the St. Cecilia in the cathedral at Palermo (p. 253) can be 
assigned to him with certainty. His claim to be the artist of the 
striking 'Triumph of Death' in the Palazzo Sclafani (p. 252) rests on 
very uncertain grounds ; but he perhaps may be credited with the 
mural designs in a lateral chapel of S. Slaria di Gesu (p. 273) which 
forcibly recall the Florentine compositions of the 15th century. 
His pupil Tommaso di Vigilia and Pietro Euzulone are painters 
of mediocre rank. The most distinguished Sicilian painter of the 
15th cent, was Antonello da Messina, but the only authentic works 
by him now'in Sicily are five or six in his native town (p. 318). This 
master must not be confounded with his less distinguished con- 
temporary Antonello da Saliba, several pictures by whom are still 
preserved at Palermo. Of the artists of Palermo in the 16th 
cent, the most famous was Vincenzo di Paoia, surnamed Aine- 
molo, who is also known as Vincenzo il Romano, and is said .to 
have been a pupil of Polidoro Caldara. Most of the churches 
of Palermo boast of works by this master, who would there- 
fore seem to have been very prolific; but as the works attrib- 
uted to him are of very unequal merit, many of them are probably 
by a different hand, while others are partly by his pupils. His 
labours extended down to the year 1542. His finest works are the 
Ascension and the Descent from the Cross in the Museum, and 
a rich composition in a side-chapel to the left in S.Domenico. To 
the 17th cent, belongs Pietro Novelli (1603-47), surnamed 'Mon- 
realese', a master of considerable originality, and a follower of the 

246 Route 23. PALERMO. 

Neapolitan school, to which he owes his -rigorous colouring and his 
strongly individualised heads. Besides his works at Palermo, there 
is an interesting work by this master in the staircase at Monreale 
(St. Benedict and his successors). Several of his monkish figures 
are among the finest works produced by the Italian naturalists. 
Palermo followed the degraded styles of the 18th cent., the proofs 
of which are too numerous to require enumeration. 

23. Palermo. 

Arrival. By Sea. Travellers are conveyed to the Dogana (PI. H, 7; 
1 fr. for each pers. with luggage, 60 c. without), where luggage is slightly 
examined. Thence to the town about HI.; cab with luggage IV2 fr., in- 
cluding a gratuity. Omnibuses from several of the hotels await the arrival 
of the steamboats. — The main Railwai Station is in the Via Lincoln, 
outside the Porta S. Antonino (PI. A, B, 4) ; that of the W. Railway (R. 25j 
in the Via Lolli (PI. G, 1); and that of the local railway to Corleone (p. 
289) in S. Erasmo, at the S.E. end of the Marina (PI. A, 5, 6). Cabs, see 
p. 247. 

Hotels. (If a stay of any length is made, charges had better be asked 
beforehand.) * Hotel des Palmes (PI. b; F, 4), in the Via Stabile, with 
beautiful garden, R. 3-7, L. 1, A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 3V2, D. 5, pens. 10-15, 
omn. l'/2 fr. ; 'Trinacria (PI. a; C, 6), with a fine view of the Marina, 
entered from the Via Butera, R. from 3, L. »/ 4 , A. 3/ 4 , B. I1/2, dej. 3-3 1 , 2, 
D. 5, incl. wine 6, pens. 10-15, omn. li/ 2 fr.; "Grand Hotel de la Paix, Via 
della Liberta, opposite the Giardino Inglese (p. 260), opened in 1801, well 
fitted up, pens, from 10 fr.; "Hotel de France (PI. c; C, 5), in a healthy 
situation, frequented by natives and foreigners, R. 3-5, L. 8/4, A. 3 / 4 , B. H/2, 
dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 10-13, omn. l l fa fr. — Second-class: Albergo Centrale 
(PI. e ; D, 3), with trattoria, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 355, in the centre of the 
town, close to the Quattro Canti, R. from 2'/2, dej. l ] /2-2, D. 372-4, pension 
incl. wine 10 fr., well spoken of; Hotel Oliva (PL f ; F, 3), Piazza Oliva 22, 
R. 2, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B. 1, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2 (both incl. wine), pens. (L. extra) 
8 fr. ; Italia (PI. d ; C, 5), Piazza Marina 60, near the Giardino Garibaldi, 
R. 2-2'/2, pens. 6-7 fr., cuisine mediocre; Rebecchino (PI. h; O, 2), Via 
Vitt. Emanuele, opposite the cathedral, R., L., & A. 2 ] /2-5, pens, from 6, 
omn. 1 fr. ; Albergo al Pizzdto (PI. g; D, 4), Via Bandiera 30, near the 
Piazza S. Domenico ; Albergo Aragona, Via Alloro 90; etc. 

Pensions (all well spoken of). Pens. Anglaise (Mrs. Artand), Via 
Principe Scordia (PI. E, F, G, 4), Casa Piazza, 3rd floor, pens, from 7 fr. ; 
Pens. JenischeJc, Via Bandiera 69, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. 1/2, dej. l'/2, D. 2'/2 
(both incl. wine), pens. 6-7, without dej. 5-6 fr. ; Pens. Suisse, Via Vitt. 
Emanuele 1S7, R., L., & A. 2>/2, B. %, dej. 1 fr. 90 c, D. 3 (both incl. 
wine), pens. 6, for a long stay, 5 fr.; Pens. Tersenghi, Via Lincoln 55, 
R. 1-2, pens. 5 fr. 

Furnished Apartments , generally indicated by placards , are now 
easily obtained in Palermo , but are usually somewhat deficient in 
the comforts desirable for a winter residence and not all at suited for 
solitary invalids. There is a scarcity of single rooms to let. In the 
town the Piazza Marina (PI. C, 5) , the Piazza Bologni (PI. c, 3) , and 
the Piazza Vittorio (PI. C, 2) may be recommended, the houses outside 
the town less so. Invalids should avoid rooms in the vicinity of the Cala. 
The price of a furnished room in the town is 30-70 fr. , that of a small 
furnished utage outside the town about 100 fr. a month. Some of the pri- 
vate villas in the Olivuzza (PI. F, G, 1) and the Giardino Inglese (PI. H 
I, 4) are also let in whole or in part, but in general at high rents and' not 
to pulmonary patients. The smallest details should be inserted in the con- 
tract, and the apartments should be carefully inspected before taking posses- 


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Tramways. PALERMO. 23. Route. 247 

sion. Marchese Milo, Corso Calatafimi 55 , Piazza dell' Indipendenza, is a 
trustworthy house-agent. The hirer of furnished lodgings will find some 
difficulty in procuring suitable provisions , and also some inconvenience 
in the fact that the Sicilian servants can rarely speak Italian. 

Trattorie (p. xx). "Stella Americana, Via Vitt. Emanuele 178, good 
cuisine; "Cafi Orelo, at the corner of the Piazza Marina and the Via Vitt. 
Emanuele; "Cafi-Restaurant Lincoln, opposite; "Progresso, Via Vitt. Ema- 
nuele 311; Rebecchino, seep. 246. — Cafes (almost empty in the morning), 
in the above trattorie; also: Cafi Trinacria, Quattro Canti di Campagna 
(PI. F, 3, 4); Cafe of the Teatro Bellini, Piazza della Martorana (good ices 
at both); Caffe del Foro Ttalico, on the Marina, with sea-view (open May 
to Oct. only). — Confectioners ('Pasticceria') : "Gull, Via Vitt. Emanuele 
101-107; 'CaMscIi, Via Vitt. Emanuele 180 and Via Macqueda 292 (good 
preserved fruit at both). — Beer at CafliscWs, see above ; Cafe" Trinacria, 
see above; Birreria Barander, in the court of the Albergo Centrale 
(see p. 246). 

The Casino Tfvovo, or new club, in the Palazzo Oeraci in the Via Vitt. 
Emanuele (p. 25G), contains handsome apartments, and is worth visiting ; 
strangers may easily obtain an introduction for a fortnight ; ticket for a 
longer period 10 fr. per month. 

Carriages. Tariff for 1-4 persons : — One-h. Two-h. 

Drive within the town-walls, including the Piazza S. 
Francesco di Paola, Piazza Ruggero Settimo, Corso 

Scina and Via Borgo 0. 60 0. 80 

Drive within the suburbs, including the harbour and the 
station if not more than •/« h r 1- — 1. 50 

Small articles free. One box 20, two boxes 30 c. 

First hour 1. 80 2. 20 

Each additional hour 1. 60 2. — 

After midnight these charges are raised by one-half. Driving in the 
town is prohibited on Good Friday. Longer drives according to bargain. 

Tramways. Four lines start from the Piazza Marina (PI. C, 5), the 
two first of which diverge from each other at the Porta S. Giorgio 
(PI. E, 5): 1. To Acqnasanta, at the foot of Monte Pellegrino (PI. H, 
5, 6, 7; I, 7), 20 c, to the Piazza Ucciardone (PI. G, H, 5), 10 c. — 2. To 
Noce, at the end of the Corso Olivuzza (PI. E, 5-2 ; F, 1) 20 c, to Porta 
Carini (PI. E, 2, 3), 15 c. — 3. To Romagnolo , on the high-road to 
Bagheria (p. 275) 20 c. — 4. Through the Via Lincoln and Corso Tuckery to 
the Piazza deW Indipendenza (PI. C, 5, 6; B, 6-1; C, 1), where this line 
unites with the two following (15 c). — A fifth line leads from the Piazza 
Bologni (PI. C, 3) through the Via Vitt. Emanuele, and on to the S.W. to 
La Rocca, at the foot of the hill of Monreale (comp. PI. D, 3-1), 20 c, to 
the Cappuccini (p. 270) 15 c. — A sixth line runs from the Piazza deW 
Indipendenza (PI. C, 1) to the Via Sampolo, to the entrance of the Favorita 
(PI. H, I, 5) 20 c, to the Piazza Ucciardone (PI. G, H, 5) 15 c. 

Omnibuses. 1. Along the Via Vitt. Emanuele (PI. C, D, 2-6), 10 c. — 
2. From the Main Railway Station through the Via Macqueda to the Giar- 
dino Inglese (PI. A, 4; B-I, 3, 4) and on to 5. Lorenzo (p. 269). — 3. From 
the Piazza Marina (PI. C, 5) to the West Station, in the Via Lolli (PI. 
G, 1), 10 c. — 4. From the Porta Garibaldi (PI. B, 4) to Castellammarc 
(PI. E, 5) and the Molo (PI. G, 5). — 5. From the Piazza Bologni (PI. C, 3) 
via, the Porta S. Giorgio (PI. E, 5) to Falde at the foot of Monte Pellegrino 
(p. 268), 20 c. — 6. From the Piazza Indipendenza (PI. C, 1), instead of the 
tramway suspended at present, by the Strada Pisani (C, 1) to Porrazzi, on 
the high-road to Parco, about l 1 /* M. from the town (comp. p. 273); 10 c 

Baths. Via Quattro Aprile 7, near the Piazza Marina, clean; cold bath 
1 fr., warm bath 1 fr. 25 c. , Russian bath for 1-2 pers. 5 fr. ; Francesco 
Sutone's , Porto Salvo 11-13 , bath 1 fr. — Sea Baths in the Stradone del 
Borgo (PI. F, 5), and near Acquasanta (PI. I, 7), from June to September. 
Swimmers will probably prefer to bathe early in the morning from a boat, 
which they may hire 0/2 fr.) at the Sanita, outside the Porta Felice. 

248 Route 23. PALERMO. Theatres. 

Post Office, on the E. side of Piazza Bologni (PI. 88; C, 3); branch- 
offices in the Palazzo delle Finanze (PI. 85; D, 5) and in the Via Molo, 
opposite the Dogana (PI. H, 7). 

Telegraph Office, Via Macqueda 222, not far from the Quattro Canti 
(to the left in going thence to the Porta Macqueda). 

Steamhoat Office. Societd Florio-Rubattino, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 96, 
at the corner of the Piazza Marina. 

Booksellers. Carlo Clausen ('Libreria Internazionale'), Via Vittorio 
Emanuele 360, at the corner of the Piazza Bologni, with a circulating 
library ('biblioteca circolante' ; information of all kinds given to travellers). 

— Second-hand books : Giovanni Fiorenza, Via Vittorio Emanuele 365, near 
the Quattro Canti, in the direction of the Piazza Vittoria ; Costa, Via Mac- 
queda 224. — Music: Luigi Sandron, Via Vittorio Emanuele 381; Ricordi, 
same street No. 224. — Newspaper: Giornale di Sicilia (5 c). — Photo- 
graphs: Sommer, Porcasi, Incorpora, adjoining each other in the Via Vit- 
torio Emanuele, near the Piazza S. Spirito (PL C, 6). — Watchmaker: 
Zollikofer, Via Vittorio Emanuele 142. 

Teachers of Italian. Signor Mastropasqua, professor in the Istituto 
Tecnico ; Signora Bonafede. 

Bankers. Ingham & Whitaker, Via Lampedusa ; Morrison & Co., Piazza 
Marina ; Wedekind, Pal. Cattolica, Via Cintorinai 48. Money Changers : Gio. 
Yaldes, Via Vitt. Em. 104, and others in the same street. 

Guide: Francesco Sutone, see p. 247. In the town 6 fr. per day; out- 
side 10 fr. , incl. provisions, but excl. railway -fares. Sutone also pro- 
cures lodgings. 

Goods Agents. Miiller & Guldi, Piazza Marina 79; Trifonio Medici 
Piazza Marina. • ' 

Health (comp. also p. 232). Precautions should be taken against ill- 
nesses of a gastric nature by proper attention to clothing and diet. Sitting 
in the open air is rendered dangerous in some parts of the town by the 
dampness of the ground. The drinking-water of Palermo should be used 
with some caution; when there is any tendency to diarrhoea, it should 
be drunk mixed with red wine, or in the form of weak tea. A new 
water-supply is projected. Diseases of the eye are very common, but the 
blinding .glare of the sun may be neutralised by the us.e of umbrellas and 
spectacles of coloured glass. 

Physicians. Dr. Berlin, Via Patuano 12 (PI. E, 5) ; Dr. Stobwasser, Hotel 
des Palmes. — Chemists. English, Via Vitt. Emanuele 27 ; Caputo, Via Vitt. 
Emanuele 95 ; Farmacia Internazionale (Misuraca), Via Borgo 292; Candela, 
Pal. Briuceia, Via Cintorinai. 

Theatres. Teatro Bellini (PI. 95; C, 4), Piazza della Martorana; Poli- 
teama Garibaldi, Piazza Ruggero Settimo (PI. F, 4; p. 260); S. Cecilia (PI. 
96 ; C, 4) , Via Santa Cecilia ; Garibaldi, Via Castrofilippo, the last two 
second-rate houses with popular performances. 

Consuls. American: Mr. Horace C. Pugh; Vice-consul, Mr. C. J. La- 
id. — British: Mr. B. L. Dupuis; Vice-consul, Mr. J. H. Townsey. 

English Church (of the Holy Cross), Via Stabile, opposite the Hotel 
des Palmes ; services at 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. ; chaplain, Rev. Dr. Dixon, Pal. 
Barbaro, Via Emerico Amari. — Presbyterian Service, Via del Bosco 73. — 
Italian Free Church, Pal. Campofranco, Piazza Croce de' Vespri ; Italian 
Methodists, Pal. Raffadali; Waldensian Church, Pal. Cuto, Via Macqueda 36. 

— British Sailors' 1 Rest, Via Borgo 380. 

Attractions. During a stay of four days at Palermo the traveller 
should visit : — 1st Day. S. Giovanni degli Eremiti (p. 252), the Eoyal Palace 
with the "Cappella Palatina (p. 250), the 'Cathedral (p. 253), and La Zisa 
(p. 267) in the forenoon ; "Monte Pellegrino (p. 268) in the afternoon. — 2nd 
Day. Oratorio del S. Rosario (p. 267), S. Domenico (p. 266), and the "Mu- 
seum (p. 260) in the forenoon; Monreale (p. 271) and "Villa Tasca (p. 271), 
and perhaps also S. Martino, in the afternoon. — 3rd Day. "S. Maria di Gesii 
(p. 273), S. Cataldo, and Martorana (P- 255) in the forenoon; Acquasanta 
and ,: Villa Belmonte (p. 268), or La Favorita (p. 269) and back by omnibus 

History. PALERMO. 23. Route. 249 

from S. Lorenzo to the Giardino Inglese (p. 260) in the afternoon; the 
Marina (p. 259) and the Villa Giulia (p. 259) in the evening. — 4th Day. 
Excursion to Bagheria and *Soluntum (p. 275); thence drive to Cefalu or 
Girgenti. — The beautiful public and private Gardens in Palermo and 
its environs add greatly to its charm as a residence. Admission to the 
finest of the latter is generally obtainable by the payment of a small fee. 
Travellers should spend perhaps half of the time at their disposal on the 
gardens and excursions. 

The Festival of St. Rosalia (p. 269), ll-15th July, is accompanied with 
horse-races, regattas, illuminations, etc. The annual processsion to the 
chapel of the saint takes place in September. 

Palermo, the capital of Sicily, with. 267,000 inhab., is the mili- 
tary, judicial, and ecclesiastical headquarters of the island, and 
possesses one of the seven principal Italian universities. It lies in 
38° 6' 44" N. latitude, on the W. side of the Bay of Palermo, which 
opens towards the E., and is enclosed by the fertile plain of the 
Conca d'Oro, beyond which rises an amphitheatre of imposing 
mountains. On the N. the city is sheltered by the finely shaped 
Monte Pellegrino, opposite which, on the E., lies the Monte Catal- 
fano. Palermo is justly entitled to the epithet 'lafelice', on account 
of its magnificent situation and delightful climate. The town is on 
the whole well built, although the houses are generally of unim- 
posing exterior. It forms an oblong quadrangle, the E. end of which 
adjoins the sea. Two main streets divide it into four quarters. A 
new quarter of the town, consisting chiefly of villas and residences 
for visitors, has sprung up to the N. of the Via Cavour. 

The commerce of the city, which is to a great extent in the 
hands of foreigners , has overtaken that of Messina and is steadily 
increasing. Sumach, sulphur, oranges, and lemons are largely ex- 
ported. The harbour presents ananimated scene. Steamers of 
many foreign companies call at Palermo; and the Navigazione Gene- 
rale Italiana (Florio-Rubattino) , whose fleet is perhaps the most 
numerous of all, has one of its chief seats in the capital of Sicily. 

The narrow and shallow harbour, called La Cala, on the N. W. side of 
which lie the ruins of Fort Castellammare, extended in ancient and mediaeval 
times farther into the city, including the present Piazza Marina and reach- 
ing on the W. as far as the Via Argenteria, whence the Greek name of 
the city Panormos ('entirely harbour 1 ). The ancient town stretching 
down to S. Antonio (PI. 5; D, 4), was bounded by two brooks which 
emptied themselves into the harbour, the course of which may still be 
traced in the Via di Porta di Castro on the S. and the depression of the 
Papireto (PI. D, 2), the Piazza S. Onofrio, and the Piazza Nuova on the N. 
To the N. and S. of the old town lay the suburbs. 

Panormus was originally a Phoenician settlement , and , until it was 
captured in B. C. 254 by the Romans, was one of the most important 
strongholds of the Carthaginians. Hamilcar Barca besieged the city from 
the Heircte (Monte Pellegrino , p. 268) for three years , in a vain attempt 
to recover it. It afterwards belonged to the Romans and was colonised 
by Augustus. In 535 A. D. a fleet under Belisarius captured the city from 
the Goths, and thenceforth it remained under the Byzantine emperors till 
the arrival of the Arabs in 830. The latter made it their capital, and it 
rapidly attained a high pitch of prosperity, counting at one period 300,000 
.inhabitants. In 1072 the Normans obtained possession of it, and in 1193 the 
Germans in the person of Henry VI. (p. 237). The French house of Anjou 
was expelled in 1280 (Sicilian Vespers). The monarchs of the house of 

250 Route 23. PALERMO. Cappella Palatina. 

Aragon seldom resided here. The Chiaramonte, powerful feudal barons and 
.Counts of Modica, who erected a spacious palace for themselves at Palermo, 
were long the real rulers of the place. It was not until the 15th cent, that 
Palermo began to recover from the sufferings of this long period of anar- 
chy. The Spanish Viceroys of Sicily, notwithstanding the loud remon- 
strances of Messina, selected this city as their residence, and the nobles 
and clergy of their court contributed to swell its magnificence and gaiety. 
From this period , the 16th and 17th cent. , date the two main streets, 
and many of the churches and palaces which now form the characteristic 
features in the architectural appearance of Palermo. Outward splendour 
could not long, however, conceal the numerous evils of the Spanish rule; 
and in 1647 a revolt took place, whose leader Giuseppe d'Alessi met the 
fate of Masaniello (p. 39). The people notwithstanding remained faithful 
to the Spaniards till 1713, against both the French and the Austrians. In 
1798 and again in 1806 the Neapolitan court took refuge in Palermo ; and 
Ferdinand I. resided here until 1815. The Sicilian parliament met here 
in 1812. The revolt of 1820 involved Palermo in much loss ; while the 
cholera in 1837 swept off 24,000 victims in 8 weeks. In Jan. and Feb., 1848 
the town, which for a year and a half had been the seat of the revol- 
utionary government (p. 238), was subjected to a destructive bombard- 
ment of over three weeks; and after the final revolt against the Bourbons, 
which broke out on April 4th 1S6U, Palermo suffered the same terrible ex- 
perience until the victorious entry of Garibaldi on May 27th. Under Ital- 
ian rule the town has extended considerably, especially towards the N. 
Large sums of money, averaging 1,000,000 fr. yearly, have been expended 
in laying out avenues, in paving the streets, and in other works con- 
ducing to the beauty of the town and the public health. 

Palermo possesses very few ancient architectural remains , but this 
want is amply compensated by its interesting mediaeval monuments (comp. 
pp. 243-246). 

On the S.W. side of the town , at the end of the Via Vittorio 
Emanuele, lies the spacious Piazza dblla Vittokia (PL C, 2), 
where the *Palazzo Keale (PI. 87) rises on a slight eminence 
which has always been the site of the castle of the city. The nuc- 
leus of this building is of Saracenic origin. Additions were made by 
Robert Guiscard, King Roger, the two Williams, Frederick II., and 
Manfred ; and it afterwards underwent many alterations, so that the 
central tower with the pointed arches (S. Ninfa) is now the only 
relic of Norman times. Notwithstanding this it still retains traces 
of its origin as a defensive structure. 

The gate farthest to the left leads into the Palace Court 
(guide Y2 fr-i unnecessary), which is enclosed by arcades. Ascend- 
ing a staircase on the left, and turning to the right on the first 
floor, we enter the — 

**Cappella Palatina, built before the year 1132 by King Ro- 
ger II. in the Arabic -Norman style and dedicated to St. Peter 
(open 7.30 to 11 a.m.; at other times fee; best light early in the 
morning). The whole, with its mosaic decorations, is a perfect gem 
of mediaeval art, perhaps the most beautiful palace- chapel in the 

The Vestibule, embellished with modern mosaics, forms the remains 
of a porticus, which at one time surrounded the entire chapel; of its seven 
columns, six are of Egyptian granite. To the left is an inscription on the 
wall in Latin, Greek, and Arabic, referring to the erection of a clock in 1142. 

The Interior consists of a nave with aisles, and is 36 yds. long (in- 
cluding the apse) and 14 yds. in width. The Saracenic pointed arches are 

Observatory. PALERMO. 23. Route. 251 

borne by ten columns of granite and eipollino, 16 ft. in height. The choir 
is approached by five steps, and over the crossing rises a dome 75 ft. in 
height, pierced by eight narrow windows, and bearing Greek and Latin 
inscriptions. The beautiful wooden roof of the nave is also adorned with 
a Curie (ancient Arabic) inscription. To the right are a pulpit and marble 
candelabrum, 14'/2 ft. high, in Norman work of the 12th cent, (the four top 
figures added later). The Gothic choir-stalls are modern. — The floor is 
laid with coloured mosaics. 

The Walls are entirely covered with "Mosaics (partly restored) on 
a golden ground, and radiant with oriental splendour. The mosaics re- 
present subjects from the Old Testament and the lives of Christ, St. Peter, 
and St. Paul. The most antique are those of the choir, which, with the 
exception of the Madonna , completed in modern times , date from the 
reign of King Koger; Christ is represented here in the style which recurs 
in all Norman mosaics, the finest specimen of which is at Cefalu (p. 309). 
The most modern are those above the royal throne, which faces the altar. 
The throne bears the arms of Aragon, and, subsequently added, those 
of Savoy. Amidst the wondrous magic of the general effect , the com- 
paratively uninteresting details will attract less notice. — To the left of 
the entrance a bronze door, of the Norman period, with ornamentation in 
the antique manner, leads to the Sacristy, which contains the archives 
with Greek, Latin, and Arabic documents, and the treasury. In the latter, 
No. 7, a large ivory casket, of Arab workmanship, and an enamelled 
ostensorium (ca. 1600) are noteworthy. 

Leaving the chapel, we ascend the principal staircase on the W. 
side of the court to the arcades of the second floor, and enter 
the passage to the left, where the first door on the right bears 
the inscription, 'R. Osservatorio' . This is the entrance to the 
observatory, which is fitted up in the tower of 8. Ninfa (the 
former Torre Piscina) , the oldest part of the edifice (open to the 
public on Thursdays, 10-3; to travellers .daily). In 1801 Piazzi 
here discovered Ceres, the first of the asteroids. 

We ascend two flights of steps and enter by a door, where we find 
the custodian C/2-l fr.). The flat roof commands a superb ^Panorama. 
At our feet lies the Piazza della Vittoria, above the left angle of which rises 
the Cathedral ; in front of the latter is the Pal. Arcivescovile ; on the right is 
the beginning of the Via Vittorio Emanuele. To the left beyond it lies the 
harbour, commanded on the left by the Monte Pellegrino ; to the left in the 
background rise the mountains of the Capo Gallo ; below them, in the fore- 
ground, is the Porta Nuova ; to the left, farther distant, La Zisa, a cubical 
yellow building with numerous windows ; farther to the left in the background 
rises the pointed Monte Cuccio, prolonged on the left by the hill of Mon- 
reale. Farther to the left, at our feet, extends the Giardino Reale, above 
which is the Piazza delFIndipendenza with the obelisks. In the foreground, 
S.E., is the tower of the red church ofS. Giovanni degli Eremiti ; beyond 
it the cypress-grove of the Carnpo Santo ; in the distance , at the base of 
the lofty M. Griffone, S. Maria di Gesii; more to the left, M. Catalfano, abut- 
ting on the sea; on the promontory, to the right of the latter, Bagheria. 

The door at the end of the above-mentioned passage leads to 
the apartments of the palace , the most noticeable of which are 
the so-called *Stanza di Ruggero, with walls of mosaic from the 
Norman period (the German eagle on the ceiling indicates a later 
restoration), and a room with portraits of the viceroys (fee i/ 2 -l fr.). 

Connected with the Palazzo Reale are the fortified city-gates. 
To the right (N.) is the Porta Nuova, a remarkable building in the 
baroque style, through which the Monreale road (p. 271) leads 
past the (1/2 M.) Cuba. Access to the upper part of this gate, 

252 Route 23. PALERMO. Palazzo Sclafani. 

which commands a beautiful view in all directions, is obtained 
from the Palazzo Reale. (The Via della Colonna Rotta, the first 
side-street to the right, outside the gate, leads to the Zisa, 2/3 M.; 
see p. 267.J To the left formerly